Endothelin receptor

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endothelin receptor type A
Identifiers
SymbolEDNRA
Entrez1909
HUGO3179
OMIM131243
RefSeqNM_001957
UniProtP25101
Other data
LocusChr. 4 q31.2
endothelin receptor type B
Identifiers
SymbolEDNRB
Alt. symbolsHSCR2, HSCR
Entrez1910
HUGO3180
OMIM131244
RefSeqNM_000115
UniProtP24530
Other data
LocusChr. 13 q22

There are at least four known endothelin receptors, ETA, ETB1, ETB2 and ETC,[1] all of which are G protein-coupled receptors whose activation result in elevation of intracellular-free calcium,[2] which constricts the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, raising blood pressure, or relaxes the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, among other functions.

Physiological functions[edit]

Brain and nerves[edit]

Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of stroke, endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and seizures with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by calcium channels.[5]

A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated in a peripheral neuropathy model in rats.[6]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in the EDNRB gene are associated with ABCD syndrome[7] and some forms of Waardenburg syndrome.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep, eds. (2009). Medical physiology a cellular and molecular approach (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 480. ISBN 9781437720174.
  2. ^ Davenport AP (2002). "International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature". Pharmacol. Rev. 54 (2): 219–26. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.546.8632. doi:10.1124/pr.54.2.219. PMID 12037137.
  3. ^ Hynynen MM, Khalil RA; Khalil (January 2006). "The vascular endothelin system in hypertension--recent patents and discoveries". Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 1 (1): 95–108. doi:10.2174/157489006775244263. PMC 1351106. PMID 17200683.
  4. ^ Barnes K, Turner AJ; Turner (August 1997). "The endothelin system and endothelin-converting enzyme in the brain: molecular and cellular studies". Neurochem. Res. 22 (8): 1033–40. doi:10.1023/A:1022435111928. PMID 9239759.
  5. ^ Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF (July 1992). "Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels". Neuropeptides. 22 (3): 155–65. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(92)90158-S. PMID 1331845.
  6. ^ Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM (December 1992). "Acute endoneurial ischemia induced by epineurial endothelin in the rat sciatic nerve". Am. J. Physiol. 263 (6 Pt 2): H1806–10. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.1992.263.6.H1806. PMID 1481904.
  7. ^ Verheij JB, Kunze J, Osinga J, van Essen AJ, Hofstra RM (2002). "ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene". Am. J. Med. Genet. 108 (3): 223–5. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10172. PMID 11891690.
  8. ^ Read AP, Newton VE (1997). "Waardenburg syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 34 (8): 656–65. doi:10.1136/jmg.34.8.656. PMC 1051028. PMID 9279758.

Further reading[edit]

  • Davenport AP, Hyndman KA, Dhaun N, Southan C, Kohan DE, Pollock JS, Pollock DM, Webb DJ, Maguire JJ. (2016) 'Endothelin' Pharmacol. Rev. 68: 357-418. pmid =26956245 doi =10.1124/pr.115.011833

External links[edit]