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Endoxa (Greek: ἔνδοξα) is the plural of endoxon, deriving from the word doxa (δόξα, meaning "Belief", "opinion"). Plato referred to doxa as the level of apprehension attained when a mind's activity is directed to ta onta or "things" and that the process[clarification needed] is independent of perception. Whereas Plato condemned doxa as a starting point from which to attain truth, Aristotle used the term endoxa – in the sense of "commonplace", "everyday", "consensus" – to identify a group or population's beliefs that had previously withstood debate and argument (and were, thereby, more stable than doxa).
In Aristotle's conceptualization, endoxa are opinions that one can agree with after a careful examination of arguments both for and against it, with the former emerging stronger. In the philosopher's explanation of the term in Topics I.1, endoxa was described as having five types: 1) the views of everyone; 2) the views of the preponderant majority; 3) the views of the recognized experts; 4) the views of all the experts; and, 5) the views of the most famous. It is said that endoxa may be plausible but this does not mean that they are true.
Aside from those found in the Topics of the Organon, examples of Aristotle's use of endoxa may also be found in his Rhetoric. Otfried Höffe, translated by Christine Salazar, offers a detailed discussion of the topic in "Aristotle" (2003; pp. 35–42).
- "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ε , ἐνδοι-αστός , ἔνδοξ-ος".
- Gulley, Norman (2013). Plato's Theory of Knowledge (Routledge Revivals). London: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 87. ISBN 9781136200601.
- Cellucci, Carlo (2013). Rethinking Logic: Logic in Relation to Mathematics, Evolution, and Method. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 82. ISBN 9789400760905.
- Shields, Christopher (2008). The Blackwell Guide to Ancient Philosophy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 157-158. ISBN 978-0631222149.
- Book I 1 100b18 Loeb Classical Library #391 p. 273
- Aristotle. Rhetoric. pp. Book A.1.11.