Norton I, Emperor of the United States, photograph, c.1871–72
|Born||Joshua Abraham Norton
London or other parts of England
|Died||January 8, 1880
San Francisco, California
|Known for||Proclaiming himself "Emperor of the United States"|
Joshua Abraham Norton (c.1818 – January 8, 1880), known as Emperor Norton, was a citizen of San Francisco, California, who in 1859 proclaimed himself "Norton I, Emperor of the United States" and subsequently "Protector of Mexico".
Born in England, Norton spent most of his early life in South Africa. After the death of his mother in 1846 and his father in 1848, he sailed west, arriving in San Francisco possibly in November 1849. Norton initially made a living as a businessman, but he lost his fortune investing in Peruvian rice.
After losing a lawsuit in which he tried to void his rice contract, Norton's public prominence faded. He reemerged in September 1859, laying claim to the position of Emperor of the United States. Although he had no political power, and his influence extended only so far as he was humored by those around him, he was treated deferentially in San Francisco, and currency issued in his name was honored in the establishments he frequented.
Though some considered him insane or eccentric, citizens of San Francisco celebrated his regal presence and his proclamations, such as his order that the United States Congress be dissolved by force and his numerous decrees calling for a bridge connecting San Francisco to Oakland, and a corresponding tunnel to be built under San Francisco Bay. Long after his death, similar structures were built in the form of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and the Transbay Tube, and there have been campaigns to rename the bridge "The Emperor Norton Bridge".
On January 8, 1880, Norton collapsed at the corner of California and Dupont (now Grant) streets and died before he could be given medical treatment. At his funeral two days later, nearly 30,000 people packed the streets of San Francisco to pay homage. Norton has been immortalized as the basis of characters in the literature of writers Mark Twain, Robert Louis Stevenson, Christopher Moore, Morris and Goscinny, Selma Lagerlöf, and Neil Gaiman.
Genealogical and other research indicates that Norton's parents were John Norton (d. August 1848) and Sarah Norden, who were English Jews. John was a farmer and merchant, and Sarah was a daughter of Abraham Norden and a sister of Benjamin Norden, a successful Jewish merchant. The family moved to South Africa in early 1820 as part of a government-backed colonization scheme whose participants came to be known as the 1820 Settlers. Most likely, Norton was born in the Kentish town of Deptford, today part of London.
Pinning down Norton's exact date of birth has proved difficult. His obituary in the San Francisco Chronicle, "following the best information obtainable," cited the silver plate on his coffin which said he was "aged about 65," suggesting that 1814 could be the year of his birth. But Norton's biographer, William Drury, points out that "about 65" was based on nothing more than the guess that Norton's landlady offered to the coroner at the inquest following his death. In a 1923 essay published by the California Historical Society, Robert Ernest Cowan claimed that Norton was born on February 4, 1819. However, the passenger lists for the Belle Alliance, the ship that carried Norton and his family from England to South Africa, indicate he was two years old when the ship set sail in February 1820. The February 4, 1865, edition of The Daily Alta California newspaper included an item in which the Alta wished Emperor Norton a happy 47th birthday, indicating that his birth date was February 4, 1818 (not 1819, as Cowan claimed)—a date that would line up with the Belle Alliance passenger listing from two years later. Moreover, when Cowan quoted the 1865 Alta item in his essay, he used an altered version in an apparent attempt to advance his claim of an 1819 birth date. Furthermore, persistent online claims for an 1819 birth date, which can be traced to the early years of the Internet, are of doubtful provenance.
There are oft-repeated historical claims that Joshua Norton arrived in San Francisco on a specific vessel, the Franzeska, on 23 November 1849; that he arrived with $40,000, in whole or in part a bequest from his father's estate; and that he parlayed this into a fortune of $250,000. None of this is substantiated by contemporaneous documentation. What is known is that, after Norton arrived in San Francisco, he enjoyed a good deal of success in commodities markets and in real estate speculation, and that by late 1852, he was one of the more prosperous, respected citizens of the city.
In December 1852, Norton thought he saw a business opportunity when China, facing a severe famine, placed a ban on the export of rice, causing the price of rice in San Francisco to skyrocket from four to thirty-six cents per pound (9 to 79 cents/kg). When he heard the Glyde, which was returning from Peru, was carrying 200,000 pounds (91,000 kg) of rice, he bought the entire shipment for $25,000 (or twelve and a half cents per pound), hoping to corner the market.
