This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Rectal bulb syringe to administer smaller enemas
An enema, also known as a clyster, is an injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum. Also, the word enema can refer to the liquid so injected, as well as to a device for administering such an injection.
In standard medicine, the most frequent uses of enemas are to relieve constipation and for bowel cleansing before a medical examination or procedure; also, they are employed as a lower gastrointestinal series (also called a barium enema), to check diarrhea, as a vehicle for the administration of food, water or medicine, as a stimulant to the general system, as a local application and, more rarely, as a means of reducing temperature, as treatment for encopresis, and as a form of rehydration therapy (proctoclysis) in patients for whom intravenous therapy is not applicable.
In other contexts, enemas are used by some alternative health therapies, used "recreationally", chiefly as part of sexual activities, but also in sadomasochism, as well as simply for pleasure, used to intoxicate with alcohol, used to administer drugs for both recreational and religious reasons, and used for punishment.
- 1 Medical usage
- 1.1 Bowel cleansing
- 1.2 Contrast (X-ray)
- 1.3 Medication administration
- 1.4 Inhibiting pathological defecation
- 1.5 Other
- 2 Adverse effects
- 3 History
- 4 Society and culture
- 4.1 Alternative medicine
- 4.2 Recreational usage
- 4.3 Religious rituals
- 4.4 Punitive usage
- 4.5 In arts and literature
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The principal medical usages of enemas are:
As bowel stimulants, enemas are employed for the same purposes as orally administered laxatives: To relieve constipation; To treat fecal impaction; To empty the colon prior to a medical procedure such as a colonoscopy. A large volume of enema can be given to cleanse as much of the colon as possible of feces. However, a low enema is generally useful only for stool in the rectum, not in the intestinal tract.
Such enemas' mechanism consists of the volume of the liquid causing rapid expansion of the intestinal tract in conjunction with, in the case of certain solutions, irritation of the intestinal mucosa, resulting in powerful peristalsis and a feeling of extreme fecal urgency. The enema is retained until there is a uncontrollable urge to defecate, at which time the recipient may expel any fecal matter loosened by the instilled solution together with the solution itself.
Large volume enemas
Plain water can be used, simply functioning mechanically to expand the colon, thus prompting evacuation.
Buffered sodium phosphate solution draws additional water from the bloodstream into the colon to increase the effectiveness of the enema, but can be rather irritating to the colon, causing intense cramping or "griping."
Normal saline is least irritating to the colon, at the opposite end of the spectrum. Like plain water, it simply functions mechanically to expand the colon, but having a neutral concentration gradient, it neither draws electrolytes from the body, as happens with plain water, nor draws water into the colon, as occurs with phosphates. Thus, a salt water solution can be used when a longer period of retention is desired, such as to soften an impaction.
Equal parts of milk and molasses heated together to slightly above normal body temperature have been used. Neither the milk sugars and proteins nor the molasses are absorbed in the lower intestine, thus keeping the water from the enema in the intestine. Studies have shown that milk and molasses enemas have a low complication rate when used in the emergency department and are safe and effective with minimal side effects.
Mineral oil functions as a lubricant and stool softener, but may have side effects including rectal skin irritation and leakage of oil which can soil undergarments for up to 24 hours.
Single substance solutions
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2019)
In alphabetical order
Dantron is a stimulant drug and stool softener used alone or in combinations in enemas. Considered to be a carcinogen its use is limited, e.g., restricted in the UK to patients who already have a diagnosis of terminal cancer and not used at all in the USA.
Glycerol has a hyperosmotic effect and can be used as a small-volume (2–10 ml) enema (or suppository).
Sorbitol pulls water into the large intestines causing distention, thereby stimulating the normal forward movement of the bowels. Sorbitol is found in some dried fruits and may contribute to the laxative effects of prunes. and is available for taking orally as a laxative. As an enema for constipation, the recommended adult dose is 120 mL of 25-30% solution, administered once. Note that Sorbitol is an ingredient of the MICROLAX® Enema.
Compounded from multiple ingredients
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2019)
In alphabetical order of the original brand names
Klyx contains docusate sodium 1 mg/mL and sorbitol solution (70%) (crystallising) 357 mg/mL and is used for faecal impaction or constipation or for colon evacuation prior medical procedures, developed by Ferring B.V..
Micralax (not to be confused with MICROLAX®)
MICROLAX® (not to be confused with Micralax) combines the action of sodium citrate, a peptidising agent which can displace bound water present in the faeces, with sodium alkyl sulphoacetate, a wetting agent, and with glycerol, an anal mucosa irritant and hyperosmotic. However, also sold under the name "Micralax", is a preparation containing sorbitol rather than glycerol; which was initially tested in preparation for sigmoidoscopy.
Micolette Micro-enema® contains 45 mg sodium lauryl sulphoacetate, 450 mg per 5 ml sodium citrate BP, and 625 mg glycerol BP and is a small volume stimulant enema suitable where large-volume enemas are contra-indicated.
