End-systolic volume

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End-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction, or systole, and the beginning of filling, or diastole.

ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the cardiac cycle. The main factors that affect the end-systolic volume are afterload and the contractility of the heart.

Uses[edit]

End systolic volume can be used clinically as a measurement of the adequacy of cardiac emptying, related to systolic function. On an electrocardiogram, or ECG, the end-systolic volume will be seen at the end of the T wave. Clinically, ESV can be measured using two-dimensional echocardiography, MRI (magnetic resonance tomography) or cardiac CT (computed tomography)or SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography).

Sample values[edit]

Along with end-diastolic volume, ESV determines the stroke volume, or output of blood by the heart during a single phase of the cardiac cycle.[1] The stroke volume is the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume. The end-systolic values in the table below are for the left ventricle:

Ventricular volumes
Measure Right ventricle Left ventricle
End-diastolic volume 144 mL(± 23mL)[2] 142 mL (± 21 mL)[3]
End-diastolic volume / body surface area (mL/m2) 78 mL/m2 (± 11 mL/m2)[2] 78 mL/m2 (± 8.8 mL/m2)[3]
End-systolic volume 50 mL (± 14 mL)[2] 47 mL (± 10 mL)[3]
End-systolic volume / body surface area (mL/m2) 27 mL/m2 (± 7 mL/m2)[2] 26 mL/m2 (± 5.1 mL/m2)[3]
Stroke volume 94 mL (± 15 mL)[2] 95 mL (± 14 mL)[3]
Stroke volume / body surface area (mL/m2) 51 mL/m2 (± 7 mL/m2)[2] 52 mL/m2 (± 6.2 mL/m2)[3]
Ejection fraction 66% (± 6%)[2] 67% (± 4.6%)[3]
Heart rate 60–100 bpm[4] 60–100 bpm[5]
Cardiac output 4.0–8.0 L/minute[6] 4.0–8.0 L/minute[6]

The right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) normally ranges between 50 and 100 mL.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boron and Boulpaep 2005 Medical Physiology Updated Edition p. 521 ISBN 0-7216-3256-4
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Maceira, Alicia (2006). "Reference right ventricular systolic and diastolic function normalized to age, gender and body surface area from steady-state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance" (PDF). European Heart Journal. 27: 2879–2888. PMID 17088316. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl336. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Maceira, Alicia (2006). "Normalized Left Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function by Steady State Free Precession Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance". Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 8: 417–426. doi:10.1080/10976640600572889. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  4. ^ Normal ranges for heart rate are among the narrowest limits between bradycardia and tachycardia. See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits.
  5. ^ Normal ranges for heart rate are among the narrowest limits between bradycardia and tachycardia. See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits.
  6. ^ a b c Edwards Lifesciences LLC > Normal Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult 2009