Shortly after he signed the contract, several other shiploads of rice arrived from Peru, causing the price of rice to plummet to three cents a pound. Norton tried to void the contract, stating the dealer had misled him as to the quality of rice to expect. From 1853 to 1857, Norton and the rice dealers were involved in a protracted litigation. Although Norton prevailed in the lower courts, the case reached the Supreme Court of California, which ruled against Norton. Later, the Lucas Turner and Company Bank foreclosed on his real estate holdings in North Beach to pay Norton's debt. He filed for bankruptcy and by 1858 was living in reduced circumstances at a working class boarding house.
Declares himself emperor
By 1859, Norton had become completely disgruntled with what he considered the inadequacies of the legal and political structures of the United States. On September 17, 1859, he took matters into his own hands and distributed letters to the various newspapers in the city, proclaiming himself "Emperor of these United States":
At the peremptory request and desire of a large majority of the citizens of these United States, I, Joshua Norton, formerly of Algoa Bay, Cape of Good Hope, and now for the last 9 years and 10 months past of S. F., Cal., declare and proclaim myself Emperor of these U. S.; and in virtue of the authority thereby in me vested, do hereby order and direct the representatives of the different States of the Union to assemble in Musical Hall, of this city, on the 1st day of Feb. next, then and there to make such alterations in the existing laws of the Union as may ameliorate the evils under which the country is laboring, and thereby cause confidence to exist, both at home and abroad, in our stability and integrity.
The announcement was first reprinted for humorous effect by the editor of the San Francisco Bulletin. Norton would later add "Protector of Mexico" to this title. Thus commenced his unprecedented and whimsical 21-year "reign" over America.
In his self-appointed role of emperor, Norton issued numerous decrees on matters of the state. After assuming absolute control over the country, he saw no further need for a legislature, and on October 12, 1859, he issued a decree formally abolishing the United States Congress. In it, Norton observed:
...fraud and corruption prevent a fair and proper expression of the public voice; that open violation of the laws are constantly occurring, caused by mobs, parties, factions and undue influence of political sects; that the citizen has not that protection of person and property which he is entitled.
Norton ordered all interested parties to assemble at Platt's Music Hall in San Francisco in February 1860 to "remedy the evil complained of".
In an imperial decree the following month, Norton summoned the Army to depose the elected officials of the U.S. Congress:
WHEREAS, a body of men calling themselves the National Congress are now in session in Washington City, in violation of our Imperial edict of the 12th of October last, declaring the said Congress abolished;
WHEREAS, it is necessary for the repose of our Empire that the said decree should be strictly complied with;
NOW, THEREFORE, we do hereby Order and Direct Major-General Scott, the Command-in-Chief of our Armies, immediately upon receipt of this, our Decree, to proceed with a suitable force and clear the Halls of Congress.
Norton's orders were ignored by the Army, and Congress likewise continued without any formal acknowledgement of the decree. Further decrees in 1860 dissolved the republic and forbade the assembly of any members of the former Congress. Norton's battle against the elected leaders of America persisted throughout his reign, though it appears he eventually, if grudgingly, allowed Congress to exist without his permission. Hoping to resolve the many disputes that had resulted in the Civil War, in 1862 Norton issued a mandate ordering both the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches to publicly ordain him as "Emperor".
His attempts to overthrow the elected government having been ignored, Norton turned his attention to other matters, both political and social. On August 12, 1869, "being desirous of allaying the dissensions of party strife now existing within our realm", he abolished the Democratic and Republican parties. The failure to treat Norton's adopted home city with appropriate respect is the subject of a particularly stern edict that often is cited as having been written by Norton in 1872—although evidence for the authorship, date or source of this decree remains elusive:
Whoever after due and proper warning shall be heard to utter the abominable word "Frisco," which has no linguistic or other warrant, shall be deemed guilty of a High Misdemeanor, and shall pay into the Imperial Treasury as penalty the sum of twenty-five dollars.