TAI, also termed retrograde irrigation, is designed to assist evacuation using a water enema as a treatment for persons with bowel dysfunction, including fecal incontinence or constipation, especially obstructed defecation. Its effectiveness varies considerably, some individuals experiencing complete control of incontinence but others reporting little or no benefit.
The term retrograde irrigation distinguishes this procedure from the Malone antegrade continence enema, where irrigation fluid is introduced into the colon proximal to the anus via a surgically created irrigation port.
Patients who have a bowel disability, a medical condition which impairs control of defecation, e.g., fecal incontinence or constipation, can use bowel management techniques to choose a predictable time and place to evacuate. Without bowel management, such persons might either suffer from the feeling of not getting relief, or they might soil themselves.
While simple techniques might include a controlled diet and establishing a toilet routine, a daily enema can be taken to empty the colon, thus preventing unwanted and uncontrolled bowel movements that day. By regularly emptying the bowel using transanal irrigation, controlled bowel function is often re-established to a high degree, thus enabling development of a consistent bowel routine. An international consensus on when and how to use transanal irrigation for people with bowel problems was published in 2013, offering practitioners a clear, comprehensive and simple guide to practice for the emerging therapeutic area of transanal irrigation.
In a lower gastrointestinal series an enema that may contain barium sulfate powder or a water-soluble contrast agent is used in the radiological imaging of the bowel. Called a barium enema, such enemas are sometimes the only practical way to view the colon in a relatively safe manner. Failure to expel all of the barium may cause constipation or possible impaction and a patient who has no bowel movement for more than two days or is unable to pass gas rectally should promptly inform a physician and may require an enema or laxative.
The administration of substances into the bloodstream. This may be done in situations where it is undesirable or impossible to deliver a medication by mouth, such as antiemetics given to reduce nausea (though not many antiemetics are delivered by enema). Additionally, several anti-angiogenic agents, which work better without digestion, can be safely administered via a gentle enema.
The topical administration of medications into the rectum, such as corticosteroids and mesalazine used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Administration by enema avoids having the medication pass through the entire gastrointestinal tract, therefore simplifying the delivery of the medication to the affected area and limiting the amount that is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Rectal corticosteroid enemas are sometimes used to treat mild or moderate ulcerative colitis. They also may be used along with systemic (oral or injection) corticosteroids or other medicines to treat severe disease or mild to moderate disease that has spread too far to be treated effectively by medicine inserted into the rectum alone.
Inhibiting pathological defecation
- Traveller's diarrhea’s symptoms treated with an enema of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide can be successfully decreased with lack of observed side effects.
- Shigellosis treatment benefits from adjunct therapy with butyrate enemas, promoting healing of the rectal mucosa and inflammation, but not helping in clinical recovery from shigellosis. Use of an 80 ml of a sodium butyrate isotonic enema administered every 12 hours has been studied and found effective.
- There have been a few cases in remote or rural settings, where rectal fluids have been used to rehydrate a person. Benefits include not needing to use sterile fluids.
- Enemas have been used around the time of childbirth however there is no evidence for this practice and it is now discouraged.
Improper administration of an enema can cause electrolyte imbalance (with repeated enemas) or ruptures to the bowel or rectal tissues resulting in internal bleeding. However, these occurrences are rare in healthy, sober adults. Internal bleeding or rupture may leave the individual exposed to infections from intestinal bacteria. Blood resulting from tears in the colon may not always be visible, but can be distinguished if the feces are unusually dark or have a red hue. If intestinal rupture is suspected, medical assistance should be obtained immediately.
There are arguments both for and against colonic irrigation in people with diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, severe or internal hemorrhoids or tumors in the rectum or colon, and its usage is not recommended soon after bowel surgery (unless directed by one's health care provider). Regular treatments should be avoided by people with heart disease or renal failure. Colonics are inappropriate for people with bowel, rectal or anal pathologies where the pathology contributes to the risk of bowel perforation.
A recent case series of 11 patients with five deaths illustrated the danger of phosphate enemas in high-risk patients.
Enema entered the English Language c.1675 from Latin in which, in the 15th century, it was first used in the sense of a rectal injection, from Greek ἔνεμα (énema), “injection”, itself from ἐνίηναι (enienai) "to send in, inject", from ἐν (en), "in" + ἱέναι (hienai), "to send, throw".
Clyster (/ˈklɪstə(r)/), also spelled glister in the 17th century, rarely "cloister" or "clister" comes from Greek κλυστήρ (klystḗr), from κλύζω (klýzo), "(I) wash". It is an archaic word for enema, more particularly for enemas administered using a clyster syringe – that is, a syringe with a rectal nozzle and a plunger rather than a bulb. Clyster syringes were used from the 17th century (or before) to the 19th century, when they were largely replaced by enema bulb syringes, bocks, and bags.
The first mention of the enema in medical literature is in the Ancient Egyptian Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE). One of the many types of medical specialists was an Iri, the Shepherd of the Anus. Many medications were administered by enemas. There was a Keeper of the Royal Rectum who may have primarily been the pharaoh's enema maker. The god Thoth, according to Egyptian mythology, invented the enema.
