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This article is about the reference management software. For other uses of the word, see Endnote (disambiguation).
Endnote logo.png
Endnote X7.1 running on Windows 8.1.JPG
Endnote X7.1 running on Windows 8.1
Developer(s) Thomson Reuters
Stable release X7.4 (Windows / Mac OS X)[1]
Preview release 22334
Operating system Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
Type Reference management
License Proprietary
Website EndNote homepage

EndNote is a commercial reference management software package, used to manage bibliographies and references when writing essays and articles. It is produced by Thomson Reuters.


EndNote groups citations into "libraries" with the file extension *.enl and a corresponding *.data folder.

There are several ways to add a reference to a library: manually, exporting, importing, copying from another EndNote library, connecting from EndNote. The program presents the user with a window containing a drop-down menu to select the type of reference they require (book, newspaper article, film, congressional legislation, etc.), and fields ranging from the general (author, title, year) to those specific to the kind of reference (ISBN, abstract, reporter's name, running time, etc.) Most bibliographic databases allow users to export references to their EndNote libraries. This enables the user to select multiple citations and saves the user from having to manually enter the citation information and the abstracts. There are some databases (e.g. PubMed) in which the user needs to select citations, select a specific format, and save them as .txt files. By then going to EndNote, the user can then import the citations into the EndNote software. It is also possible to search library catalogs and free databases such as PubMed from within the EndNote software program itself.

If the user fills out the necessary fields, EndNote can automatically format the citation into whatever format the user wishes from a list of over two thousand different styles.

For example, here are some citations from Gray's Anatomy using several different styles:

Anthropos Gray, Henry
1910 Anatomy, descriptive and applied. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. [18th ed.]
APA 5th Gray, H. (1910). Anatomy, descriptive and applied (18th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
MLA Gray, Henry. Anatomy, Descriptive and Applied. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1910.
New England J Medicine 1. Gray H. Anatomy, descriptive and applied. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1910.

In Windows, EndNote creates a file with an *.enl extension, along with a *.data folder containing various MySQL files with *.myi and *.myd extensions. EndNote can be installed so that its features, like Cite While You WriteTM, appear in the Tools menu of Microsoft Word and OpenOffice.org Writer.

EndNote can export citation libraries as plain text, Rich Text Format, HTML or XML. The current version of EndNote has networking capabilities, and files can reside on a central server. It does not, however, have multi-user capabilities for editing a single bibliographic file.

Endnote can also organize PDFs on the user's hard drive (or full text on the web) through links to files or by inserting copies of PDFs. It is also possible to save a single image, document, Excel spreadsheet, or other file type to each reference in an EndNote library. Starting from EndNote X version 1.0.1, formatting support for OpenDocument files (ODT) using the Format Paper command is supported.

Legal dispute with Zotero[edit]

In September 2008, Thomson Reuters, the owners of EndNote, sued the Commonwealth of Virginia for $10 million and requested an injunction against competing reference management software.[2][3] George Mason University's Center for History and New Media developed Zotero, a free/open source extension to Mozilla Firefox. Thomson Reuters alleges that the Zotero developers reverse engineered and/or decompiled EndNote, that Zotero can transform proprietary EndNote citation style files (.ens) to the open Citation Style Language format, that they host files converted in this manner, and that they abuse the "EndNote" trademark in describing this feature. Thomson Reuters claims that this is violation of the site license agreement. They also added a restrictive click-thru license to their styles download web site.[3]

George Mason University responded that it would not renew its site license for EndNote and that "anything created by users of Zotero belongs to those users, and that it should be as easy as possible for Zotero users to move to and from the software as they wish, without friction."[4] The journal Nature editorialized that "the virtues of interoperability and easy data-sharing among researchers are worth restating. Imagine if Microsoft Word or Excel files could be opened and saved only in these proprietary formats, for example. It would be impossible for OpenOffice and other such software to read and save these files using open standards — as they can legally do."[5]

The case was dismissed on June 4, 2009.[6]


Niles and Associates produced early versions of EndNote.[7][8]

Version history / compatibility[edit]

EndNote X7.4 for Windows & Mac, released 11 August 2015.