Norton was occasionally a visionary, and some of his Imperial Decrees exhibited profound foresight. He issued instructions to form a League of Nations, and he explicitly forbade any form of conflict between religions or their sects. Norton saw fit to decree the construction of a suspension bridge or tunnel connecting Oakland and San Francisco, his later decrees becoming increasingly irritated at the lack of prompt obedience by the authorities:
WHEREAS, we issued our decree ordering the citizens of San Francisco and Oakland to appropriate funds for the survey of a suspension bridge from Oakland Point via Goat Island; also for a tunnel; and to ascertain which is the best project; and whereas the said citizens have hitherto neglected to notice our said decree; and whereas we are determined our authority shall be fully respected; now, therefore, we do hereby command the arrest by the army of both the Boards of City Fathers if they persist in neglecting our decrees.
Given under our royal hand and seal at San Francisco, this 17th day of September, 1872.
The intent of this decree, unlike many others, actually came to fruition; construction of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge began on July 9, 1933 and was completed on November 12, 1936. The construction of Bay Area Rapid Transit's Transbay Tube was completed in 1969, with Transbay rail service commencing in 1974.
Norton's Imperial acts
Norton spent his days inspecting San Francisco's streets in an elaborate blue uniform with gold-plated epaulettes, given to him by officers of the United States Army post at the Presidio of San Francisco. He also wore a beaver hat decorated with a peacock feather and a rosette. He frequently enhanced this regal posture with a cane or umbrella. During his inspections, Norton would examine the condition of the sidewalks and cable cars, the state of repair of public property, and the appearance of police officers. Norton would also frequently give lengthy philosophical expositions on a variety of topics to anyone within earshot.
During the 1860s and 1870s, there were occasional anti-Chinese demonstrations in the poorer districts of San Francisco. Riots, sometimes resulting in fatalities, took place. During one incident, Norton allegedly positioned himself between the rioters and their Chinese targets; with a bowed head, he started reciting the Lord's Prayer repeatedly until the rioters dispersed without incident.
Norton was loved and revered by the citizens of San Francisco. Although penniless, he regularly ate at the finest restaurants in San Francisco; restaurateurs took it upon themselves to add brass plaques in their entrances declaring "[by] Appointment to his Imperial Majesty, Emperor Norton I of the United States". Norton's self-penned Imperial seals of approval were prized and a substantial boost to trade. No play or musical performance in San Francisco would dare to open without reserving balcony seats for Norton.
A rumor started by the devoted Norton caricaturist Ed Jump claims he had two dogs, Bummer and Lazarus, which were also San Francisco celebrities. Though he did not own the dogs, Norton ate at free lunch counters where he shared his meals with the dogs.
In 1867, a policeman named Armand Barbier arrested Norton to commit him to involuntary treatment for a mental disorder. The Emperor's arrest outraged the citizens and sparked scathing editorials in the newspapers. Police Chief Patrick Crowley ordered Norton released and issued a formal apology on behalf of the police force. Crowley wrote "that he had shed no blood; robbed no one; and despoiled no country; which is more than can be said of his fellows in that line." Norton magnanimously granted an Imperial Pardon to the errant policeman. All police officers of San Francisco thereafter saluted Norton as he passed in the street.
Norton did receive some tokens of recognition for his position. The 1870 U.S. census lists Joshua Norton as 50 years old and residing at 624 Commercial Street; his occupation was listed as "Emporer" [sic]. It also noted he was insane. Norton also issued his own money to pay for his debts, and it became an accepted local currency in San Francisco. These notes came in denominations between fifty cents and ten dollars; the few surviving notes are collector's items. The city of San Francisco also honored Norton. When his uniform began to look shabby, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors bought him a suitably regal replacement. Norton sent a gracious thank you note and issued a "patent of nobility in perpetuity" for each supervisor.
Later years and death
During the later years of Norton's reign, he was the subject of considerable speculation. One popular story suggested he was the son of Emperor Napoleon III, and that his claim of coming from South Africa was a ruse to prevent persecution. Another popular story suggested Norton was planning to marry Queen Victoria. While this claim is unsupported, Norton did write to the Queen on several occasions, and he is reported to have met Emperor Pedro II of Brazil. Rumors also circulated that Norton was supremely wealthy—only affecting poverty because he was miserly.