The Olmec from their middle preclassic period (10th through 7th centeries BCE) through the Spanish Conquest used trance-inducing substances ceremonially, and these were ingested via, among other routes, enemas administered using jars.
As further described below in religious rituals, the Maya in their late classic age (7th through 10th centuries CE) used enemas for, at least, ritual purposes, Mayan sculpture and ceramics from that period depicting scenes in which, injected by syringes made of gourd and clay, ritual hallucinogenic enemas were taken. In the Xibalban court of the God D, whose worship included ritual cult paraphernal, the Maya illustrated the use of a characteristic enema bulb syringe by female attendants administering clysters ritually.
In the first century BC the Greek physician Asclepiades of Bithynia wrote "Treatment consists merely of three elements: drink, food, and the enema". Also, he contended that indigestion is caused by particles of food that are too big and his prescribed treatment was proper amounts of food and wine followed by an enema which would remove the improper food doing the damage.
In the second century CE the Greek philosopher Celsus recommended an enema of pearl barley in milk or rose oil with butter as a nutrient for those suffering from dysentery and unable to eat and Galen mentions enemas in several contexts.
In medieval times appear the first illustrations of enema equipment, a clyster syringe consisting of a tube attached to a pump action bulb made of a pig bladder. In the 15th century simple piston syringe clysters came into use. Beginning in the 17th century enema apparatus was chiefly designed for self-administration at home and many were French as enemas enjoyed wide usage in France.
When clyster syringes were in use in Europe, the patient was placed in an appropriate position (kneeling, with the buttocks raised, or lying on the side); a servant or apothecary would then insert the nozzle into the anus and press the plunger, resulting in the liquid remedy (generally, water, but also some other preparations) being injected into the colon.
Because of the embarrassment a woman might feel when showing her buttocks (and possibly her genitals, depending on the position) to a male apothecary, some contraptions were invented that blocked all from the apothecary's view except for the anal area. Another invention was syringes equipped with a special bent nozzle, which enabled self-administration, thereby eliminating the embarrassment.
Clysters were administered for symptoms of constipation and, with more questionable effectiveness, stomach aches and other illnesses. In 1694 François Mauriceau in his early-modern treatise, The Diseases of Women with Child, records that both midwives and man-midwives commonly administered clysters to labouring mothers just prior to their delivery.
In the 17th century, satirists made physicians a favorite target, resembling Molière's caricature whose prescription for anything was "clyster, bleed, purge," or "purge, bleed, clyster.", e.g., in his 1673 play The Imaginary Invalid. Sir Thomas More's eldest daughter had fallen sick of the sweating sickness and could not be awakened by doctors. More prayed for her recovery, and then
where incontinent came into his mind, that a glister should be the only way to help her, which when he had told the physicians, they by-and-by confessed, that if there were any hope of health, that it was the very best help indeed, much marvelling of themselves, that they had not afore remembered it.
In the 18th century Europeans began emulating the indigenous peoples of North America's use of tobacco smoke enemas to resuscitate drowned people. Tobacco resuscitation kits consisting of a pair of bellows and a tube were provided by the Royal Humane Society of London and placed at various points along the Thames. Furthermore, these enemas came to be employed for headaches, respiratory failure, colds, hernias, abdominal cramps, typhoid fever, and cholera outbreaks.
Clysters were a favourite medical treatment in the bourgeoisie and nobility of the Western world up to the 19th century. As medical knowledge was fairly limited at the time, purgative clysters were used for a wide variety of ailments, the foremost of which were stomach aches and constipation.
Molière, in several of his plays, introduces characters of incompetent physicians and apothecaries fond of prescribing this remedy, also discussed by Argan, the hypochondriac patient of Le Malade Imaginaire. More generally, clysters were a theme in the burlesque comedies of that time.
According to Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, clysters were so popular at the court of King Louis XIV of France that the duchess of Burgundy had her servant give her a clyster in front of the King (her modesty being preserved by an adequate posture) before going to the comedy. However, he also mentions the astonishment of the King and Mme de Maintenon that she should take it before them.
In the 19th century many new types of enema administration equipment were devised, including the bulb enema. Later there came to be a device to allow gravity to infuse the solution into the recipient, consisting of a rubber bag or bucket connected to a hose with a nozzle at the other end to insert into the patient's anus, the bag or bucket being held or hung above the patient. These continue to be used, although rubber has been replaced by modern materials and the bags, at least in hospital use, are disposable.
In the late 20th century the microenema was invented, this being a disposable squeeze bottle with contents that cause the body to draw water into the colon, e.g., sodium biphosphate (popular in the United States) or glycerin (popular in Japan).
Nutrient enemas were administered with the intent of providing nutrition when normal eating is not possible. Although this treatment is ancient, dating back at least to Galen, and commonly used in the Middle Ages, and still a common technique in 19th century medicine, Nutrient enemas have been superseded in modern medical care by tube feeding and intravenous feeding.
