Energy in India
Energy in India describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in India. Energy policy of India describes the policies and strategies of India for achieving sustainable energy security to its people. Electricity sector in India is the main article of electricity in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy provides data regarding progress in the non-conventional energy sector.
Since 2013, total primary energy consumption in India has been the third highest in the world (see world energy consumption) after China (see energy in China) and the United States (see energy in the United States). India is the second top coal consumer in the year 2017 after China. India ranks third in oil consumption with 221 million tons in 2017 after the United States and China. India is net energy importer to meet nearly 45% of its total primary energy.
| Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power
2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated
According to Greenpeace the largest coal belt in India is at Jharia. Before coal mining Jharia had forests inhabited by tribes. In 1971 the coal mines were nationalised. Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) took over Jharia coal mines.
Oil and natural gas
India was the third top crude oil consumer globally (4.8% of the world) with 221 Mt in 2017. India is also the top third globally the net crude oil (including crude oil products) importer of 188 Mt in 2017. India has 4.972 million barrels per day (5.1% of the world) crude oil refinery capacity which is ranked 4th globally in 2017.
Liquefied petroleum gas
Nearly 10.52 million tons Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was consumed during April to September 2018 (six months) in domestic sector mainly for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 247 million (one connection for five people) with a circulation of more than 368 million LPG cylinders whose net aggregate length would form a 150,000 km long pipe line which is more than the length of total railway track laid in India. India is second largest consumer of LPG globally. Most of the LPG requirement is imported. Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale.
Biomass and charcoal
Biomass is a renewable energy source and its use for energy generation is carbon-neutral fuel. It is carbon neutral because it would also release global warming green house gasses like methane and carbon dioxide when it is left to degenerate without using as energy source. Presently, only 20% of house holds in India use biomass and charcoal for cooking purpose as LPG use for cooking purpose is rising rapidly. In addition biomass is also used marginally in commercial cooking, electricity generation, process industries, etc. The total biomass use in India is nearly 177 Mtoe in the year 2013. Substantial surplus crop residue is also burnt in agriculture fields for clearing the land for the next crop. Nearly 750 million tons of non edible (by cattle) biomass is available annually in India which can be put to use for higher value addition.
Huge quantity of imported coal is being used in pulverised coal-fired power stations. Raw biomass is not suitable for use in the pulverised coal mills as they are difficult to grind into fine powder due to caking problem. However 100% biomass can be fired after Torrefaction in the pulverised coal mills for replacing imported coal. Torrefied biomass plants can be integrated with existing pulverised coal-fired power stations using the available hot flue gas as heat source. Cofiring dry biomass up to 20% heat input with coal is also possible directly in pulverised coal-fired power stations without facing caking problem. North west and southern regions can replace imported coal use with biomass where surplus agriculture/crop residue biomass is burnt in the fields causing pollution problems. As traditional use of biomass is being replaced by LPG at faster pace, biomass burning in agriculture fields would become major source for causing higher level air pollution.
Biogas which is mainly methane/natural gas can also be used for generating protein rich cattle, poultry and fish feed in villages economically by cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria culture with tiny land and water foot print. The carbon dioxide gas produced as by product from these plants can be put to use in cheaper production of algae oil from algae particularly in tropical countries like India which can displace the prime position of crude oil in near future. Union government is implementing many schemes to utilise productively the agro waste or biomass in rural areas to uplift rural economy and job potential.
India was the third largest electricity producer in the world 1272 TWh in FY 2014–15, though only about 80% of the population had access to mains power. By 2013, India became the world's third largest producer of electricity with 4.8% global share, surpassing Japan and Russia. India ranks 7th globally in hydropower generation during the year 2015.
India has set a set a target of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022. This would include 100 GW capacity from solar energy sources, 60 GW from wind power, 10 GW from biopower, and 5 GW from small hydropower.
A bidding process for a further 115 GW (excluding large hydropower) is expected by the end of FY 2019-20 to achieve 175 GW total installed capacity and in early 2018 the central government set up a US$350-million fund to finance solar projects.
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