A number of decrees that were probably fraudulent were submitted and duly printed in local newspapers, and it is believed that in at least a few cases, newspaper editors themselves drafted fictitious edicts to suit their own agendas. The San Francisco Museum and Historical Society maintains a list of the decrees believed to be genuine.
On the evening of January 8, 1880, Norton collapsed on the corner of California Street and Dupont Street (now Grant Avenue) in front of Old St. Mary's Church while on his way to a lecture at the California Academy of Sciences. His collapse was immediately noticed and "the police officer on the beat hastened for a carriage to convey him to the City Receiving Hospital." Norton died before a carriage could arrive. The following day the San Francisco Chronicle published his obituary on its front page under the headline "Le Roi est Mort" ("The King is Dead"). In a tone tinged with sadness, the article respectfully reported that, "[o]n the reeking pavement, in the darkness of a moon-less night under the dripping rain..., Norton I, by the grace of God, Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico, departed this life". The Morning Call, another leading San Francisco newspaper, published a front-page article using an almost identical sentence as a headline: "Norton the First, by the grace of God Emperor of these United States and Protector of Mexico, departed this life."
It quickly became evident that, contrary to the rumors, Norton had died in complete poverty. Five or six dollars in small change had been found on his person, and a search of his room at the boarding house on Commercial Street turned up a single gold sovereign, then worth around $2.50; his collection of walking sticks; his rather battered saber; a variety of headgear (including a stovepipe, a derby, a red-laced Army cap, and another cap suited to a martial band-master); an 1828 French franc; and a handful of the Imperial bonds he sold to tourists at a fictitious 7% interest. There were fake telegrams purporting to be from Emperor Alexander II of Russia, congratulating Norton on his forthcoming marriage to Queen Victoria, and from the President of France, predicting that such a union would be disastrous to world peace. Also found were his letters to Queen Victoria and 98 shares of stock in a defunct gold mine.
Initial funeral arrangements were for a pauper's coffin of simple redwood. However, members of the Pacific Club, a San Francisco businessman's association, established a funeral fund that provided for a handsome rosewood casket and arranged a suitably dignified farewell. Norton's funeral on Sunday, January 10, was solemn, mournful, and large. Paying their respects were members of "all classes from capitalists to the pauper, the clergyman to the pickpocket, well-dressed ladies and those whose garb and bearing hinted of the social outcast". Some accounts say as many as 30,000 people lined the streets, and that the funeral cortège was two miles (5 km) long. San Francisco's total population at the time was 230,000. Norton was buried in the Masonic Cemetery, at the expense of the City of San Francisco.
Although details of his life story may have been forgotten, Emperor Norton was immortalized in literature. Mark Twain, who resided in San Francisco during part of Emperor Norton's public life, modeled the character of the King in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn on Joshua Norton.
Robert Louis Stevenson made Norton a character in his 1892 novel, The Wrecker. Stevenson's stepdaughter, Isobel Osbourne, mentioned Norton in her autobiography, This Life I've Loved. She said that Norton "was a gentle and kindly man, and fortunately found himself in the friendliest and most sentimental city in the world, the idea being 'let him be emperor if he wants to.' San Francisco played the game with him."
Since 1974, there has been an annual memorial service at his grave in Colma, just outside San Francisco.
In January 1980, ceremonies were conducted in San Francisco to honor the 100th anniversary of the death of "the one and only Emperor of the United States".
A park in the Republic of Molossia is named "Norton Park".
Efforts to rename the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge
In 1939, the group E Clampus Vitus commissioned and dedicated a plaque commemorating Emperor Norton's call for the construction of a suspension bridge between San Francisco and Oakland, via Yerba Buena Island (formerly Goat Island). The group's intention was that the plaque be placed on the newly opened San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge itself. This was not approved by the bridge authorities, however; and, sometime shortly after World War II, the plaque was installed at the Cliff House. In the 1990s, the plaque was moved to the Transbay Terminal. When the Terminal was closed and demolished in 2010, as part of the project to construct a new Transbay Transit Center, the plaque was placed in storage, where it remains.
There have been two recent campaigns to name all, or parts, of the Bay Bridge for Emperor Norton.
