Energy in Kenya

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Electricity Transmission in Kenya.

Energy in Kenya describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Kenya. Kenya's current effective installed (grid connected) electricity capacity is 2,351 MW, with peak demand of 1,802 MW, as at June 2018.[1] At that time, demand was rising at a calculated rate of 3.6 percent annually, given that peak demand was 1,770 MW, at the beginning of 2018.[1] Electricity supply is predominantly sourced from hydro and fossil fuel (thermal) sources.[2]

Just until recently the country lacked significant domestic reserves of fossil fuel. The country has over the years had to import substantial amounts of crude oil and natural gas. This might change with the discovery of oil reserves in Kenya, which relied on oil imports to meet about 42 percent of its energy needs in 2010. As of the end of June 2016, 55% of Kenyans were connected to the National grid, which is one of the highest connection rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.[3] Per capita consumption in domestic households however, remains low.[1]

Electricity[edit]

Sources of electricity[edit]

Generation Capacity of Electricity in Kenya[4][5]
Source (as June 2018) Capacity (MW) Capacity %
Hydro
705
30.0%
Fossil Fuels (incl. gas, diesel and emergency power)
306
13.0%
Geothermal
1,105
47.0%
Bagasse Cogeneration
42
1.8%
Wind
10.0
0.4%
Others
183.0
7.8%
Total
2,351
100.0%
Generation Sources of Electricity in Kenya[6]
Source (2015) Generation (GWh) Share %
Hydro 3,310 36%
Oil 1,714 19%
Geothermal 4479 44%
Biofuels 136 1%
Wind 38 <1%
Solar 1 <1%
Total 9,258 100%

Renewable energy[edit]

Kenya is currently the largest producer of geothermal energy in Africa. It is one of two countries in Africa that produce geothermal energy, the other being Ethiopia. In 2010, geothermal accounted for almost 20 percent of Kenya's total electricity generation. The country has the potential to produce 10,000 megawatts of geothermal-powered electricity, according to Kenya's state-owned Geothermal Development Company.[7] Total renewable energy capacity is at 60%, with most of that coming from Hydro-Power.[8]

Hydroelectric power[edit]

Utilities[edit]

In Kenya, there are plans by the government of Kenya, to end the monopoly of the electricity distribution market; but until that happens, power distribution is only held by one company; Kenya Power and Lighting Company (Kenya Power).[9]

However, Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), is responsible for generating approximately 90% of installed capacity. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are responsible for about 10% of installed capacity. The following IPPs are active in Kenya: (a) Westmont (b) AEP Energy Africa (Iberafrica)[10] (c) OrPower4 Kenya Limited (a subsidiary of Ormat Technologies) (d) Tsavo Power Company (e) Aggreko (f) Africa Geothermal International[11]

Consumption[edit]

The biggest consumer of electricity in Kenya is Kenya Pipeline Company, followed by Bamburi Cement.[12] As of July 2018, of the 6.5 million Kenya Power's customers, 5 percent or 348,459, were commercial customers (including businesses and factories). Of these, the largest 6,000, were responsible for 60 percent of the national power consumption, averaging in excess of 15,000 electricity units per month.[1]

Petroleum[edit]

Imports[edit]

Kenya had one of the largest crude oil refineries in East Africa, the 90,000-barrels-per-day (bbl/d) Mombasa refinery. The refinery typically operated below capacity and processed Murban heavy crude from Abu Dhabi and other heavy Middle-Eastern crude grades. The refinery was shut down in February 2016.[13]

In 2011, Kenya imported about 33,000 bbl/d of crude oil entirely from the United Arab Emirates, according to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS). Kenya imported 51,000 bbl/d of refined oil products in 2011, according to KNBS. Kenya has a product pipeline system that transports petroleum products from Mombasa to inland areas.[14]

In 2017, Kenya consumed 2,480,000,000 liters (545,523,736 imp gal; 655,146,690 U.S. gal), of diesel fuel. The same year, the country used 1,672,800,000 liters (367,964,559 imp gal; 441,907,009 U.S. gal), of refined petrol.[15]

Reserves[edit]

In 2012 oil was discovered in Kenya. As of May 2016, proven reserves were estimated at 766 million barrels. This puts Kenya ahead of Uzbekistan in the global rankings. Tullow Oil, one of the companies prospecting for oil in the country, is of the opinion that the national reserves are in excess of 1 billion barrels.[16]

Production[edit]

After the collapse of negotiations to build the Uganda-Kenya Crude Oil Pipeline, Kenya began to make plans to build the 554 miles (892 km) Kenya Crude Oil Pipeline on its own.[17][18]

Challenges[edit]

Fuelwood demand in the country is 3.5 million tonnes per year while its supply is 1.5 million tonnes per year. The massive deficit in fuelwood supply has led to high rates of deforestation in both exotic and indigenous vegetation resulting in adverse environmental effects such as desertification, land degradation, droughts and famine.[19]

Future[edit]

Electricity[edit]