EndNote X7.3 for Windows & Mac, released 1 April 2015.

EndNote X7.2 for Windows & Mac, released 30 September 2014.

EndNote X7.1 for Windows & Mac, released 2 April 2014.

EndNote X7.0.1 for Mac, released 13 November 2013.

EndNote X7.0.2 for Windows, released 23 October 2013.

EndNote X7 for Windows, released 20 May 2013; Mac release date: July 2013. Compatible with Microsoft Word 2013

EndNote X6 for Windows, released 6 August 2012; EndNote X6 for Mac, released Q4 2012, compatible with OS X 10.8.

EndNote X5 for Mac, released September 2011, introduced official compatibility with OS X 10.7 Lion.[9]

EndNote X5 for Windows, released 21 June 2011. Compatible with Microsoft Word 2010[10]

EndNote X4 for Mac, released 23 August 2010.[11] Introduced official compatibility with Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard. Initially not compatible with Microsoft Office 2011, a compatibility update was subsequently made available on the EndNote website.[12]

EndNote X4 for Windows, released 15 June 2010.[13] Introduced official compatibility with Microsoft Windows 7.[14] Introduced official compatibility with Microsoft Word 2010 (required an update via Help -> Program Updates, or directly from the Endnote website).[12]

EndNote X3 for Mac, released 26 August 2009.[15] Not compatible with Microsoft Word 2011.[12] EndNote X3 and later are not supported on systems running Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.[16]

EndNote X3 for Windows, released 17 June 2009.[17] Not compatible with Microsoft Word 2010;[12] Word 2010 cannot be started without disabling the EndNote Addin.

EndNote X2 for Mac, released 3 September 2008.[18]

EndNote X2 for Windows, released 11 June 2008.[19] The "Cite While You Write" feature in EndNote X2 was originally not compatible with 64-bit versions of Windows, but a patch can fix this issue.[20] Last update: Version 12.0.4 (build 4459).

EndNote X1 for Mac, released 21 August 2007.[21] The Cite While You Write feature of EndNote X1 for Mac OS was originally only compatible with Word 10.1.2-10.1.6 and Word 2004. Due to changes in the way third party addins were supported in Word 2008, Cite While You Write was not natively compatible with Word 2008. A patch was released on June 26, 2008 that restored cite while you write functionality to Word 2008.[22]

EndNote X1 for Windows, released 20 August 2007.[23] EndNote X1 and later are compatible with Windows Vista.[14]

EndNote X for Mac, released 25 August 2006.[24] EndNote X and later are "Universal applications" that execute natively on both PPC and Intel-based Macs.[25] Introduced compatibility with Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard.[9] EndNote libraries that have been opened and used with EndNote version X or greater should not be subsequently used with an EndNote version earlier than version X.[26]

EndNote X for Windows, released 9 June 2006.[27] EndNote libraries that have been opened and used with EndNote version X or greater should not be subsequently used with an EndNote version earlier than version X.[26]

EndNote 9 for Mac, released 29 August 2005.[28] Introduced compatibility with Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.[16] Due to major compatibility issues, it is not recommend to run EndNote 9 or earlier on OS X 10.5 Leopard.[9]

EndNote 9 for Windows, released 21 June 2005.[27]

EndNote 8 for Mac, released 30 November 2004.[29] Introduced compatibility with Mac OS X 10.3 Panther.

EndNote 8 for Windows, released 21 June 2004.[30]

EndNote 7 for Mac, released 26 August 2003.[31] Not certified compatible with OS X 10.3 Panther (users can install and run EndNote 7 on a Panther system, but there are some minor compatibility issues).[32]

EndNote 7 for Windows, released 24 June 2003.[33]

EndNote 6 for Mac, released 5 August 2002.[34] Not certified compatible with OS X 10.3 Panther (it is possible to install and run EndNote 6 on a Panther system, but there are some minor compatibility issues).[32]

EndNote 6 for Windows, released 17 June 2002.[35]

EndNote 5 for Mac, released 19 July 2001.[36] EndNote 5 and earlier are not compatible with any version of OS X.[32]

EndNote 5 for Windows, released 11 June 2001.[37]

