Unadulterated emu oil can vary widely in colour and viscosity anywhere from an off-white creamy texture to a thin yellow liquid, depending on the diet of the emu and the refining method(s) used. Industrially refined emu oil is composed of a minimum of 70% unsaturated fatty acids. The largest component is oleic acid, a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid. Emu oil also contains roughly 20% linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and 1–2% linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid). Fully refined emu oil has a bland flavour.
As of 2015 there have been two small human studies, one for use skin moisturizer and the other as an insect repellent.
Commercial emu oil supplements are not standardised and vary widely in their potency. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration highlighted emu oils in a 2009 article on "How to Spot Health Fraud", pointing out that many "pure emu oil" products are unapproved drugs.
- American Emu Association FAQ
- Devantier, Alecia T; Carol, Turkington (2006). Extraordinary Jobs in Agriculture and Nature. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-5854-9.
- American Emu Association - Definition of emu oil grades
- "Emu Oil Trade Rule 103" (PDF).
- Kurtzweil, Paula (April 30, 2009). "How to Spot Health Fraud". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 33 (6): 22–6. PMID 10628313. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- Jeengar MK, Kumar PS, Thummuri D, Shrivastava S, Guntuku L, Sistla R, Naidu VG (January 2015). "Review on emu products for use as complementary and alternative medicine". Nutrition. 31 (1): 21–7. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.004. PMID 25441585.
- Whitehouse MW, Turner AG, Davis CK, Roberts MS (1998). "Emu oil(s): A source of non-toxic transdermal anti-inflammatory agents in aboriginal medicine". Inflammopharmacology. 6 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1007/s10787-998-0001-9. PMID 17638122. S2CID 23295481.