Emperor of the Serbs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Emperor of the Serbs
Imperial
Divellion of Emperor Dušan.png
Divellion (Emperor's personal banner)
Coronation of Emperor Dušan, in "The Slavonic Epic" (1926).jpg
Coronation of Emperor Dušan, in The Slavonic Epic (1926)
Details
First monarch Stefan Dušan
Last monarch Stefan Uroš V
Formation 16 April 1346
Abolition 2/4 December 1371
Appointer Hereditary

Between 1345 and 1371, the Serbian monarch was titled emperor (tsar), the full title being Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks (Serbian: цар Срба и Грка/car Srba i Grka) in Serbian and basileus and autokrator of Serbia and the Byzantine Empire [Romania] (Greek: βασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ Σερβίας καὶ Ῥωμανίας) in Greek. The Serbian Empire was ruled by only two monarchs; Stefan Dušan (r. 1331–55) and Stefan Uroš V (r. 1355–71).

Monarch Reign
Serbian Emperor Stefan Dušan, cropped.jpg
Stefan Dušan
16 April 1346–20 December 1355
UrosV.jpg
Stefan Uroš V
20 December 1355–2/4 December 1371

On 16 April 1346 Stefan Dušan was crowned emperor at Skopje in an assembly attended by the elevated Serbian Patriarch, and also Bulgarian Patriarch and the Archbishop of Ohrid.[1] His imperial title was recognised by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire. Mount Athos addressed him as Emperor, though rather as Emperor of Serbs than Emperor of Serbs and Greeks.[2] In Serbian charters, ethnic terms are used – "Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks" (цар Срба и Грка).[3] When Stefan Dušan died in 1355, his son Stefan Uroš V succeeded him. Uroš V's uncle Simeon Uroš in Thessaly claimed the title in rivalry, continued by his son John Uroš. With the extinction of the main line of the Nemanjić dynasty with the death of heirless Stefan Uroš V in 1371, the imperial title became obsolete. The fall of the Serbian Empire saw the state fragmenting into provinces ruled by magnates, holding various titles, except the imperial. In 1527, a renegade Hungarian-Serbian commander, Jovan Nenad, styled himself Emperor.

Titles[edit]

Stefan Dušan
  • "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks"
    • (царь Срьблѥмь и Гркωмь), in 1349.[4]
    • (царь Срьблемь и Грькωмь), in 1349 (Skopje),[5] and in September 1349.[6]
    • (царь Сербомь и Геркомь), in 1351.[7]
    • (царь Срьблѥмь и Грькωмь), on 20 December 1356, obituary.[8]
  • "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks and the Western Provinces" (царь Срблемь и Гркωмь и Западнимь Странамь), in 1349.[4]
  • "Emperor and Autocrat of Serbia and the Byzantine Empire [Romania]" (Bασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτoκράτωρ Σερβίας καὶ Ῥωμάνιας), 1346.[9]
  • "Emperor of the Serbs", by the Athonite community.[2]
  • "Emperor and Autocrat of Serbia and the Byzantine Empire" [Romania] (βασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ Σερβίας καὶ Ῥωμανίας), from a chrysobull to Iveron.[10]
  • "Emperor of all Serb and Greek lands, the Maritime, Arbania and the Western Provinces (цар свију српских и грчких земаља, Поморја, Арбаније и Западних Страна).
  • "Emperor of Greece and King of All Serb Lands and the Maritime" (царь грьчкїи и краль все срьбскїе земли и поморскїе), between 1347–56.[11]
  • "Emperor of Serbia and the Maritime" (царь србкχ и пморски), between 1347–56.[12]
Stefan Uroš V
  • "Emperor of Serbs and Greeks"
    • (царь Срьблемь и Гркωмь), in 1357.[13]
    • (царь Срьблемь и Гркοмь), in 1358.[14]
    • (царь Срьблемь и Грькωмь), in 1357,[15] 1360.[16]
    • (царь Срблемь и Гркωмь), twice in 1357,[17] 1362,[18] 1365,[19] and between 1356–67.[20]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fine 1994, p. 309.
  2. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 324.
  3. ^ Franjo Barišić (1986). Vizantijski izvori za istoriju naroda Jugoslavije. Naučna knjiga. 
  4. ^ a b Miklošič 1858, p. 142.
  5. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 142–145.
  6. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 146–148.
  7. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 149–152.
  8. ^ Miklošič 1858, p. 155.
  9. ^ Joachim Bahlcke; Stefan Rohdewald; Thomas Wünsch (20 December 2013). Religiöse Erinnerungsorte in Ostmitteleuropa: Konstitution und Konkurrenz im nationen- und epochenübergreifenden Zugriff. De Gruyter. p. 584. ISBN 978-3-05-009343-7. „Kaiser und Autokrator Serbiens und [Ost-]Roms“ (Bασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτoκράτωρ Σερβίας καὶ Ῥωμάνιας) 
  10. ^ Maffei, Paola; Varanini, Gian Maria (2014). Honos alit artes. Studi per il settantesimo compleanno di Mario Ascheri. III. Il cammino delle idee dal medioevo all’antico regime: Diritto e cultura nell’esperienza europea. Firenze University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-88-6655-632-9. In una crisobolla dello stesso mese Stefano concedeva privilegi al monastero di Iveron sul monte Athos in qualità di βασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ Σερβίας καὶ Ῥωμανίας («imperatore e autocratore di Serbia e Romanía») 
  11. ^ Miklošič 1858, p. 154.
  12. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 154–155.
  13. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 158–159.
  14. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 165–167.
  15. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 155–156.
  16. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 168–169.
  17. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 160–163, 164–165.
  18. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 169–171.
  19. ^ Miklošič 1858, pp. 172–173.
  20. ^ Miklošič 1858, p. 174.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]