Society and culture
The term "colonic irrigation" is commonly used in gastroenterology to refer to the practice of introducing water through a colostomy or a surgically constructed conduit as a treatment for constipation. The Food and Drug Administration has ruled that colonic irrigation equipment is not approved for sale for the purpose of general well-being and has taken action against many distributors of this equipment, including a Warning Letter.
The same term is also used in alternative medicine where it may involve the use of substances mixed with water in order to detoxify the body. Practitioners believe the accumulation of fecal matter in the large intestine leads to ill health. This resurrects the old medical concept of autointoxication which was orthodox doctrine up to the end of the 19th century but which has now been discredited.
In the late 19th century Dr. John Harvey Kellogg made sure that the bowel of each and every patient was plied with water, from above and below. His favorite device was an enema machine ("just like one I saw in Germany") that could run fifteen gallons of water through a person's bowel in a matter of seconds. Every water enema was followed by a pint of yogurt—half was eaten, the other half was administered by enema "thus planting the protective germs where they are most needed and may render most effective service." The yogurt served to replace "the intestinal flora" of the bowel, creating what Kellogg claimed was a completely clean intestine.
Chlorine dioxide enemas have been fraudulently marketed as a medical treatment, primarily for autism. This has resulted, for example, in a six-year-old boy needing to have his bowel removed and a colostomy bag fitted, complaints to the FDA reporting life-threatening reactions, and even death.
Patently false claims that administering autistic children these enemas results in their expulsion of parasites ("rope worms"), which actually are the intestinal lining and membranes. These enemas have also been promoted as a cure for HIV, malaria, hepatitis viruses, the H1N1 flu virus, common colds, acne, cancer, Parkinson's, and much more.
Chlorine dioxide is a potent and toxic bleach that is relabeled for "medicinal" purposes to a variety of brand names including, but not limited, to MMS, Miracle Mineral Supplement, and CD protocol. For oral use, the doses recommended on the labeling can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe dehydration, and other life-threatening conditions.
No clinical trials have been performed to test these enemas' claims, which come only from former Scientologist Jim Humble  in his 2006 self-published book, The Miracle Mineral Solution of the 21st Century and from anecdotal reports. The name MMS was coined by Humble. Sellers sometimes describe MMS as a water purifier so as to circumvent medical regulations. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies rejected "in the strongest terms" reports by promoters of MMS that they had used the product to fight malaria.
Although well documented, the procedure of inserting coffee through the anus to cleanse the rectum and large intestines is considered by most medical authorities to be unproven, rash and potentially dangerous.
Coffee enemas can cause numerous side effects, including infections, sepsis (including campylobacter sepsis), severe electrolyte imbalance, colitis, polymicrobial enteric septicemia, proctocolitis, salmonella, brain abscess, and heart failure, and deaths related to coffee enemas have been documented.
Some proponents of alternative medicine have claimed that coffee enemas have an anti-cancer effect by "detoxifying" metabolic products of tumors but there is no medical scientific evidence to support this.
Klismaphiles can gain satisfaction of enemas through fantasies, by actually receiving or giving one, or through the process of eliminating steps to being administered one (e.g., under the pretence of being constipated). An enema can be an auxiliary to, or even a substitute for, genital sexual activity. Additionally, enemas can stimulate the prostate gland.
That some women use enemas while masturbating was documented by Kinsey, A. in "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female." He stated, "There still other masturbatory techniques which were regularly or occasionally employed by some 11 percent of the females in the sample ... enemas, and other anal insertions, ... were employed."
Noting that deaths have been reported from alcohol poisoning via enemas, an alcohol enema can be used to very quickly instill alcohol into the bloodstream, absorbed through the membranes of the colon. However, great care must be taken as to the amount of alcohol used. Only a small amount is needed as the intestine absorbs the alcohol far more quickly than the stomach.
Preceding an enema for administration of drugs or alcohol, a cleansing enema may first be used for cleaning the colon to help increase the rate of absorption.
All across Mesoamerica ritual enemas were employed to consume psychoactive substances, e.g., balché, alcohol, tobacco, peyote, and other hallucinogenic drugs and entheogens, most notably by the Maya, thus attaining more intense trance states more quickly, and Mayan classic-period sculpture and ceramics depict hallucinogenic enemas used in rituals. Some tribes continue the practice in the present day.
Enemas have also been forcibly applied as a means of punishment.
In the vastly influential Argentine text Facundo, or Civilization and Barbarism, for example, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento describes the use of pepper and turpentine enemas by police forces as a way of discouraging political dissent in post-independence Argentina.
The Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture documented instances of enemas being used by the Central Intelligence Agency in order to ensure "total control" over detainees.
In arts and literature
In Grace Metalious's novel Peyton Place, the town doctor tells of “a young boy with the worst case of dehydration I ever saw. It came from getting too many enemas that he didn’t need. Sex, with a capital S-E-X.”.. As a teenager, the boy enjoys receiving enemas from his mother.
In Anne Roiphe's novel Torch Song, Marjorie, not knowing how to otherwise address her dysphonia, reminisces on unhappy memories, one of which is her German nurse inflicting on her painful enemas.