In November 2004, after a campaign by San Francisco Chronicle cartoonist Phil Frank, then-San Francisco District 3 Supervisor Aaron Peskin introduced a resolution to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors calling for the entire bridge to be named for Emperor Norton. On December 14, 2004, the Board approved a modified version of this resolution, calling for only "new additions"—i.e., the new eastern span—to be named "The Emperor Norton Bridge". Neither the City of Oakland nor Alameda County passed any similar resolution, so the effort went no further.
In June 2013, eight members of the California Assembly, joined by two members of the California Senate, introduced a concurrent resolution to name the western span of the bridge for former California state Speaker and San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown. In response, there have been public efforts seeking to revive the earlier Emperor Norton effort. One effort, an online petition, was started in August 2013 and calls for the entire bridge to be named for Emperor Norton. This petition has received coverage from local media.
The Emperor's Bridge Campaign is carrying forward the bridge-naming effort. The Campaign is using the example of numerous California state-owned bridges that have multiple names to call for an "Emperor Norton" name simply to be added as a second name for the Bay Bridge, rather than for the bridge to be renamed altogether. The organization is exploring the possibility of offering state ballot proposition to this effect in 2018, the 200th anniversary of Emperor Norton's birth.
- Frederick Coombs, who believed himself to be George Washington and left San Francisco after a feud with Norton
- Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda, self-proclaimed President of Mexico
- Frank Chu, modern day San Francisco eccentric
- Wizard of New Zealand
- José Sarria, self-proclaimed Empress José I, The Widow Norton
- Screaming Lord Sutch, founder of the Official Monster Raving Loony Party of the U.K.
- John Lumea, "Emperor Norton, c.1871–72," The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, 27 June 2017.
- Most sources agree that England was his birthplace, and several pinpoint the exact location to the town of Deptford, Kent, which is in present-day London.
- There are a number of different claims regarding Norton's date of birth. Norton's obituary by the San Francisco Chronicle put him at 65 years old at the time of his death, which would suggest that he was born in 1814. But William Drury notes in his 1986 biography, Norton I: Emperor of the United States, that the Chronicle's report − a reference to the inscription mounted to Norton's casket − was based on a guess by his landlady. Many sources follow Robert Ernest Cowan's 1923 account and Norton's 1934 tombstone in pinpointing Norton's birth as being sometime in 1819; Cowan specified February 4, 1819. But later biographers − Allen Stanley Lane, in his 1939 biography, Emperor Norton: The Mad Monarch of America, and Drury − settle on 1818. Drury cites South African immigration records in which Norton's father, John, said that Norton was two years old when the family arrived South Africa on May 2, 1820. These records would put Norton's birth somewhere between mid 1817 and early 1818. In December 2014, The Emperor's Bridge Campaign reported on the rediscovery of an item in the February 4, 1865 issue of The Daily Alta California points to a birth date of February 4, 1818. The Campaign also showed that, in his 1923 account, Cowan doctored the original text of the Alta item to back his claim of February 4, 1819.
- Smith, Fred (January 31, 2002). "Emperor Joshua Norton I of America". BBC. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
- Hansen, Gladys (1995). San Francisco Almanac. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0841-6.
- The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, "How and When Did Joshua Norton Get to San Francisco?", February 10, 2017.
- Carr, Patricia E. (July 1975). "Emperor Norton I: The benevolent dictator beloved and honored by San Franciscans to this day". American History Illustrated. 10: 14–20.
- Weeks, David; James, Jamie (1996). Eccentrics: A Study of Sanity and Strangeness. New York: Kodansha Globe. pp. 3–4. ISBN 1-56836-156-4.
- "New Perspectives on the West: Joshua Abraham Norton". PBS. 2001. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
- Herel, Suzanne (December 15, 2004). "Emperor Norton's name may yet span the bay". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- Moylan, Peter. "Encyclopedia of San Francisco: Emperor Norton". San Francisco Museum and Historical Society. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- Dakers, Hazel (April 6, 2000). "Southern Africa Jewish Genealogy SA-SIG". Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- "Joshua Abraham Norton" at 1820Settlers.com.
- William Drury, Norton I: Emperor of the United States (Dodd, Mead & Co., 1986), pp.10–15.
- William Drury, Norton I: Emperor of the United States (Dodd, Mead & Co., 1986), p.14.
- "Le Roi Est Mort". San Francisco Chronicle. January 11, 1880. Retrieved September 19, 2006.