EndNote 4 for Mac & Windows released 6 March 2000.[38]

EndNote 3 for Mac & Windows.[39]

EndNote 2 for Mac & Windows.[39]

EndNote Plus for Mac

EndNote for Mac

EndNote Web[edit]

EndNote Web, a web-based implementation of EndNote, offers integration with the ISI Web of Knowledge.[40]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Software Updates - EndNote - Thomson Reuters". EndNote. 
  2. ^ "Reuters Says George Mason University Is Handing Out Its Proprietary Software". Courthouse News Service. 2008-09-17. 
  3. ^ a b Young, Jeffrey R. (2008-09-29). "Wired Campus: Maker of EndNote Citation Software Sues George Mason U. - Chronicle.com". Retrieved 2015-06-22. 
  4. ^ Owens, Trevor (2008-10-29). "Official Statement". Zotero: The Next-Generation Research Tool. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  5. ^ Anon (2008). "Beta blockers? Proprietary data formats may be legally defensible but open standards can be a better spur for innovation". Nature 455 (7214): 708–200. doi:10.1038/455708a. PMID 18843308. 
  6. ^ Takats, Sean (2009-06-04). "Thomson Reuters Lawsuit Dismissed". The Quintessence of Ham. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  7. ^ For example: "EndNote". PC Mag 10 (16) (Ziff Davis, Inc.). 1991-09-24. ISSN 0888-8507. Retrieved 2015-03-03. 'EndNote (Niles & Associates) [...] stores up to 32,000 references and creates bibliographies in any style you choose. 
  8. ^ Heck, André; Murtagh, Fionn, eds. (1993). Intelligent Information Retrieval: The Case of Astronomy and Related Space Sciences. Astrophysics and Space Science Library 182. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 57. ISBN 9780792322955. Retrieved 2015-03-04. EndNote from Niles and Associates is a commercial personal DBMS tool explicitly customized for storing and retrieving scientific bibliographical records. [...] EndNote incorporates knowledge about bibliographic subtleties such as abbreviation and positioning of author initials, data dictionaries for journal names, different styles and abbreviation levels required for different journals, etc. 
  9. ^ a b c [1] Archived January 15, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Portal". Kbportal.thomson.com. Retrieved 2014-06-22. 
  11. ^ [2][dead link]
  12. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions". EndNote. 
  13. ^ [3][dead link]
  14. ^ a b [4][dead link]
  15. ^ Thomson Reuters | Thomson Reuters Ships EndNote X3 For Mac Os X
  16. ^ a b [5][dead link]
  17. ^ [6][dead link]
  18. ^ [7][dead link]
  19. ^ [8][dead link]
  20. ^ [9][dead link]
  21. ^ "Press Releases". thomsonreuters.com. 
  22. ^ EndNote X1 Patch Restores CWYW Functionality to Word 2008 | MacResearch
  23. ^ [10][dead link]
  24. ^ [11][dead link]
  25. ^ [12][dead link]
  26. ^ a b [13][dead link]
  27. ^ a b [14][dead link]
  28. ^ [15] Archived January 6, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ [16][dead link]
  30. ^ [17] Archived January 6, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ [18][dead link]
  32. ^ a b c [19] Archived March 9, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ http://www.endnote.com/pr-en7win.asp
  34. ^ http://www.endnote.com/pr-en6mac.asp
  35. ^ http://www.endnote.com/pr-en6.asp
  36. ^ http://www.endnote.com/pr-en5mac.asp
  37. ^ http://www.endnote.com/pr-en5.asp
  38. ^ http://www.endnote.com/en4press.asp
  39. ^ a b "Software Updates - EndNote - Thomson Reuters". EndNote. 
  40. ^ Williamson, Iain (2007), "EndNote", Software for Small Business, 2008 Edition: Windows and Vista Programs to Help You Improve Efficiency and Productivity (Productive Publications), pp. 77–78, 380, ISBN 9781552703250, retrieved 2012-05-14, EndNote Web is a companion product which is a Web-based reference organizer incorporated into the ISI Web of Knowledge [...]. 

See also[edit]

External links[edit]