In The Right Stuff, during flight training astronaut Alan Shepard retains a barium enema, given two floors away from a toilet, embarrassingly riding a public elevator wearing a hospital gown and holding the inserted enema bag.
A 365-kilogram (805-pound) brass statue of a syringe enema bulb held aloft by three cherubs stands in front of the "Mashuk" spa in the settlement of Zheleznovodsk in Russia. Inspired by the 15th century Renaissance painter Botticelli, it was created by a local artist who commented that "Aa enema is an unpleasant procedure as many of us may know. But when cherubs do it, it's all right." When unveiled on 19 June 2008, posted on one of the spa's wall was a banner declaring "Let's beat constipation and sloppiness with enemas." The spa lying in the Caucasus Mountains region, known for dozens of spas that routinely treat digestive and other complaints with enemas of mineral spring water, the director commented "An enema is almost a symbol of our region."  It is the only known monument to the enema.
- Cullingworth, A Manual of Nursing, Medical and Surgical:155
- "enema noun". Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Enema". The Free Dictionary. TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "enema". Dictionary.com. sAsk.com. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Soapsuds enema". Biology-Online Dictionary. Biology-Online. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Barium enema". MedlinePlus. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services – National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Krokowicz, L.; MacKiewicz, J.; Wejman-Matela, A.; Krokowicz, P.; Drews, M.; Banasiewicz, T. (19 October 2014). "Management of traveller's diarrhoea with a combination of sodium butyrate, organic acids, and A-300 silicon dioxide". Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH). 9 (5): 285–290. doi:10.5114/pg.2014.46164. PMC 4223117. PMID 25396003.
- Bruera, E; Pruvost, M; Schoeller, T; Montegjo, G; Watanabe, S (April 1998). "Proctoclysis for Hydration of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 15 (4): 216–9. doi:10.1016/S0885-3924(97)00367-9. PMID 9601155.
- "high enema". Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Administering an Enema". Care of patients. Ternopil State Medical University. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Rhodora Cruz. "Types of Enemas". Fundamentals of Nursing Practice. Professional Education, Testing and Certification Organization International. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "low enema". Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "How to Give an Enema – Enema Administration Clinical Nursing Skills". Clinical Nursing Skills. Registered Nurse RN. January 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- MarileeSchmelzer, Lawrence R.Schiller, Richard Meyer, Susan M.Rugari, PattiCase (November 2004). "Safety and effectiveness of large-volume enema solutions". Applied Nursing Research. 17 (4): 265–274. doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2004.09.010. Retrieved 22 July 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Chaurasia, Gita; Patil, Amruta; Dighe, Shweta (2015). "A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC ASPECTS OF HYDROTHERAPY". International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research.
- "Glycerin Enema". Drugs.com. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- E. Bertani, A. Chiappa, R. Biffi, P. P. Bianchi, D. Radice, V. Branchi, S. Spampatti, I. Vetrano, B. Andreoni (2011), "Comparison of oral polyethylene glycol plus a large volume glycerine enema with a large volume glycerine enema alone in patients undergoing colorectal surgery for malignancy: a randomized clinical trial", Colorectal Disease, 13 (10): e327–e334, doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02689.x, PMID 21689356CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Nicholls, Pam Hufford; Metules, Terri J (April 2001). "Some old-fashioned enemas still work and are still used". RN. 64: 80.
- Ingelfinger, Franz J. (1954). "Treatment of Chronic Constipation". Clinical and Patient Services > Tutorials for Patients & Families. 58 (4): 503–512. Bibcode:1954NYASA..58..503I. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1954.tb45865.x. PMC 5251364. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- Gary M. Vilke, 'Correspondence information about the author MD Gary M. Vilke, Gerard DeMers, DO, DHSc, MPH, Nilang Patel, MS, Edward M. Castillo, PhD (June 2015). "Safety and Efficacy of Milk and Molasses Enemas in the Emergency Department". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. American Academy of Emergency Medicine. Retrieved 19 March 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Kimberley Wallaker, BSN, RN, CENlow asterisk,'Correspondence information about the author BSN, RN, CEN Kimberley WallakerEmail the author BSN, RN, CEN Kimberley Wallaker, Ezio Fortuna, RN, EMT-P, CEN, Stuart Bradin, DO, Michelle Macy, MD, MS, Michelle Hassan, BSN, RN, CEN, CPEN, Rachel Stanley, MD, MHSA (November 2014). "Milk and Molasses Enemas: Clearing Things Up". Journal of Emergency Nursing. The Emergency Nurses Association. Retrieved 19 March 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Mineral Oil rectal enema". Drugs, Devices & Supplements. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "NHS Grampian Medicines Management – Laxatives". NHS Grampian Campaign. National Health Service. 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Robert Engelhorn, Ernst Seeger and Jan H. Zwaving "Laxatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2000. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_183
- "Label: FLEET- bisacodyl enema". Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Nigel P. Sykes (2011). "Dantron". Supportive Oncology. ScienceDirect. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "A06AG Enemas". WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. World Health Organization. 13 December 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition". Report on Carcinogens. National Toxicology Program, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). November 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Docusate sodium".
