Empress Xiaoyichun

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Empress Xiaoyichun
Empress XiaoYi.PNG
Born(1727-10-23)23 October 1727
(雍正五年 九月 九日)
Died28 February 1775(1775-02-28) (aged 47)
(乾隆四十年 正月 二十九日)
Forbidden City
Burial
Yu Mausoleum, Eastern Qing tombs
Spouse
IssuePrincess Hejing of the First Rank
Yonglu
Princess Heke of the Second Rank
Jiaqing Emperor
16th son
Yonglin, Prince Qingxi of the First Rank
Posthumous name
Empress Xiaoyi Gongshun Kangyu Ciren Duanke Minzhe Yitian Yusheng Chun
(孝儀恭順康裕慈仁端恪敏哲翼天毓聖純皇后)
HouseWei, later Weigiya (魏佳; by birth)
Aisin Gioro (by marriage)
Empress Xiaoyichun
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese孝儀純皇后
Simplified Chinese孝仪纯皇后
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡥᡳᠶᠣᠣᡧᡠᠩᡤᠠ
ᠶᠣᠩᠰᠣᠩᡤᠣ
ᠶᠣᠩᡴᡳᠶᠠᡥᠠ
ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡥᡝᠣ
Romanizationhiyoošungga yongsonggo yongkiyaha hūwangheo

Imperial Noble Consort Ling or Empress Xiaoyichun (23 October 1727 – 28 February 1775), of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Weigiya clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 16 years his junior.

Life[edit]

Family background[edit]

Empress Xiaoyichun's personal name was not recorded in history. She was a Han Chinese Booi Aha of the Plain Yellow Banner by birth.

  • Father: Qingtai (清泰), served as a fifth rank literary official (內管領) in the Imperial Household Department, and held the title of a third class duke (三等公)
    • Paternal grandfather: Jiuling (九齡)
  • Mother: Lady Yanggiya
  • Two brothers

Yongzheng era[edit]

The future Imperial Noble Consort Ling or Empress Xiaoyichun was born on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month in the fifth year of the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, which translates to 23 October 1727 in the Gregorian calendar.

Qianlong era[edit]

It is not known when Lady Wei entered the Forbidden City and became a lady-in-waiting of the Qianlong Emperor. In 1745, she was granted the title "Noble Lady". She was elevated on 9 December 1745 to "Concubine Ling", and on 20 May 1749 to "Consort Ling". She gave birth on 10 August 1756 to the emperor's seventh daughter, Princess Hejing of the First Rank, on 31 August 1757 to his 14th son, Yonglu, who would die prematurely on 3 May 1760, and on 17 August 1758 to his ninth daughter, Princess Heke of the Second Rank.

On 3 February 1760, she was elevated to "Noble Consort Ling". She gave birth on 13 November 1760 to the emperor's 15th son, Yongyan, and on 13 January 1763 to his 16th son, who would die prematurely on 6 May 1765.

On 28 July 1765, she was elevated to "Imperial Noble Consort". On 17 June 1766, she gave birth to the emperor's 17th son, Yonglin.

The Qianlong Emperor's second empress consort, Hoifa-Nara, the Step Empress, died on 19 August 1766 and he did not designate any of his consorts as the new Empress. However, Lady Wei, who held the highest rank among all of the Qianlong Emperor's consorts, was placed in charge of the imperial harem and served as a de facto Empress. She accompanied the Qianlong Emperor on his excursions to Mount Tai, Jehol and the areas south of the Yangtze River.

Lady Wei died on 28 February 1775. On 12 March 1775, she was posthumously granted the title "Imperial Noble Consort Lingyi", and on 19 November, she was interred in the Yu Mausoleum of the Eastern Qing tombs.

Jiaqing era[edit]

On 9 February 1796, the Qianlong Emperor abdicated and became a Retired Emperor. Yongyan was enthroned as the Jiaqing Emperor. At the same time the Qianlong Emperor announced his successor, he posthumously elevated Lady Wei to "Empress Xiaoyi". After the Qianlong Emperor died on 7 February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor honoured his mother with the posthumous title "Empress Xiaoyichun".

Titles[edit]

  • During the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor (r. 1722–1735):
    • Lady Wei (from 23 October 1727)
  • During the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796):
    • Noble Lady (貴人; from 1745), sixth rank consort
    • Concubine Ling (令嬪; from 9 December 1745[1]), fifth rank consort
    • Consort Ling (令妃; from 20 May 1749[2]), fourth rank consort
    • Noble Consort Ling (令貴妃; from 3 February 1760[3]), third rank consort
    • Imperial Noble Consort (皇貴妃; from 28 July 1765[4]), second rank consort
    • Imperial Noble Consort Lingyi (令懿皇貴妃; from 12 March 1775[5])
    • Empress Xiaoyi (孝儀皇后; from 15 October 1795[6])
  • During the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor (r. 1796–1820):
    • Empress Xiaoyichun (孝儀純皇后; from 1799)

Issue[edit]

  • As Consort Ling:
    • Princess Hejing of the First Rank (固倫和靜公主; 10 August 1756 – 9 February 1775), the Qianlong Emperor's seventh daughter
      • Married Lhawang Dorji (拉旺多爾濟; 1754–1816) of the Khalkha Borjigit clan in August/September 1770
    • Yonglu (永璐; 31 August 1757 – 3 May 1760), the Qianlong Emperor's 14th son
    • Princess Heke of the Second Rank (和碩和恪公主; 17 August 1758 – 14 December 1780), the Qianlong Emperor's ninth daughter
      • Married Jalantai (札蘭泰; d. 1788) of the Manchu Uya clan in August/September 1772
    • Miscarriage at eight months (13 November 1759)
  • As Noble Consort Ling:
    • Yongyan (顒琰; 13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), the Qianlong Emperor's 15th son, enthroned on 9 February 1796 as the Jiaqing Emperor
    • The Qianlong Emperor's 16th son (13 January 1763 – 6 May 1765)
  • As Imperial Noble Consort:
    • Yonglin (永璘; 17 June 1766 – 25 April 1820), the Qianlong Emperor's 17th son, granted the title Prince Qing of the Second Rank in 1799, elevated to Prince Qing of the First Rank in 1820, posthumously honoured as Prince Qingxi of the First Rank

Gallery[edit]

In fiction and popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 乾隆十年 十一月 十七日
  2. ^ 乾隆十四年 四月 五日
  3. ^ 乾隆二十四年 十二月 十七日
  4. ^ 乾隆三十年 六月 十一日
  5. ^ 乾隆四十年 二月 十一日
  6. ^ 乾隆六十年 九月 三日

References[edit]

  • Rawski, Evelyn S. (1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions (Reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 052092679X.
  • Wan, Yi; Shuqing, Wang; Yanzhen, Lu; Scott, Rosemary E. (1988). Daily Life in the Forbidden City: The Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912 (Illustrated ed.). Viking. ISBN 0670811645.
  • Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese).
Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Ulanara, the Step Empress
Empress of China
(title granted posthumously)
Succeeded by
Empress Xiaoshurui