The emperor scorpion, Pandinus imperator, is a species of scorpion native to rainforests and savannas in West Africa. It is one of the largest scorpions in the world and lives for 6–8 years. Its body is black, but like other scorpions it glows pastel green or blue under ultraviolet light. It is a popular species in the pet trade, and is protected by CITES.
The emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator) is one of the largest species of scorpion in the world, with adults averaging about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length and a weight of 30 g. However, some species of forest scorpions are fairly similar to the emperor scorpion in size, and one scorpion, Heterometrus swammerdami, holds the record for being the world's largest scorpion at 9 inches (23 cm) in length. The large pincers are blackish-red and have a granular texture. The front part of the body, or prosoma, is made up of four sections, each with a pair of legs. Behind the fourth pair of legs are comb-like structures known as pectines, which tend to be longer in males than in females. The tail, known as the metasoma, is long and curves back over the body. It ends in the large receptacle containing the venom glands and is tipped with a sharp, curved stinger. Scorpion stings can be categorized as mild (similar to a bee sting) to severe to humans depending on the species. Most people are not affected by the Emperor Scorpion's sting, though some people may be allergic to scorpion stings in general. Sensory hairs cover the pincers and tail, enabling the emperor scorpion to detect prey through vibrations in the air and ground.
They are known for their docile behavior and almost harmless sting; they do not use their sting to defend themselves when they are adults, however, they may use it in their adolescent stages. They prefer to use their pincers to crush and dismember their prey, their exoskeleton is very sclerotic, causing them to have a metallic greenish black color.
They are often confused with a similar genus (heterometrus), and are one of the most famous scorpions.
Habitat and distribution
The emperor scorpion is an African rainforest species, but also present in savanna. It is found in a number of African countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Togo, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone.
The emperor scorpion usually preys on insects and other terrestrial invertebrates, although it will occasionally eat small vertebrates such as mice and lizards. Adult emperor scorpions use their large pincers to tear apart prey while juvenile emperor scorpions use their stingers to paralyze prey.
Conservation and human impact
- UNEP-WCMC. "Pandinus imperator (Koch, 1841)". UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- Manny Rubio (2000). "Commonly Available Scorpions". Scorpions: Everything About Purchase, Care, Feeding, and Housing. Barron's Educational Series. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7641-1224-9.
The emperor scorpion can reach an overall length of more than 8 inches (20 cm). It is erroneously claimed to be the largest living scorpion in the world. However, some species of Forest Scorpions are its equal. [...] Emperor scorpions have the same venom as a bee.The Guinness Book of Records claims a Forest Scorpion native to rural India, Heterometrus swammerdami, to be the largest scorpion in the world (9 inches [23 cm]).
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- Gómez-Lagunas, F.; Olamendi-Portugal, T.; Zamudio, F. Z.; Possani, L. D. (1996-07-01). "Two novel toxins from the venom of the scorpion Pandinus imperator show that the N-terminal amino acid sequence is important for their affinities towards Shaker B K+ channels". The Journal of Membrane Biology. 152 (1): 49–56. ISSN 0022-2631.
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- Olamendi-Portugal, T.; Gómez-Lagunas, F.; Gurrola, G. B.; Possani, L. D. (1998-05-01). "Two similar peptides from the venom of the scorpion Pandinus imperator, one highly effective blocker and the other inactive on K+ channels". Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 36 (5): 759–770. ISSN 0041-0101.
- Delepierre, M.; Prochnicka-Chalufour, A.; Boisbouvier, J.; Possani, L. D. (1999-12-21). "Pi7, an orphan peptide from the scorpion Pandinus imperator: a 1H-NMR analysis using a nano-NMR Probe". Biochemistry. 38 (51): 16756–16765. ISSN 0006-2960.
- Rod Preston-Mafham; Ken Preston-Mafham (1993). The Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behaviour. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-16137-4.
- "Scorpion Systematics Research Group". American Museum of Natural History. November 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- Fernando Z. Zamudio; Renaud Conde; Carolina Arévalo; Baltazar Becerril; Brian M. Martin; Hector H. Valdivia; Lourival D. Possani (1997). "The mechanism of inhibition of ryanodine receptor channels by imperatoxin I, a heterodimeric protein from the scorpion Pandinus imperator". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (18): 11886–11894. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.18.11886. PMID 9115249.
|External identifiers for Emperor scorpion|
|Encyclopedia of Life||5010047|