- "Colace Microenema".
- WHO Food Additive Monograph 70.39 Archived 6 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Sodium Phosphates Enema". Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Sodium Phosphate Rectal". Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Bowen, PE; Hussain, EA; Damayanti-Wood, BI; Farnsworth, NR (2001). "Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food?". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 41 (4): 251–86. doi:10.1080/20014091091814. PMID 11401245.
- "ACS :: Cancer Drug Guide: sorbitol". Archived from the original on 30 June 2007.
- "Sorbitol". Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Klyx". NHS Grampian Campaign. National Health Service. March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "NHS Grampian – Laxatives". Latest medicine updates. electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC). 16 May 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "Microlax Enema". NPS MedicineWise. National Prescribing Service. 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- W. Lieberman (1964). "Rapid patient preparation for sigmoidoscopy by microenema". American Journal of Proctology. 15: 138–41. PMID 14139893.
- "Micolette Micro-enema". Latest medicine updates. Latest medicine updates. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Emmanuel, A V; Krogh, K; Bazzocchi, G; Leroi, A-M; Bremers, A; Leder, D; van Kuppevelt, D; Mosiello, G; Vogel, M; Perrouin-Verbe, B; Coggrave, M; Christensen, P (20 August 2013). "Consensus review of best practice of transanal irrigation in adults" (PDF). Spinal Cord. 51 (10): 732–738. doi:10.1038/sc.2013.86. PMID 23958927.
- "Bowel Management After Spinal Cord Injury". www.sci-info-pages.com.
- Peña A, Guardino K, Tovilla JM, Levitt MA, Rodriguez G, Torres R Bowel management for fecal incontinence in patients with anorectal malformations Pediatr. Surg. 33:1 133–7 1998
- , Consensus review of best practice of transanal irrigation in adults A V Emmanuel et al. Spinal Cord 2013.
- "aGastroenterology Tests and Procedures – Barium Enema". Health Library. John Hopkins School of Medicine. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "Barium/Gastroview Enema". Our Services. Southwest Medical Center in Liberal, Kansas, USA. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- Raqib, R.; Sarker, P.; Mily, A.; Alam, N. H.; Arifuzzaman, A. S.; Rekha, R. S.; Andersson, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Cravioto, A.; Agerberth, B. (10 May 2012). "Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial". BMC Infectious Diseases. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH). 12: 111. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-111. PMC 3447723. PMID 22574737.
- Tremayne V (2009). "Proctoclysis: emergency rectal fluid infusion" (PDF). Nurs Stand. 24 (3): 46–8. doi:10.7748/ns2009.09.24.3.46.c7271. PMID 19856644. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Enemas during labour". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 4 July 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- Martelli, ME. "Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health". FindArticles. Archived from the original ( – Scholar search) on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- "Colon Hydrotherapy". Aetna IntelliHealth. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
- Eliakim R, Karmeli F, Rachmilewitz D, Cohen P, Zimran A (4 January 2004). "Ozone Enema: A Model of Microscopic Colitis in Rats". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 46 (11): 2515–20. doi:10.1023/A:1012348525208. PMID 11713963.
- Ori Y, Rozen-Zvi B, Chagnac A, Herman M, Zingerman B, Atar E, Gafter U, Korzets A (2012). "Fatalities and Severe Metabolic Disorders Associated With the Use of Sodium Phosphate Enemas". Archives of Internal Medicine. 172 (3): 263–5. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.694. PMID 22332159.
- "enema (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper of the LNP Media Group. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Magner, A History of Medicine:31
- Magner, A History of Medicine:26
- F.J.Carod-Artal (1 July 2011). "Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures". Neurología. Science Direct. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- Parsons and Carlson:92
- de Smet PA, Hellmuth NM (1986). "A multidisciplinary approach to ritual enema scenes on ancient Maya pottery". J Ethnopharmacol. 16 (2–3): 213–62. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(86)90091-7. PMID 3528674.
- Hurt, Raymond; Barry, J. E.; Adams, A. P.; Fleming, P. R. (1996), The History of Cardiothoracic Surgery from Early Times, Informa Health Care, p. 120, ISBN 978-1850706816
- Nordenskiold, Erland (1929), "The American Indian as an Inventor", Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 59: 277, doi:10.2307/2843888, JSTOR 2843888
- Scarborough, The Drug Lore of ASCLEPIADES of Bithynia:44
- Scarborough, The Drug Lore of ASCLEPIADES of Bithynia:46
- "Information Sheet:21 Enemas" (PDF). Information Sheets. Museum of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- Mattern, Susan P. (2008), Galen and the Rhetoric of Healing, Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 31, 145, 149, ISBN 978-0-8018-8835-9
- "Francois Mauriceau (1637-1709) and maternal posture for parturition. Archives of disease in childhood, 1991". Francois Mauriceau (1637-1709) and maternal posture for parturition. Research Gate. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- Magner, A History of Medicine:218
- "The Imaginary Invalid". The Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- Roper, William, The Life of Sir Thomas More
- Sterling Haynes, MD (December 2012). "Special feature: Tobacco smoke enemas". British Columbia Medical Journal. Doctors of BC. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- Short AR, Bywaters HW (June 1913). "Amino-Acids and Sugars in Rectal Feeding". Br Med J. 1 (2739): 1361–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2739.1361. JSTOR 25302025. PMC 2299894. PMID 20766702.