- William Drury, Norton I: Emperor of the United States (Dodd, Mead & Co., 1986), p.10. "The age on the coffin lid, however, was merely a guess. At the inquest, Eva Hutchinson, the landlady of Eureka Lodgings, the cheap hotel that was the Emperor's home for seventeen years, had testified that to the best of her belief he was 'a Jew of London birth.' And his age? Oh, about sixty-five. The coroner, lacking a birth certificate or any other material evidence, had simply accepted her word. And so the plate on his casket had been inscribed: JOSHUA A. NORTON DIED JANUARY 8, 1880 AGED 65 YEARS."
- Cowan, Robert (October 1923). "Norton I Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico (Joshua A. Norton, 1819–1880)". Quarterly of the California Historical Society. California Historical Society. Retrieved September 18, 2006.
- "1820 Settler Party: Willson" at 1820Settlers.com. This page contains information about the passage of the ship La Belle Alliance that carried young Joshua and his family from London to South Africa from February to May 1820, including the London passenger list showing Joshua to have been 2 years old at the time of his boarding.
- Drury, William (1986). Norton I, Emperor of the United States. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. ISBN 0-396-08509-1.
- The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, "Homing in on the Birth Date?" December 2, 2014. Reports on Joseph Amster's discovery of an item in the February 4, 1865, edition of The Daily Alta California, in which the Alta wrote: "HIS MAJESTY'S BIRTHDAY.—His Imperial Majesty Norton I, Emperor of the United States and Mexico, commences his forty-eighth year Saturday, February 4th, 1865."
- "Norton, Joshua Abraham – newspaper cutting" at 1820Settlers.com.
- John Lumea, "Joshua Abraham Norton, b. 4 February 1818," The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, February 8, 2015.
- John Lumea, "Zpub, Emperor Norton Records & the Emperor's Birth Date: A Case Study in Good Intentions & Undue Influence," The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, February 16, 2015.
- The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, "How and When Did Joshua Norton Get to San Francisco?", February 10, 2017.
- The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, "Did Joshua Norton Really Arrive in San Francisco With a $40,000 Inheritance That He Built Into a Quarter-Million-Dollar Fortune in 3 Years?", April 12, 2017.
- Ruiz v. Norton, 4 Cal. 355 (1854).
- Oesterle, Joe; Mike Marinacci; Mark Moran; Mark Sceurman; Greg Bishop (2006). Weird California: Your Travel Guide to California's Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets. New York: Sterling Publishing. p. 102. ISBN 1-4027-3384-4.
- Nolte, Carl (September 17, 2009). "Emperor Norton, zaniest S.F. street character". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Gazis-Sax, Joel (1998). "The Proclamations of Norton I". Retrieved April 25, 2007.
- John Lumea, "On the Trail of the Elusive 'Frisco' Proclamation", The Emperor's Bridge Campaign, February 12, 2016.
- Norton's biographer, William Drury, recites the anti-"Frisco" proclamation in his book, Norton I: Emperor of the United States (Dodd Mead, 1986), but does not provide a primary source for it. Earlier "standard texts" on Norton do not mention this proclamation at all; this includes Allen Stanley Lane's book, Emperor Norton: The Mad Monarch of America (The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1939), and Robert Ernest Cowan's essay, "Norton I: Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico," published in the Quarterly of the California Historical Society (October 1923).
- Lazo, Alejandro; Huang, Daniel (August 12, 2015). "Who Is Emperor Norton? Fans in San Francisco Want to Remember". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Dannhausen, William O. (1931). Better Roads. p. 58.
- "BART — History and Facts, System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART). Archived from the original on September 22, 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
- "The Funeral of Lazarus". Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. July 24, 2004. Archived from the original on August 7, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2006.
- "Two Bay Area Bridges — The Golden Gate and San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge". Federal Highway Administration. January 18, 2005. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- Moran, Mark; Mark Sceurman (2005). Weird U.S.: Your Travel Guide To America's Local Legends And Best Kept Secrets. New York: Sterling Publishing. p. 153. ISBN 0-7607-5043-2.
- Sinclair, Mick (2004). San Francisco: A Cultural and Literary History. Oxford, England: Signal Books. p. 20. ISBN 1-902669-65-7.
