|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (August 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Energy-Efficient Ethernet (EEE) is a set of enhancements to the twisted-pair and backplane Ethernet family of computer networking standards that allow for less power consumption during periods of low data activity. The intention is to reduce power consumption by 50% or more, while retaining full compatibility with existing equipment. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), through the IEEE 802.3az task force developed the standard. The first study group had its call for interest in November 2006, and the official standards task force was authorized in May 2007. The IEEE ratified the final standard in September 2010. Some companies introduced technology to reduce the power required for Ethernet before the standard was ratified, using the name Green Ethernet.
In 2005, all the network interface controllers in the United States (in computers, switches, and routers) used an estimated 5.3 terawatt-hours of electricity. According to a researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Energy-Efficient Ethernet can potentially save an estimated US$450 million a year in energy costs in the U.S. Most of the savings from homes ($200 million), and offices ($170 million), and the remaining $80 million from data centers.
The power reduction is accomplished in a few ways. In 100 Mbit/s, 1 gigabit and 10 Gbit/s speed data links, energy is used to keep the physical layer transmitters on all the time. If they could be put into "sleep" mode when no data is being sent, that energy could be saved. When the controlling software or firmware decides that no data needs to be sent, it can issue a low-power idle (LPI) request to the Ethernet controller physical layer PHY. The PHY will then send LPI symbols for a specified time onto the link, and then disable its transmitter. Refresh signals are sent periodically to maintain link signaling integrity. When there is data to transmit, a normal IDLE signal is sent for a predetermined period of time. The data link is considered to be always operational, as the receive signal circuit remains active even when the transmit path is in sleep mode.
Comparison to Green Ethernet
Green Ethernet technology was a superset of the 802.3az standard. In addition to the link load power savings of Energy-Efficient Ethernet, Green Ethernet works in one of two ways. First, it detects link status, allowing each port on the switch to power down into a standby or ‘sleep’ mode when a connected device, such as a computer, is not active. Second, it detects cable length and adjusts the power accordingly. Previous standard switches provide enough power to send a signal up to 100 meters (330 ft). However, this is often unnecessary, especially in the home, where 5 to 10 meters (16 to 33 ft) of cabling are typical between rooms. In addition to the pure power saving benefits of Green Ethernet, backing off the transmit power on shorter cable runs reduces alien crosstalk, and improves the overall performance of the cabling system.
Green Ethernet also encompasses the use of more efficient circuitry in Ethernet chips, and the use of "off-load engines" on Ethernet interface cards intended for network servers.
Green Ethernet was first employed on home products. However, low port counts mean that significant cost savings are not going to be made using this technology only in the home. Turning off existing devices when they are idle is likely to provide a more immediate saving. Projected power savings of up to 80 percent were estimated using Green Ethernet switches, translating into a longer product life due to reduced heat dissipation.
- Sean Michael Kerner (July 17, 2009). "Energy Efficient Ethernet hits standards milestone — InternetNews:The Blog — Sean Michael Kerner". Internetnews blog. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "IEEE 802.3 Energy Efficient Ethernet Study Group". September 21, 2007. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "IEEE ratifies new 8023az standard to reduce network energy footprint". Lightwaveonline.com. October 5, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Prachi Patel-Predd (May 2008). "Energy-Efficient Ethernet". IEEE SpectrumEnergy-Efficient Ethernet: Ethernet connections waste lots of watts. It need not be so. Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Merritt, Rick (May 8, 2008). "Energy-efficient Ethernet standard gains traction". EE Times. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Spurgeon, Charles (2014). Ethernet: The Definitive Guide. O'Reilly. pp. 119–120.
- "Top OEMs 'Go Green' With Broadcom's 65nm SMB Switch Family" (Press release). Broadcom Corporation. June 3, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
'The reduced power consumption offered by these single-chip switch solutions results in an energy saving device with reduced operating costs.' said Jacky Chang, Senior Director at D-Link. 'As part of our D-Link Green™ initiative, we aim to give consumers ecologically friendly choices. By combining Broadcom's switch solutions with our green technology, we have been able to develop our second generation of Green Ethernet switches that provide competitive solutions with enhanced power saving benefits for all of our customers, from home users to enterprise.'
- Nicholas Ilyadis (April 1, 2010). "Broadcom Energy Efficiency Initiatives" (PDF). Broadcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Ethernet 100BaseTX and 10BaseT Cables: Guidelines and specifications". Cisco 10000 Series Routers. Cisco Systems. August 1, 2006. Specifications and Connection Limits for 100-Mbps Transmission. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "D-Link First Company to Offer Green Wi-Fi Home Networking". DLinkGreen.com. D-Link. July 28, 2008. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Tom Higins (April 23, 2008). "How Much Can D-Link's "Green Ethernet" Switch Save You?". Small Net Builder blog. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Kenney, Brad (April 11, 2008). "Green Ethernet". IndustryWeek. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- IEEE P802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet Task Force
- "Green Ethernet". Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2011. Blog for Energy-Efficient Ethernet techniques and news analyses, circa 2009.