- Mackenzie JW (March 1943). "The nutrient enema". Arch. Dis. Child. 18 (93): 22–7. doi:10.1136/adc.18.93.22. PMC 1987791. PMID 21032242.
- Locke GR, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF (2000). "AGA technical review on constipation". Gastroenterology. 119 (6): 1766–78. doi:10.1053/gast.2000.20392. PMID 11113099.
- "Subpart F—Therapeutic Devices Sec. 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system". Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Food and Drugs, Subchapter H – Medical Devices, Part 876 – Gatroenterology-Urology Devices. FDA. 1 April 2007.
- Department of Health and Human Services (21 July 1999). "Warning letter to Dotolo Research Corp" (reprint by Casewatch). FDA. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
- Whorton J (2000). "Civilisation and the colon: constipation as the "disease of diseases"". BMJ. 321 (7276): 1586–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7276.1586. PMC 1119264. PMID 11124189.
- Ernst E (June 1997). "Colonic Irrigation and the Theory of Autointoxication". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 24 (4): 196–198. doi:10.1097/00004836-199706000-00002. PMID 9252839.
- Kaiser (1985). "The Case Against Colonic Irrigation". California Morbidity (38).
- Chen TS, Chen PS (1989). "Intestinal autointoxication: a medical leitmotif". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 11 (4): 434–41. doi:10.1097/00004836-198908000-00017. PMID 2668399.
- "Dr. John Harvey Kellogg". Great American Quacks. Museum of Quackery. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- Sophie Norri and Lucy Clarke-Billings (8 August 2017). "Secret Facebook group reveals how parents use bleach enemas on autistic children in bid to 'cure' disability". Daily Mirror. Reach plc. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Toby Meyjes (7 August 2017). "Mother 'investigated for giving son bleach enema to "cure" his autism'". Metro (British newspaper). DMG Media. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Lisa Bartley (29 October 2016). "Group of SoCal parents secretly try to cure kids with autism using bleach". ABC 7 News. American Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Frances Ryan (13 July 2016). "The fake cures for autism that can prove deadly". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "The truth about chlorine dioxide and other miracle cures for autism". Health24. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Sidney Baker, MD; Ali Carine, DO; Suruchi Chandra, MA; Kelly M. Barnhill, MBA, CN, CCN; John Green, MD; Maya Shetreat-Klein, MD; Vicki Kobliner MS RDN; Dana Laake, RDH, MS, LDN; Elizabeth Mumper, MD; Nancy O'Hara, MD; and William Parker, PhD (12 July 2015). "Warning Against Chlorine Dioxide Use". Autism is Treatable. Autism Research Institute. Retrieved 24 March 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "PubChem Database. Chlorine dioxide, CID=24870". PubChem. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "The Parents Who Give Their Children Bleach Enemas to 'Cure' Them of Autism". vice.com. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "FDA Warns Consumers of Serious Harm from Drinking Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 3 February 2011. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "Parents Are Making Their Children Drink Bleach to 'Cure' Them of Autism". Newsweek/Yahoo News. 22 March 2019.
- Jim Humble (2006). The Miracle Mineral Solution of the 21st Century. Jim Humble. (self published)
- Jensen, Erik (9 January 2010). "Deadly chemical being sold as miracle cure". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "IFRC strongly dissociates from the claim of a 'miracle' solution to defeat malaria" (Press release). International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Ernst E (June 1997). "Colonic irrigation and the theory of autointoxication: a triumph of ignorance over science". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 24 (4): 196–8. doi:10.1097/00004836-199706000-00002. PMID 9252839.
- Shils ME, Hermann MG (April 1982). "Unproved dietary claims in the treatment of patients with cancer". Bull N Y Acad Med. 58 (3): 323–40. PMC 1805327. PMID 7052177.
- Lee CJ, Song SK, Jeon JH, Sung MK, Cheung DY, Kim JI, Kim JK, Lee YS (2008). "Coffee enema induced acute colitis". The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi. 52 (4): 251–254. PMID 19077527.
- "Colon Therapy". American Cancer Society. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- Margolin KA, Green MR (1984). "Polymicrobial enteric septicemia from coffee enemas". The Western Journal of Medicine. 140 (3): 460. PMC 1021723. PMID 6710988.
- Eisele JW, Reay DT (1980). "Deaths related to coffee enemas". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 244 (14): 1608–1609. doi:10.1001/jama.1980.03310140066036. PMID 7420666.
- Keum B, Jeen YT, Park SC, Seo YS, Kim YS, Chun HJ, Um SH, Kim CD, Ryu HS (2010). "Proctocolitis Caused by Coffee Enemas". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 105 (1): 229–230. doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.505. PMID 20054322.
