Emperor Yingzong of Song
|Emperor Yingzong of Song |
|Emperor of the Song dynasty|
|Reign||1 May 1063 - 25 January 1067|
|Coronation||1 May 1063|
Zhao Zongshi (1036–1062)|
Zhao Shu (1062–1067)
16 February 1032[a]
|Died||25 January 1067(aged 34)|
|House||House of Zhao|
|Emperor Yingzong of Song|
|Literal meaning||"Heroic Ancestor of the Song"|
Emperor Yingzong of Song (16 February 1032 – 25 January 1067), personal name Zhao Shu, was the fifth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. His original personal name was Zhao Zongshi but it was changed to "Zhao Shu" in 1062 by imperial decree. He reigned from 1063 to his death in 1067. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Emperor Shenzong.
Emperor Yingzong was the 13th son of Zhao Yunrang (趙允讓; 969–1059), who was a first cousin of Emperor Renzong and was posthumously known as "Prince Anyi of Pu" (濮安懿王). Emperor Yingzong's grandfather, Zhao Yuanfen (趙元份; 966–1005), was a younger brother of Emperor Renzong's father, Emperor Zhenzong, and was posthumously known as "Prince Gongjing of Shang" (商恭靖王). Emperor Yingzong's mother, whose maiden family name was Ren (任), was the concubine of Zhao Yunrang. She held the title "Xianjun[b] of Xianyou" (仙遊縣君).
In 1055, Emperor Yingzong's predecessor, Emperor Renzong, became critically ill and started to worry about having no successor because his sons all died prematurely. Acting on the advice of his ministers, Emperor Renzong agreed to bring two of his younger male relatives into his palace. One of them was the future Emperor Yingzong, who was eventually chosen and designated as the Crown Prince. Yingzong had his name changed to "Zhao Shu" in 1062 when he was officially designated as the Crown Prince. This name became his official name when he ascended the throne in the following year after his adoptive father Emperor Renzong died.
Emperor Yingzong's empress consort was Empress Gao, a niece of Empress Dowager Cao who was the widow of the late Emperor Renzong. As Emperor Yingzong was severely sickly shortly after his coronation, Empress Dowager Cao served as his regent. Empress Dowager Cao held onto power even when Yingzong recovered until the Prime Minister Han Qi removed the screen from the audience hall making it impossible for Empress Dowager Cao to attend. She was forced to give power back to Yingzong.
Emperor Yingzong's reign is known for controversy over the correct rituals to be performed by the emperor for his father. Emperor Yingzong had been adopted by Emperor Renzong, so Emperor Renzong was nominally Emperor Yingzong's father. However, biologically, Zhao Yunrang was Emperor Yingzong's father. Some officials suggested that Emperor Yingzong honour his biological father with the title "Imperial Uncle", but the emperor agreed with Ouyang Xiu and others and decided to honour his biological father as his parent. This was not only an early sign of more conflict during Emperor Xiaozong's reign but also the Great Rites Controversy of the Ming dynasty.
In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong ordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China.
- Zhao Yunrang (濮安懿王 趙允讓; 995 – 1059), son of Zhao Yuanfen, the son of Zhao Jiong
- Lady Ren (仙遊君 任氏)
- Consorts and Issue:
- Empress Gao (宣仁皇后 高氏; 1032 – 1093)
- Zhao Xu (神宗 趙頊; 1048 – 1085)
- Zhao Hao (吳榮王 趙顥; 1050 – 1096)
- Princess Xianhui (賢惠帝姬; 1051 – 1080)
- Princess Xiande (賢德帝姬; 1051 – 1123)
- Zhao Yan (潤王 趙顏)
- Zhao Yun (益端獻王 趙頵; 1056 – 1088)
- Princess Hehui (惠和帝姬; d. 1085)
- Princess Zhenjing (貞靜帝姬)
- Chinese emperors family tree (middle)
- List of emperors of the Song dynasty
- Architecture of the Song dynasty
- Culture of the Song dynasty
- Economy of the Song dynasty
- History of the Song dynasty
- Society of the Song dynasty
- Technology of the Song dynasty
- Xu Elina-Qian, p.20
- Other sources say he collapsed.
Emperor Yingzong of SongBorn: 16 February 1032 Died: 25 January 1067
| Emperor of the Song Dynasty