Energy in India

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Energy in India describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in India. Energy policy of India describes the policies and strategies of India for achieving sustainable energy security to its people. Electricity sector in India is the main article of electricity in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy provides data regarding progress in the non-conventional energy sector.

Since 2013, total primary energy consumption in India has been the third highest in the world (see world energy consumption) after China (see energy in China) and the United States (see energy in the United States).[1][2] India is the second top coal consumer in the year 2017 after China. India ranks third in oil consumption with 221 million tons in 2017 after the United States and China. India is net energy importer to meet nearly 45% of its total primary energy.[3]


India: Total primary energy use of 753.7 Mtoe (excluding traditional biomass use) in the calendar year 2017[4]

  424.0 Mtoe Coal (56.26%)
  222.1 Mtoe Petroleum & other liquids (29.47%)
  46.6 Mtoe Natural gas (6.18%)
  8.5 Mtoe Nuclear (1.13%)
  30.7 Mtoe Hydroelectricity (4.07%)
  21.8 Mtoe Other renewables (2.89%)
Energy in India[5]
Prim. energy
2004 1,080 6,662 5,430 1,230 494 1,103
2007 1,123 6,919 5,244 1,745 610 1,324
2008 1,140 7, 222 5,446 1,836 645 1,428
2009 1,155 7,860 5,844 2,116 690 1,586
2010 1,171 8,056 6,032 2,110 755 1,626
2012 1,241 8,716 6,291 2,483 835 1,745
2012R 1,237 9,166 6,333 2,829 940 1,954
2013 1,250 9,018 6,086 2,962 979 1,869
Change 2004–10 8.4% 20.9% 11.1% 72% 53% 47%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[6]

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated


India was the fourth top coal producer in 2017 with 294.2 Mtoe (7.8% global share).[4] Nearly 80% of total electricity generated (utility and captive) in India is from coal.

According to Greenpeace the largest coal belt in India is at Jharia. Before coal mining Jharia had forests inhabited by tribes. In 1971 the coal mines were nationalised. Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) took over Jharia coal mines.[7]

India accounts for the world’s greatest concentration of coal seam fires. Mine area suffers from pollution of air, water and land.[7]

As of 2019, coal production was integrated into the national government;[8] for example, the government owned about 75% of Coal India Limited, which supplied about 84% of India's thermal coal.[8]

Oil and natural gas[edit]

India was the third top crude oil consumer globally (4.8% of the world) with 221 Mt in 2017. India is also the top third globally the net crude oil (including crude oil products) importer of 188 Mt in 2017.[4] India has 4.972 million barrels per day (5.1% of the world) crude oil refinery capacity which is ranked 4th globally in 2017.[4]

Liquefied petroleum gas[edit]

Cylinders with LPG in India

Nearly 10.52 million tons Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was consumed during April to September 2018 (six months) in domestic sector mainly for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 247 million (one connection for five people) with a circulation of more than 368 million LPG cylinders whose net aggregate length would form a 150,000 km long pipe line which is more than the length of total railway track laid in India.[9][10] India is second largest consumer of LPG globally.[11] Most of the LPG requirement is imported.[12] Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale.[13][14]

Biomass and charcoal[edit]

Biomass is a renewable energy source and its use for energy generation is carbon-neutral fuel. It is carbon neutral because it would also release global warming green house gasses like methane and carbon dioxide when it is left to degenerate without using as energy source. Presently, only 20% of house holds in India use biomass and charcoal for cooking purpose as LPG use for cooking purpose is rising rapidly.[15][16] In addition biomass is also used marginally in commercial cooking, electricity generation, process industries, etc. The total biomass use in India is nearly 177 Mtoe in the year 2013.[1] Substantial surplus crop residue is also burnt in agriculture fields for clearing the land for the next crop. Nearly 750 million tons of non edible (by cattle) biomass is available annually in India which can be put to use for higher value addition.[17]

Huge quantity of imported coal is being used in pulverised coal-fired power stations. Raw biomass is not suitable for use in the pulverised coal mills as they are difficult to grind into fine powder due to caking problem. However 100% biomass can be fired after Torrefaction in the pulverised coal mills for replacing imported coal.[18] Torrefied biomass plants can be integrated with existing pulverised coal-fired power stations using the available hot flue gas as heat source. Cofiring dry biomass up to 20% heat input with coal is also possible directly in pulverised coal-fired power stations without facing caking problem.[19] North west and southern regions can replace imported coal use with biomass where surplus agriculture/crop residue biomass is burnt in the fields causing pollution problems.[20] As traditional use of biomass is being replaced by LPG at faster pace, biomass burning in agriculture fields would become major source for causing higher level air pollution.[21]

