Empress Xiaoquancheng

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Empress Xiaoquancheng
Empress consort of Qing
Tenure18 November 1834 – 13 February 1840
PredecessorEmpress Xiaoshencheng
SuccessorEmpress Xiaozhenxian
Born(1808-03-24)24 March 1808
(嘉慶十三年 二月 二十八日)
Died13 February 1840(1840-02-13) (aged 31)
(道光二十年 正月 十一日)
Old Summer Palace
Mu Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
Daoguang Emperor (m. 1821–1840)
IssuePrincess Duanshun of the First Rank
Princess Shou'an of the First Rank
Xianfeng Emperor
Posthumous name
Empress Xiaoquan Cijing Kuanren Duanque Anhui Chengmin Futian Dusheng Cheng
HouseNiohuru (鈕祜祿; by birth)
Aisin Gioro (by marriage)
Empress Xiaoquancheng
Traditional Chinese孝全成皇后
Simplified Chinese孝全成皇后

Empress Xiaoquancheng (24 March 1808 – 13 February 1840), of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 26 years his junior.


Family background[edit]

Empress Xiaoquancheng's personal name was not recorded in history. Her family originally belonged to the Plain Red Banner.

  • Father: Yiling (頤齡), served as a first rank military official (駐防將軍) in Suzhou, and held the title of a third class duke (三等公)
    • Paternal grandfather: Mukedengbu (穆克登布; d. 1803)
  • Mother: Lady Uya
  • One brother

Jiaqing era[edit]

The future Empress Xiaoquancheng was born on the 28th day of the second lunar month in the 13th year of the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor, which translates to 24 March 1808 in the Gregorian calendar. She spent her early youth in Suzhou.

Daoguang era[edit]

In 1821, Lady Niohuru entered the Forbidden City and was granted the title "Noble Lady Quan" by the Daoguang Emperor. She was elevated on 28 December 1822 to "Concubine Quan", and on 26 December 1823 to "Consort Quan". On 8 April 1825, she gave birth to the emperor's third daughter, Princess Duanshun of the First Rank, who would die prematurely on 27 December 1835.

On 30 May 1825, Lady Niohuru was elevated to "Noble Consort Quan". She gave birth on 12 May 1826 to the emperor's fourth daughter, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank, and on 17 July 1831 to his fourth son, Yizhu. Reports on her pregnancy in 1831 suggest that the bulk of the medical attention she received was during the last five weeks, when a physician and a midwife were in constant attendance to await the onset of labour.

The Daoguang Emperor's first empress consort, Empress Xiaoshencheng, died on 16 June 1833, and Lady Niohuru was placed in charge of the emperor's harem, making her the de facto Empress. On 28 September 1833, during the Mid Autumn Festival, Lady Niohuru was elevated to "Imperial Noble Consort". On 18 November 1834, Lady Niohuru was officially instated as the new Empress.

Lady Niohuru died on 13 February 1840. Her exact cause of death was not recorded in history. On 2 May 1840, she was granted the posthumous title "Empress Xiaoquan". On 20 November 1840, she was interred in the Mu Mausoleum of the Western Qing tombs.

Xianfeng era[edit]

The Daoguang Emperor died on 26 February 1850 and was succeeded by Yizhu, who was enthroned as the Xianfeng Emperor. On 26 October 1850, he honoured his mother with the posthumous title "Empress Xiaoquancheng".


  • During the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor (r. 1796–1820):
    • Lady Niohuru (from 24 March 1808)
  • During the reign of the Daoguang Emperor (r. 1820–1850):
    • Noble Lady Quan (全貴人; from 1821), sixth rank consort
    • Concubine Quan (全嬪; from 28 December 1822[1]), fifth rank consort
    • Consort Quan (全妃; from 26 December 1823[2]), fourth rank consort
    • Noble Consort Quan (全貴妃; from 30 May 1825[3]), third rank consort
    • Imperial Noble Consort (皇貴妃; from 28 September 1833[4]), second rank consort
    • Empress (皇后; from 18 November 1834[5])
    • Empress Xiaoquan (孝全皇后; from 2 May 1840[6])
  • During the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor (r. 1850–1861):
    • Empress Xiaoquancheng (孝全成皇后; from 26 October 1850[7])


  • As Consort Quan:
    • Miscarriage (2 January 1824)
    • Princess Duanshun of the First Rank (端順固倫公主; 8 April 1825 – 27 December 1835), the Daoguang Emperor's third daughter
  • As Noble Consort Quan:
    • Princess Shou'an of the First Rank (壽安固倫公主; 12 May 1826 – 24 March 1860), the Daoguang Emperor's fourth daughter
      • Married Demuchukezhabu (德穆楚克扎布; d. 1865) of the Naiman Borjigit clan on 15 November 1841
    • Yizhu (奕詝; 17 July 1831 – 22 August 1861), the Daoguang Emperor's fourth son, enthroned on 9 March 1850 as the Xianfeng Emperor


In fiction and popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ 道光二年 十一月 十六月
  2. ^ 道光三年 十一月 二十五日
  3. ^ 道光五年 四月 十三日
  4. ^ 道光十三年 八月 十五日
  5. ^ 道光十四年 十月 十八日
  6. ^ 道光二十年 四月 一日
  7. ^ 道光三十年 九月 二十二日


  • Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions (Reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 052092679X.
  • Wan, Yi; Shuqing, Wang; Yanzhen, Lu; Scott, Rosemary E. (1988). Daily Life in the Forbidden City: The Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912 (Illustrated ed.). Viking. ISBN 0670811645.
  • Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese).
Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Empress Xiaoshencheng
Empress of China
Succeeded by
Empress Xiaozhenxian