|Emperor of Japan|
|Reign||February 16, 1246 – January 9, 1260|
|Born||June 28, 1243|
|Died||August 17, 1304(aged 61)|
Fukakusa no kita no Misasagi (Kyoto)
|Spouse||Fujiwara no Kimiko|
|Mother||Fujiwara no Kitsushi|
Emperor Go-Fukakusa (後深草天皇 Go-Fukakusa-tennō) (June 28, 1243 – August 17, 1304) was the 89th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. This reign spanned the years 1246 through 1260.
This 13th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Ninmyō and go- (後), translates literally as "later", and thus he could be called the "Later Emperor Fukakusa". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one"; and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Fukakusa, the second", or as "Fukakusa II".
- Emperor Go-Fukakusa, formerly Prince Hisahito (久仁)
- Prince Hisahito of Akishino (悠仁)
He was the second son of Emperor Go-Saga.
- Empress: Saionji (Fujiwara) Kimiko (西園寺（藤原）公子) later Higashinijō‘in (東二条院), Saionji Saneuji’s daughter
- Second daughter: Imperial Princess Takako (貴子内親王; 1262-1273)
- Daughter (1265-1266）
- Third daughter: Imperial Princess Reishi (姈子内親王; 1270-1307）later Yūgimon'in (遊義門院), married Emperor Go-Uda
- Consort: Tōin (Fujiwara) Inshi (洞院（藤原）愔子) later Genkimon-in (玄輝門院; 1246-1329), Tōin Saneo‘s daughter
- Fourth daughter: Imperial Princess Hisako (久子内親王; 1272-1346) later Eiyōmon'in (永陽門院)
- Second son: Imperial Prince Hirohito (熈仁親王) later Emperor Fushimi
- Third son: Imperial Prince Mitsuhito（満仁親王) later Imperial Prince Priest Shonnin (性仁法親王; 1267-1304）
- Court Lady: Saionji (Fujiwara) Aiko (西園寺（藤原）相子), Saionji Kinsuke‘s daughter
- Fifth daughter: Imperial Princess Hanako/Eiko/Akiko (瑛子内親王; 1288-1352）later Yōtokumon'in (陽徳門院)
- Court Lady: Saionji (Fujiwara) Moriko (西園寺（藤原）成子), Saionji Kintsune‘s daughter
- First Son: Imperial Prince Tsunehito (常仁親王; d.1264)
- Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Yukihito (幸仁親王; 1269-1272）
- Court Lady: Sanjo (Fujiwara) Fusako (三条（藤原）房子), Sanjo Kinchika’s daughter
- Fifth son: Imperial Prince Priest Gyōkaku (行覚法親王; 1274-1293）
- Seventh son: Imperial Prince Hisaaki (久明親王)
- Ninth son: Imperial Prince Priest Sokaku (増覚法親王)
- Sixth Daughter: Imperial Princess Eiko (永子内親王) later Shozenmon’in (章善門院; d.1338）
- Court Lady: Miyoshi Tadako (三善忠子; d.1299), Miyoshi Yasuhira’s daughter
- Sixth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Shinsho (深性法親王; 1275-1299）
- Court Lady: Bettō-Naishi (別当典侍), Takakura Shigemichi’s daughter
- Eighth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Kojo (恒助法親王; 1288-1310）
- Court Lady: Lady Nijō, Minamoto no Masatada‘s daughter
- Prince (1273-1274)
- Prince (1263-1266)
Events of Go-Fukakusa's life
- 1247 (Kangen 4, 1st month): In the 4th year of Go-Saga-tennō 's reign (後嵯峨天皇四年), he abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by his 4-year-old son. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Go-Fukakusa is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).
In 1259, at the insistence of Retired Emperor Go-Saga, he abdicated at the age of 15 to his younger brother, who would become Emperor Kameyama.
After Emperor Go-Uda's ascension in 1260, Saionji Sanekane negotiated with the Bakufu, and succeeded in getting Emperor Go-Fukakusa's son Hirohito named as Crown Prince. In 1287, with his ascension as Emperor Fushimi, Go-Fukakusa's cloistered rule began.
In 1290, he entered the priesthood, retiring from the position of cloistered Emperor. But, with his seventh son, Imperial Prince Hisaaki becoming the 8th Kamakura shōgun among other things, the position of his Jimyōin-tō became strengthened.
In 1304, he died. He is enshrined with other emperors at the imperial tomb called Fukakusa no kita no misasagi (深草北陵) in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto.
Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Fukakusa's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
- Sesshō, Ichijō Sanetsune, 1246–1247
- Sesshō, Konoe Kanetsune, 1247–1252
- Sesshō, Takatsukasa Kanehira, 1252–1254
- Kampaku, Takatsukasa Kanehira, 1254–1261
Eras of Go-Fukakusa's reign
- Kangen (1243–1247)
- Hōji (1247–1249)
- Kenchō (1249–1257)
- Kōgen (1256–1257)
- Shōka (1257–1259)
- Shōgen (1259–1260)
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 248–255; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 231–232.
- Varley, p. 237; n.b., Fukakusa was an alternate name for Emperor Ninmyō.
- Titsingh, p. 248; Varley, p. 231.
- Titsingh, pp. 247–248; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- Titsingh, p. 248.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652], Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.
- Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). (Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359), Jinnō Shōtōki (A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4
| Emperor of Japan: