They are part of the surface epithelial tumor group of ovarian neoplasms (10–20% of which are the endometrioid type). Benign and borderline variants are rare, as the majority are malignant. There is an association with endometriosis and concurrent primary endometrial carcinoma (endometrial cancer).
CTNNB1 and PTEN mutations
Ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas have distinct CTNNB1 and PTEN gene mutation profiles. PTEN mutations are more frequent in low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (67%) compared with low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (17%). By contrast, CTNNB1 mutations are significantly different in low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas (53%) compared with low-grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (28%). This difference in CTNNB1 mutation frequency may be reflective of the distinct tumoral microenvironments; the epithelial cells lining an endometriotic cyst within the ovary are exposed to a highly oxidative environment that promotes tumorigenesis.
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- Carcinoma,+Endometrioid at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- "ACS :: What Is Endometrial Cancer?". Retrieved 2010-03-24.
- McConechy, M. K.; Ding, J; Senz, J; Yang, W; Melnyk, N; Tone, A. A.; Prentice, L. M.; Wiegand, K. C.; McAlpine, J. N.; Shah, S. P.; Lee, C. H.; Goodfellow, P. J.; Gilks, C. B.; Huntsman, D. G. (2014). "Ovarian and endometrial endometrioid carcinomas have distinct CTNNB1 and PTEN mutation profiles". Modern Pathology. 27 (1): 128–34. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.107. PMC 3915240. PMID 23765252.