- Barker, Malcolm, E.; Jump, Edward (January 2001). Bummer & Lazarus: San Francisco's Famous Dogs : Revised With New Stories, New Photographs, and New Introduction. San Francisco: Londonborn Publications. ISBN 0-930235-07-X.
- Transcription of census records page
- Gorman, Michael R. (1998). The Empress Is a Man: Stories from the Life of Jose Sarria. Binghamton, New York: The Haworth Press, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-7890-0259-0.
- To have been an illegitimate son of Louis Napoleon, he would have had to have been conceived when the French Emperor was only eleven; Louis Napoleon's actual son, Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial, died fighting in the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879.
- "Le Roi Est Mort". San Francisco Chronicle. January 9, 1880. Retrieved September 19, 2006.
- Asbury, Herbert (2002). The Barbary Coast. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 231. ISBN 1-56025-408-4.
- "Population, by Race, Sex, and Nativity" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1860–1880.
- "Emperor Reburied". Time. July 9, 1934. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- Vigil, Delfin (February 21, 2005). "A gay court pays homage to its queer emperor". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 26, 2007.
- Rachel Swan, "The Emperor's Bridge Campaign Is Now a Nonprofit," SF Weekly, November 11, 2014.
- Metzger, Richard (2003). Book of Lies: The Disinformation Guide to Magick and the Occult. New York: The Disinformation Company. p. 158. ISBN 0-9713942-7-X.
- Story of the 1939 E Clampus Vitus Plaque Honoring Emperor Norton Archived November 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., The Emperor's Bridge Campaign.
- Resolution in Support of the Emperor Norton Bridge Archived December 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., introduced to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors by District 3 Supervisor Aaron Peskin, 2004.
- Herel, Suzanne (December 15, 2004). "Emperor Norton's name may yet span the bay". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications. p. A–1. Archived from the original on September 20, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2008.
- California Legislature, 2013-14 Regular Session, Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 65 — Relative to the Willie L. Brown, Jr. Bridge, June 12, 2013.
- Slaughter, Justin (August 13, 2013). "Petition to name Bay Bridge after Emperor Norton gains 1,000 signatures". San Francisco Bay Guardian.
- Dalton, Andrew (August 6, 2013). "Effort To Rename Bay Bridge After Emperor Norton Revived By Online Petition". SFist.
- Lynch, EDW (August 7, 2013). "Petition Calls for San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge To Be Named After Emperor Norton". Laughing Squid.
- Dolan, Eric (August 13, 2013). "Petition to name San Francisco’s Bay Bridge after Emperor Norton gains support". The Raw Story.
- Overview of legislative process and plans for naming the Bay Bridge for Emperor Norton Archived November 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., The Emperor's Bridge Campaign.
- Caufield, Catherine (1981). The Emperor of the United States and other magnificent British eccentrics. Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 150–152. ISBN 0-7100-0957-7.
- Cech, John (1997). A rush of dreamers : being the remarkable story of Norton I, Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico. New York: Marlowe. ISBN 1-56924-775-7.
- Cowan, Robert Ernest. "Norton I, Emperor of the United States and Protector of Mexico (Joshua A. Norton, 1819–1880)" in Quarterly of the California Historical Society. San Francisco: California Historical Society, October 1923.
- Cowan, Robert E., et al. The Forgotten Characters of Old San Francisco. Los Angeles: The Ward Ritchie Press, 1964.
- Dressler, Albert (1927). Emperor Norton, life and experiences of a notable character in San Francisco, 1849–1880. San Francisco: A. Dressler. LC CT275.N75 D7.
- Drury, William (1986). Norton I, Emperor of the United States. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-396-08509-1.
- Kramer, William M. (1974). Emperor Norton of San Francisco : a look at the life and death and strange burials of the most famous eccentric of gold rush California. Santa Monica, California: Norton B. Stern. ASIN B0006CF3KO.
- Lane, Allen Stanley (1939). Emperor Norton, Mad Monarch of America. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton printers, Ltd. ASIN B00086ATPC.
- Ryder, David Warren (1939). San Francisco's Emperor Norton. San Francisco: Alex. Dulfer Printing and Lithographing Co. LC CT275.N75 R9.
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