Biogas which is mainly methane/natural gas can also be used for generating protein rich cattle, poultry and fish feed in villages economically by cultivating Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria culture with tiny land and water foot print.[22][23][24] The carbon dioxide gas produced as by product from these plants can be put to use in cheaper production of algae oil from algae particularly in tropical countries like India which can displace the prime position of crude oil in near future.[25][26] Union government is implementing many schemes to utilise productively the agro waste or biomass in rural areas to uplift rural economy and job potential.[27][28]


India was the third largest electricity producer in the world 1272 TWh in FY 2014–15, though only about 80% of the population had access to mains power.[29] By 2013, India became the world's third largest producer of electricity with 4.8% global share, surpassing Japan and Russia.[30][31] India ranks 7th globally in hydropower generation during the year 2015.[4]

India has 111 gigawatts (GW) (32%) installed capacity of renewable energy. It is one of the world leaders in renewable energy investments and installations.[32]

India has set a set a target of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022.[33] This would include 100 GW capacity from solar energy sources, 60 GW from wind power, 10 GW from biopower, and 5 GW from small hydropower.[34]

A bidding process for a further 115 GW (excluding large hydropower) is expected by the end of FY 2019-20 to achieve 175 GW total installed capacity and in early 2018 the central government set up a US$350-million fund to finance solar projects.[35][36]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "India was the third-largest energy consumer in 2013". Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  2. ^ "World energy consumption clock". US debt clock org. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  3. ^ "Indian energy Statistics 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e "BP Statistical Review of world energy 2018" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  5. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  6. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010 Archived 16 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
  7. ^ a b "The True Cost of Coal" Greenpeace 27 November 2008 pp. 24–29
  8. ^ a b Gross, Rahul Tongia and Samantha (8 March 2019). "Coal in India". Brookings. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  9. ^ "LPG cylinder now used by 89% households". Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  10. ^ "LPG Profile 2018" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  11. ^ "India becomes world's second-largest LPG consumer". Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  12. ^ "India challenges China as world's biggest LPG importer". Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  13. ^ "PM Modi says 70% of India's population will have city gas facility in 2-3 years". Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Map of GAIL's Natural Gas Pipelines". Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  15. ^ "Nearly 80% of Indian households now have access to LPG gas". Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  16. ^ "NITI Aayog pitches for round-the-clock power for all electric vehicles". Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Maharashtra, Punjab top producers of green energy from farm waste". Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  18. ^ "The upgrading of solid biomasss by means of Torrefaction" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  19. ^ "Cofiring of biomass in coal-fired power plants – European experience". Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  20. ^ "CEA has written to all States to use 5-10% of biomass pellets with coal for power generation in thermal power plants". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  21. ^ "Air Pollution: Delhi sees hope as NTPC steps in to buy crop residue from farmers". Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  22. ^ "BioProtein Production" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  23. ^ "Food made from natural gas will soon feed farm animals – and us". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  24. ^ "New venture selects Cargill's Tennessee site to produce Calysta FeedKind® Protein". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  25. ^ "Algenol and Reliance launch algae fuels demonstration project in India". Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  26. ^ "ExxonMobil Announces Breakthrough In Renewable Energy". Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  27. ^ "Indrapratha Gas, Mahindra & Mahindra join hands to stop stubble burning". Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  28. ^ "Modi govt plans Gobar-Dhan scheme to convert cattle dung into energy". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  29. ^ "Rural households electrification in India". Government of India.
  30. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 p. 27
  31. ^ Energy-efficient buildings – a business case for India? An analysis of incremental costs for four building projects of the Energy-Efficient Homes Programme, 2015
  32. ^ Thomas, Maria (27 November 2018). "India is now a world leader in renewable energy". Quartz India. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  33. ^ "A target of installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by the year 2022 has been set". Public Information Bureau. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  34. ^ "India to install 54.7 GW wind energy capacity by 2022: Fitch Solutions - ET EnergyWorld". ETEnergyworld. 28 April 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  35. ^ Govt to set up $350 million fund to finance solar projects, Hindustan Times, 18 Jan 2018.
  36. ^ "Can't stop the shining". Retrieved 2 March 2018.