Emperor Xiaozong of Song

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Emperor Xiaozong of Song
Xiaozong.jpg
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 24 July 1162[a] – 18 February 1189[b]
Coronation 24 July 1162
Predecessor Emperor Gaozong
Successor Emperor Guangzong
Retired Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 18 February 1189 – 28 June 1194
Born Zhao Bocong (1127–1133)
Zhao Yuan (1133–1160)
Zhao Wei (1160–1162)
Zhao Shen (1162–1194)
(1127-11-27)27 November 1127
Died 28 June 1194(1194-06-28) (aged 66)
Era dates
Longxing (隆興; 1163–1164)
Qiandao (乾道; 1165–1173)
Chunxi (淳熙; 1174–1189)
Posthumous name
Shaotong Tongdao Guande Zhaogong Zhewen Shenwu Mingsheng Chengxiao Huangdi
(紹統同道冠德昭功哲文神武明聖成孝皇帝)
(awarded in 1197)
Temple name
Xiaozong (孝宗)
House House of Zhao
Father Zhao Zicheng
Mother Lady Zhang
Emperor Xiaozong of Song
Chinese 宋孝宗
Literal meaning "Filial Ancestor of the Song"
Zhao Shen
Traditional Chinese 趙眘
Simplified Chinese 赵眘
Yuanyong
(courtesy name)
Chinese 元永

Emperor Xiaozong of Song (27 November 1127 – 28 June 1194), personal name Zhao Shen, courtesy name Yuanyong, was the 11th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the second emperor of the Southern Song dynasty. He started his reign in 1162 when his adoptive father and predecessor, Emperor Gaozong, abdicated and passed the throne to him. Even though Emperor Gaozong became a Taishang Huang ("Retired Emperor") after his abdication, he remained the de facto ruler, so Emperor Xiaozong only fully took over the reins of power in 1187 after Emperor Gaozong's death. After ruling for about a year, Emperor Xiaozong followed in his predecessor's footsteps and abdicated in favour of his third son Zhao Dun (Emperor Guangzong), while he became Taishang Huang and still remained in power until his death in 1194.

Names[edit]

Zhao Shen's birth name was Zhao Bocong (趙伯琮). In March 1133, after he entered the imperial palace, his name was changed to Zhao Yuan (趙瑗). In April 1160, after he was adopted by Emperor Gaozong, his name was changed to Zhao Wei (趙瑋). In July 1162, when Zhao Shen became crown prince, his name was changed again to Zhao Shen (趙眘).

Zhao Shen was given the courtesy name Yuangui (元瑰) in May 1160. In July 1162, when he became crown prince, his courtesy name was changed to Yuanyong (元永).

Life[edit]

Zhao Shen was a seventh-generation descendant of Emperor Taizu, the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty. He was the second son of Zhao Zicheng (趙子偁; died 1143), a sixth cousin of Emperor Gaozong, the 10th Song emperor. After the Jingkang Incident in 1127, Emperor Gaozong's father, eldest brother and most of his close relatives were taken prisoner by the Jurchen-led Jin Empire. As Emperor Gaozong's only son, Zhao Fu (趙旉), died prematurely around the age of two, the emperor ordered his officials to start searching for other living descendants of the imperial family. Zhao Shen was discovered and adopted by Emperor Gaozong in April 1160 as a son. In July 1162, Emperor Gaozong officially designated Zhao Shen as his crown prince and heir apparent.

Archery and equestrianism were required for non-military officials at the Military College in 1162 during Emperor Xiaozong's reign.[1]

Family[edit]

Spouses[edit]

Empresses[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Empress Chengmu
成穆皇后
Lady Guo
郭氏
1126 1156 Guo Jian, Prince of Rong
荣王郭瑊
Lady Zhao, Madame of Shu
淑国夫人赵氏
1. Crown Prince Zhuangwen
2. Prince Huixian of Wei
3. Guangzong
4. Prince Daosu of Shao
Madame of Xianning Commandery (咸宁郡夫人)
Empress Chenggong
成恭皇后
Lady Xia
夏氏
unknown 1167 Xia Xie
夏协
unknown none Yushi (御侍)
Given by Empress Xiansheng to Xiaozong
Madame of Qi'an Commandery (齐安郡夫人)
Became Able Consort (贤妃) in 1162
Became Empress in 1163
Empress Chengsu
成肃皇后
Xie Sufang
谢苏芳
1132 1203 unknown unknown none Empress Xiansheng's maid
Madame of Xian'an Commandery (咸安郡夫人)
Became Wanrong (婉容) in 1162
Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃)
Became Empress in 1176
Became Empress Shoucheng (寿成皇后) in 1189
Became Empress Dowager Huici (惠慈皇太后) in 1194
Became Grand Empress Dowager (太皇太后) in 1200

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes
Noble Consort
贵妃
Lady Cai
蔡氏
unknown 1185 Cai Pang (蔡滂) none Hong Xiapei (红霞帔)
Became Madame of Heyi Commandery (和义郡夫人)
Became Wanrong (婉容)
Promoted in 1183
Able Consort
贤妃
Lady Li
李氏
unknown 1183 unknown none Dianzi (典字)
Became Madame of Tongyi Commandery (通义郡夫人)
Became Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤)
Posthumously honoured in 1183

Issue[edit]

Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Crown Prince Zhuangwen
庄文太子
Qi
1144 1167 Empress Chengmu Became Crown Prince (皇太子) in 1165
2 Prince Huixian of Wei
魏惠宪王
Kai
1146 18 Mar 1180
3 Guangzong
光宗
Dun
30 Sep 1147 17 Sep 1200
4 Prince Daosu of Shao
邵悼肃王
Ke
unknown unknown Posthumously honoured in 1166

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes
1 Princess of Jia
嘉国公主
unknown unknown 1162 unknown none none Died young
2 unknown unknown unknown unknown none none Died young

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

  1. Chinese emperors family tree (middle)
  2. List of emperors of the Song dynasty
  3. Architecture of the Song dynasty
  4. Culture of the Song dynasty
  5. Economy of the Song dynasty
  6. History of the Song dynasty
  7. Society of the Song dynasty
  8. Technology of the Song dynasty
  9. Jin–Song Wars

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Emperor Xiaozong succeeded Emperor Gaozong, who abdicated on 24 July 1162. However, even after his retirement, Emperor Gaozong remained the de facto ruler until his death in November 1187.
  2. ^ Emperor Xiaozong abdicated in favour of his son, Zhao Dun (Emperor Guangzong). He then granted himself the title Taishang Huang ("Retired Emperor") and remained as the de facto ruler until his death.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Lo, Jung-pang (1 January 2012). China as a Sea Power, 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People During the Southern Song and Yuan Periods. NUS Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-9971-69-505-7. 

Sources[edit]

  • Toqto'a, et al., eds. (1343). History of Song. Volumes 33–35: Biography of Emperor Xiaozong. 


Emperor Xiaozong of Song
Born: 1127 Died: 1194
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Gaozong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
1162–1189
Succeeded by
Emperor Guangzong