Emperor Shenzong of Song
|Emperor Shenzong of Song
|Emperor of the Song dynasty|
|Reign||25 January 1067 – 1 April 1085|
|Coronation||25 January 1067|
|Born||Zhao Zhongzhen (1048–1067)
Zhao Xu (1067–1085)
25 May 1048
|Died||1 April 1085(aged 36)|
|House||House of Zhao|
|Emperor Shenzong of Song|
|Literal meaning||"Spirit Ancestor of the Song"|
Emperor Shenzong of Song (25 May 1048 – 1 April 1085), personal name Zhao Xu, was the sixth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. His original personal name was Zhao Zhongzhen but he changed it to "Zhao Xu" after his coronation. He reigned from 1067 until his death in 1085.
Life and reign
During his reign, Emperor Shenzong became interested in Wang Anshi's policies and appointed Wang as the Chancellor. Wang implemented his famous New Policies aimed at improving the situation for the peasantry and unemployed, which some have seen as a forerunner of the modern welfare state. These acts became the hallmark reform of Emperor Shenzong's reign.
Emperor Shenzong's other notable act as emperor was his attempt to weaken the Tangut-led Western Xia state by invading and expelling the Western Xia forces from Gansu Province. The Song army was initially quite successful at these campaigns, but during the battle for the city of Yongle, in 1082, Song forces were defeated. As a result, Western Xia grew more powerful and subsequently continued to be a thorn in the side of the Song Empire over the ensuing decades.
During Emperor Shenzong's reign, Sima Guang, a minister interested in the history of the previous 1000 years, wrote a very influential history book, the Zizhi Tongjian or A Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government. This book records historical events from the Zhou dynasty to the Song dynasty. Another notable literary achievement which occurred during his reign was the compilation of the Seven Military Classics, including the alleged forgery of the Questions and Replies between Tang Taizong and Li Weigong.
Aside from the ancient Roman embassies to Han and Three-Kingdoms era China, contact with Europe remained sparse if not nonexistent before the 13th century. However, from Chinese records it is known that Michael VII Doukas (Mie li sha ling kai sa 滅力沙靈改撒) of Fo lin (i.e. the Byzantine Empire) dispatched a diplomatic mission to China's Song dynasty that arrived in 1081, during the reign of Emperor Shenzong.
Emperor Shenzong died in 1085 at the age of 36 and was succeeded by his son, Emperor Zhezong.
- Father: Zhao Shu, Emperor Yingzong (1032-1067)
- Mother: Lady Gao, Empress Xuan Ren (1032-1093); Yingzong's sole wife
|Empress Qin Sheng||Lady Xiang||1046||1101||0||1|
|Empress Qin Cheng||Lady Zhu||1052||1102||2||2|
|Empress Qin Ci||Lady Chen||1058||1089||1||0|
|Noble Consort||Lady Song||Unknown||1107||2||1|
|Noble Consort||Lady Xing||Unknown||1103||4||1|
|Pure Consort||Lady Zhang||Unknown||1105||0||1|
|Able Consort Hui Mu||Lady Wu||Unknown||1107||1||0|
|Able Consort||Lin Zhen||1052||1090||2||1|
|Able Consort Yi Jing||Lady Yang||Unknown||Unknown||0||0|
|1||Prince of Cheng||Yi||1069||1069||Noble Consort Song|
|2||Prince of Hui||Jin||1071||1071||Noble Consort Xing|
|3||Prince Ai Xian of Tang||Jun||1073||1077||Noble Consort Song|
|4||Prince of Bao||Shen||1074||1074||Lady Xiang, Madame|
|5||Prince of Ji||Xian||1074||1076||Noble Consort Xing|
|6||Emperor Zhezong||Xu||1077||1100||Empress Qin Cheng|
|7||Prince Dao Hui of Yu||Jia||1077||1078||Noble Consort Xing|
|8||Prince Chong Hui of Xu||Ti||1078||1081||Noble Consort Xing|
|9||Prince Rong Mu of Wu||Bi||1082||1106||Able Consort Hui Mu|
|10||Prince of Yi||Wei||1082||1082||Lady Guo, Talented Lady|
|11||Emperor Huizong||Ji||1082||1135||Empress Qin Ci|
|12||Prince of Yan||Yu||1083||1127||Able Consort Lin|
|13||Prince Rong Xian of Chu||Shi||1083||1106||Empress Qin Cheng|
|14||Prince of Yue||Cai||1085||1129||Able Consort Lin|
|1||Elder Princess of Zhou||Unknown||1067||1078||Empress Qin Sheng|
|2||Princess of Chu||Unknown||Unknown||1072||Pure Consort Zhang|
|3||Princess Shu Shou||Unknown||1070||1111||Unknown|
|4||Princess of Kang||Unknown||Unknown||1108||Noble Consort Song|
|5||Princess of Yun||Unknown||Unknown||1085||Unknown|
|6||Princess of Lu||Unknown||Unknown||1084||Empress Qin Cheng|
|7||Princess of Xing||Unknown||Unknown||1084||Able Consort Lin|
|8||Princess of Bin||Unknown||Unknown||1085||Unknown|
|9||Princess of Gun||Unknown||Unknown||1090||Noble Consort Xing|
|10||Princess of Qing||Unknown||1085||1115||Empress Qin Cheng|
- Maspéro, Georges (2002). The Champa Kingdom: The History of an Extinct Vietnamese Culture. White Lotus Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-974-7534-99-3.
- Sawyer, Ralph D. (1993). The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. Westview Press. p. 489. ISBN 978-0-8133-1228-6.
- Sezgin, Fuat; Ehrig-Eggert, Carl; Mazen, Amawi; Neubauer, E. (1996). نصوص ودراسات من مصادر صينية حول البلدان الاسلامية. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. p. 25.
Emperor Shenzong of SongBorn: 25 May 1048 Died: 1 April 1085
|Emperor of the Song Dynasty