Emperor of Mexico

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Emperor of Mexico
Coat of Arms of the First Mexican Empire.svg
Iturbide Emperador by Josephus Arias Huerta.jpg
First emperor
Agustín I

19 May 1822 – 19 March 1823
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
First monarchAgustín I
Last monarchMaximilian I
Formation19 May 1822
10 April 1864
Abolition19 March 1823
15 May 1867
ResidencePalace of Moncada (1822-1823)
Chapultepec Castle (1864-1867)
Pretender(s)Maximilian von Götzen-Iturbide

The Emperor of Mexico (Spanish: Emperador de México) was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century.

With the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain in 1821, Mexico became an independent monarchy—the First Mexican Empire (1822–1823). Mexico briefly reverted into a monarchy in the 1860s, during the Second Mexican Empire (1864–1867). In both instances of Empire, the reigning Emperor was forcibly deposed and then executed.

First Mexican Empire (1821–1823)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until House
Agustin I of Mexico.jpg Escudo de Armas de S.M.I. Agustín.svg Agustín I 19 May 1822 19 March 1823 Iturbide


The Sovereign Mexican Constituent Congress decreed on June 22, 1822[1] the following:

  • Art 1 °. The Mexican Monarchy, in addition to being moderate and Constitutional, is also hereditary.
  • Art 2 °. Consequently, the Nation calls the succession of the Crown for the death of the current Emperor, his firstborn son Don Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide. The Constitution of the Empire will decide the order of succession of the throne.
  • Art 3 °. The crown prince will be called "Prince Imperial" and will have the treatment of Imperial Highness.
  • Art 4 °. The legitimate sons and daughters of H.I.M will be called "Mexican Princes", and will have the treatment of Highness.
  • Art 5 °. Don José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí, Father of H.I.M, is decorated with the title of "Prince of the Union" and the treatment of Highness, during his life.
  • Art 6 °. It is also granted the title of "Princess of Iturbide" and the treatment of Highness, during his life, to Doña María Nicolasa de Iturbide y Arámburo, sister of the Emperor.

Second Mexican Empire (1863–1867)[edit]

Portrait Coat of arms Name Emperor from Emperor until House
X-Large Portrait of Maximiliano.jpg Coat of arms of Mexico (1864-1867).svg Maximilian I 10 April 1864 19 June 1867 Habsburg-Lorraine


The Superior Government Junta by the Conservative Party decreed on July 11, 1863[2] the following:

  • Art 1 °. The Mexican nation adopts a moderated, hereditary monarchy by way of government, with a Catholic prince.
  • Art 2 °. The sovereign will take the title of Emperor of Mexico.
  • Art 3 °. The imperial crown of Mexico is offered to S. A. I. and R., Prince Maximilian, archduke of Austria, for himself and his descendants.
  • Art 4 °. In the event that, due to circumstances impossible to foresee, Archduke Maximilian did not take possession of the throne that is offered, the Mexican nation refers to the benevolence of HM Napoleon III, emperor of the French, to be instructed by another Catholic prince.

See also[edit]