Emperor Zhangzong of Jin

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Emperor Zhangzong of Jin
Thirteen Stele Pavilions - south row, 3rd from the east - seen from E - turtle head - P1050627.JPG
Monument in memory of the rebuilding the Temple of Confucius in 1197
Emperor of the Jin dynasty
Reign 20 January 1189 – 29 December 1208
Born (1168-08-31)31 August 1168
Died 29 December 1208(1208-12-29) (aged 40)
Spouse Empress Qinghuai
Li Shi'er
Lady Jiagu
Lady Lin
Lady Jia
Lady Fan
Issue Wanyan Hongyu
Telin
Wanyan Hongjing
Wanyan Hongxi
Wanyan Hongyan
Wanyan Honghui
Princess of Shun
Full name
Wanyan Jing (sinicised name)
Madage (Jurchen name)
Era dates
Mingchang (明昌; 1190—1196)
Cheng'an (承安; 1196—1200)
Taihe (泰和; 1201—1208)
Posthumous name
Emperor Xiantian Guangyun Renwen Yiwu Shensheng Yingxiao (憲天光運仁文義武神聖英孝皇帝)
Temple name
Zhangzong (章宗)
Father Wanyan Yungong
Mother Empress Xiaoyi
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin
Chinese 金章宗
Madage
Traditional Chinese 麻達葛
Simplified Chinese 麻达葛
Wanyan Jing
Traditional Chinese 完顏璟
Simplified Chinese 完颜璟

Emperor Zhangzong of Jin (31 August 1168 – 29 December 1208), personal name Madage, sinicised name Wanyan Jing, was the sixth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He reigned from 20 January 1189 to 29 December 1208.[1]

Life[edit]

Emperor Zhangzong was the sixth emperor of the Jin dynasty. He inherited the throne from his grandfather, Emperor Shizong[1] and was succeeded by Wanyan Yongji.

To some extent, Emperor Zhangzong continued his grandfather's policy of encouraging intensive use of the Jurchen language and promotion of Jurchen customs. He forbade wearing of Han Chinese clothes and required his subjects to perform the Jurchen kowtow ceremony. He required his meng'an and mouke (Jurchen hereditary feudal nobility) to take an archery test if they wanted to sit for a jinshi examination. On the other hand, he permitted Jurchens to follow Han Chinese funeral practices, and Tang and Song dynasty rituals are known to have been performed at his court in 1194.

Resuming one of the projects of the Prince of Hailing, Emperor Zhangzong established Confucian temples in all prefectures and counties of his empire.[1]

Emperor Zhangzong ordered Taiye Lake built in Beijing for him to go fishing. Unlike his grandfather, Emperor Zhangzong did not consider hunting as a natural and necessary way of military training but viewed it as recreation.[1]

Song invasion of the Jin[edit]

When, in 1206, the troops of the Southern Song chancellor Han Tuozhou invaded the Jin dynasty, trying to reunify China from the south, Emperor Zhangzong's armies defeated the invaders.[1]

The conflict began when the Song were informed of Jurchen troubles with the rising Mongols and natural disasters. The Song began provoking Emperor Zhangzong in 1204 and onward by orchestrating raids on Jin settlements. The fighting continued to escalate, partly aggravated by Song officials in support of revanchism, and war against the Jin dynasty was officially declared on June 14, 1206.[2]

The Song advance was impeded by Jin military successes and declining soldier morale that forced many to desert. By the fall of 1206, multiple towns and military bases had been captured by the Jurchens. Neither side was willing to continue fighting, and a peace treaty was signed on November 2, 1208.[2] To obtain peace, the Song dynasty had to yield territory, pay an indemnity, and execute their hawkish chancellor.[1] The Song dynasty was obligated to pay an annual tribute of 50,000 taels of silver and 50,000 packs of fabric. They also delivered the severed head of the minister who had instigated the war to the Jurchens.[2]

Family[edit]

  • Father: Hutuwa (胡土瓦), sinicised name Wanyan Yungong (完顏允恭), Emperor Shizong's second son and heir apparent, posthumously honoured as Emperor Xianzong (金顯宗)
  • Mother: Lady Tushan (徒單氏), posthumously honoured as Empress Xiaoyi (孝懿皇后)
  • Spouse: Lady Pucha (蒲察氏), posthumously honoured as Empress Qinhuai (欽懷皇后), bore Wanyan Hongyu
  • Concubines:
    • Li Shi'er (李師兒), Consort Yuan (元妃), bore Telin
    • Lady Jiagu (夾谷氏), Zhaoyi (昭儀), Jiagu Qingchen's (夾谷清臣) daughter
    • Lady Lin (林氏), Lady Ziming (資明夫人), bore Wanyan Hongjing
    • Lady Jia (賈氏), Chengyu (承御)
    • Lady Fan (范氏), Chengyu (承御), bore the Princess of Shun
  • Children:
    • Wanyan Hongyu (完顏洪裕), Prince of Jiang (絳王)
    • Telin (忒鄰), Prince of Ge (葛王)
    • Ahulan (阿虎懶), sinicised name Wanyan Hongjing (完顏洪靖), Prince of Jing (荊王)
    • Elubu (訛魯不), sinicised name Wanyan Hongxi (完顏洪熙), Prince of Rong (榮王)
    • Sagai (撒改), sinicised name Wanyan Hongyan (完顏洪衍), Prince of Ying (英王)
    • Elun (訛論), sinicised name Wanyan Honghui (完顏洪輝), Prince of Shou (壽王)
    • Princess of Shun (順國公主)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Tao, p. 85-86
  2. ^ a b c Franke, Herbert (1994). Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke; John King Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710–1368. Cambridge University Press. pp. 246–249. 
  • Tao Jingshen. The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. Univ. of Washington Press, 1976. ISBN 0-295-95514-7.