- "Livingston-Wheeler Therapy". Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- William T. Jarvis, Ph.D., National Council Against Healthcare Fraud, "Cancer Quackery". Accessed 11 July 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1981). "Campylobacter sepsis associated with "nutritional therapy"--California". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 30 (24): 294–5. PMID 6789105.
- Keum B, Jeen YT, Park SC, Seo YS, Kim YS, Chun HJ, Um SH, Kim CD, Ryu HS (2010). "Proctocolitis caused by coffee enemas". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105 (1): 229–30. doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.505. PMID 20054322.
- Eisele JW, Reay DT (October 1980). "Deaths related to coffee enemas". JAMA. 244 (14): 1608–9. doi:10.1001/jama.1980.03310140066036. PMID 7420666.
- "The Gerson Institute — Alternative Cancer Treatment". Archived from the original on 1 April 2003.
- Cassileth B (February 2010). "Gerson regimen". Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.). 24 (2): 201. PMID 20361473.
- Paraphilias from Psychology Today
- Denko, JD. (April 1973). "Klismaphilia: enema as a sexual preference. Report of two cases". Am J Psychother. 27 (2): 232–50. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.19126.96.36.199. PMID 4704017.
- Denko, JD. (April 1976). "Amplification of the erotic enema deviance". Am J Psychother. 30 (2): 236–55. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.19188.8.131.52. PMID 937588.
- Agnew, J. (October 1982). "Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 36 (4): 554–66. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.19184.108.40.2064. ISSN 0002-9564. PMID 7158678.
- Kinsey, Alfred Charles (1953), Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.: Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-33411-4
- Brame et al., Different loving – The World of Sexual Dominance and Submission:513,516
- Agnew, Klismaphilia:74,77,78,79
- Brame et al., Different loving – The World of Sexual Dominance and Submission:515,516,520
- Brame et al., Different loving – The World of Sexual Dominance and Submission:513,517
- Agnew, Klismaphilia:76
- "The Enema Within". Darwin Awards. 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- de Boer AG, Moolenaar F, de Leede LG, Breimer DD (1982). "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations". Clin Pharmacokinet. 7 (4): 285–311. doi:10.2165/00003088-198207040-00002. PMID 6126289.
- Diamond, Jared M. (1992). The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal (P.S.). New York, N.Y.: Harper Perennial. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-06-084550-6.; pp. 201
- "Basti: Medicated Enema Therapy".
- "Ribbons and Rituals". In Problems in Modern Latin American History. Ed. Chasteen and Wood. Oxford, UK: Scholarly Resources, 2005. p. 97
- Rushe, Dominic; MacAskill, Ewen; Cobain, Ian; Yuhas, Alan; Laughland, Oliver (9 December 2014). "Rectal rehydration and waterboarding: the CIA torture report's grisliest findings". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- William Shakespeare (1603). "Othello, the Moore of Venice". Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- Orwell, George (1949). 1984. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. ISBN 9780151660353.
- Thomas Mallon and Anna Holmes (4 March 2014). "What's It Like Reading 'Peyton Place' Today?". Book Review. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- R. Saint Claire (20 September 2016). "My Return to Peyton Place". Ex Libris Regina. R. Saint Claire. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Julian Moynahan (9 January 1977). "Sad in Greenwich Village, glad in Atlantic City". Book Reviews. The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- Anne Sexton. "Cripples And Other Stories - Poem by Anne Sexton". Poem Hunter. poemhunter.com/. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Vincent Canby (21 October 1983). "'Right Stuff,' on astronauts". Film. The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "The Right Stuff". Teach with Movies. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "The Right Stuff". IMDb. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- Mick Ireland (9 June 1975). "Enema bandit suspect faces hearing today". Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Russian monument to enemas inspired by Botticelli". aLifestyle. Reuters. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Enema monument unveiled Russian resort". WEird News. NBC News. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Monument to Enemas". Places. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- Agnew, J. (2000). "Klismaphilia". Venereology. 13 (2): 75–79. ISSN 1032-1012. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- Brame, Gloria; Brame, William D.; Jacobs, Jon (1993). Different loving – The World of Sexual Dominance and Submission. Villard Books. ISBN 978-0-6797-6956-9.
- Cullingworth, Charles James (1883). A Manual of Nursing, Medical and Surgical. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press (published 2009). ISBN 978-1-4590-1939-3.
- Magner, Lois (1992). A History of Medicine. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-8673-1.
- Parsons, Lee Allen; Carlson, John B. (1988). The Face of Ancient America: The Wally and Brenda Zollman Collection of Precolumbian Art. Indianapolis, Indiana, United States: Indianapolis Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-936260-24-2.
- Scarborough, John (1975). "The Drug Lore of ASCLEPIADES of Bithynia". Pharmacy in History. 17 (2): 43–57. JSTOR 41108902. PMID 11609880.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Enemas.|
"A professional nursing instructional video demonstrating administering a cleansing enema". Taber's Medical Dictionary. K. A. Davis Company. Retrieved 17 July 2014.