|Emperor of Japan|
|Coronation||September 23, 697|
|Died||July 18, 707
|Burial||Hinokuma no Ako no oka no e no misasagi (Nara)|
|Issue||Shōmu by Fujiwara no Miyako|
|Father||Prince Kusakabe, son of Tenmu|
|Mother||Princess Abe (Genmei)|
Monmu's reign spanned the years from 697 through 707.
He was a grandson of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. He was the second son of Prince Kusakabe. Monmu's mother was Princess Abe, a daughter of Emperor Tenji. Monmu's mother would later accede to the throne herself, and she would be known as Empress Gemmei.
Events of Monmu's life
Karu-shinnō was only six years old when his father, Crown Prince Kusakabe, died.
- 697: In the 10th year of Jitō-tennō 's reign (持統天皇十年), the empress abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by a grandson of Emperor Tenmu. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Monmu is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).
Emperor Monmu ruled until his death in 707, at which point he was succeeded by his mother, Empress Genmei, who was also his first cousin once removed and his first cousin twice removed. He left a young son by Fujiwara no Miyako, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito: Obito no miko (Prince Obito), who eventually became Emperor Shōmu.
Emperor Monmu's reign lasted 10 years. He died at the age of 25.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Monmu's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
- Daijō-daijin, Osakabe-shinnō.
- Naidaijin, Nakatomi Kamako no Muraji.
- Dainagon, Fujiwara Fuhito.
Eras of Monmu's reign
The initial years of Monmu's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Monmu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701.
In this context, Brown and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taiho time-frame:
- "The eras that fell in this reign were: (1) the remaining seven years of Shuchō [(686+7=692?)]; and (2) Taika, which was four years long [695–698]. (The first year of this era was kinoto-hitsuji .) ... In the third year of the Taka era , Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."
Consorts and Children
Bunin: Fujiwara no Miyako (藤原宮子) (d. 754), daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito
- Prince Obito (首皇子) (Emperor Shōmu) (701–756)
Hin: Ki no Kamado-no-iratsume (紀竃門娘)
Hin: Ishikawa no Tone-no-iratsume (石川刀子娘)
- Prince Hironari (広成皇子)
- Prince Hiroyo (広世皇子)
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 文武天皇 (42); retrieved 2013-8-22.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 55.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 60–63, p. 63, at Google BooksBrown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 270–271; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 137–140.
- Brown, pp. 264; prior to Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.
- Brown, p. 270.
- Varley, p. 138.
- Titsingh, p. 60; Brown, p. 270; Varley, pp. 44, 137–138; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fishimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- Varley, p. 140.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420.
- Brown, p. 266.
- Brown, p. 271.
- Titsingh, pp. 60–63; Brown, p. 271.
- Titsingh, p. 60.
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
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