Sources of electricity[edit]

Projected Generation Capacity and Demand of Electricity in Kenya[1]
Year Demand Capacity
2013 1,191 MW 1,600 MW
2018 1,802[1] 2,351 MW[1]
2030 15,000 MW 19,200 MW

Projected generation mix[edit]

Source Capacity (MW) Capacity %
Geothermal 5,530 26%
Nuclear 4,000 19%
Coal 2,720 13%
GT-NG 2,340 11%
MSD 1,955 9%
Imports 2,000 9%
Wind 2,036 9%
Hydro 1,039 5%
Total 21,620 100%

* Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP)[edit]

Seven countries came together because they saw mutual benefit in having one power pool. The original countries were:[20] (a) Burundi (b) Democratic Republic of the Congo (c) Egypt (d) Ethiopia (e) Kenya (f) Rwanda and (g) Sudan.[20]

Later, more countries joined the pool, including:[21] (a) Tanzania (b) Libya (c) Djibouti and (d) Uganda.[21]

The objective of the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) is to increase the volume and reduce the cost of electricity supply in Kenya; and to provide revenues to Ethiopia through the export of electricity from Ethiopia to Kenya.[21] The process of connecting the Ethiopian grid to the Kenyan grid is underway.[22]

Kenya also plans to be connected to the South African grid, through Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. That process is also underway as of July 2018.[23][24]

Geothermal power[edit]

Geothermal power plants, which convert steam generated from hot rocks deep underground into electricity, have a prominent place in Kenya’s overarching development plans. These include the Vision 2030, the NCCAP, and the current ‘5000+ MW in 40 months initiative’. Geothermal power has the potential to provide reliable, cost-competitive, baseload power with a small carbon footprint, and reduces vulnerability to climate by diversifying power supply away from hydropower, which currently provides the majority of Kenya’s electricity. Kenya has set out ambitious targets for geothermal energy. It aims to expand its geothermal power production capacity to 5,000 MW by 2030, with a medium-term target of installing 1,887 MW by 2017. As of October 2014, Kenya has an installed geothermal capacity of approximately 340 MW. Although there is significant political will and ambition, reaching these ambitions is a major challenge.[25] Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen) and Geothermal Development Company aim at raising the country's geothermal output from the current 593MW, to 1 GW by the year 2018[26] and 5 GW to the grid by 2030.[27]

Nuclear power[edit]

In 2017, the Kenya Nuclear Electrification Board (Kneb) estimated that a 1,000 MW nuclear plant could be operational by 2027 and cost Ksh500-600 billion ($5-$6 billion).[28] In September 2010 Former Energy and Petroleum Ministry PS Patrick Nyoike[29] announced, that Kenya aims to build a 1,000 MW nuclear power plant between 2017–2022.[30] For Kenya to achieve middle-income status, Nyoike viewed nuclear energy as the best way to produce safe, clean, reliable and base load (constant supply) electricity. The projected cost using South Korean technology was US$3.5 billion.[31]

Carbon emissions[edit]

Kenya emits .03 percent of the world carbon dioxide, which is about 12.62 (Million Metric Tons of CO₂).[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Otuki, Neville (3 July 2018). "Electricity demand crosses 1,800 MW mark". Business Daily Africa. Nairobi. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  2. ^ GENI (20 June 2016). "National Energy Grid Kenya". San Diego: Global Energy Network Institute (GENI). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  3. ^ Lily Kuo (16 January 2017). "Kenya's national electrification campaign is taking less than half the time it took America". New York City: Quartz Africa. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  4. ^ Energypedia (5 June 2018). "Kenya Energy Situation". Energypedia.info. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  5. ^ Global Legal Insights. "Energy in Kenya 2018". Globallegalinsights.com. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  6. ^ International Energy Agency (31 December 2015). "Kenya: Electricity and Heat for 2015". Paris: International Energy Agency (IEA). Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  7. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration (30 May 2013). "Kenya's Key Energy Statistics". Washington, DC: Eia.gov. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  8. ^ Catherine Kathambi Kianji (18 June 2012). "Kenya's Energy Demand and the role of Nuclear energy in future energy generation mix" (Archived from the Original). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  9. ^ Mutai, Edwin (10 July 2013). "House seeks to end Kenya Power's monopoly". Business Daily Africa. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  10. ^ Irungu, Geoffrey (29 June 2018). "SA firm buys out Moi-era power producer Iberafrica". Daily Nation. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  11. ^ Herbling, David (8 April 2013). "US-based firm joins steam power production in Kenya". Business Daily Africa. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  12. ^ Kajilwa, Graham (18 December 2017). "Why Bamburi cement put off mega plans for alternative solar energy". The Standard (Kenya). Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  13. ^ Karambu, Immaculate (21 February 2016). "Refinery plant to be used a storage facility". Daily Nation. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  14. ^ Capital News (15 July 2015). "Kenya Pipeline signs financing for Sh35 billion Mombasa-Nairobi Line". Nairobi: 98.4 Capital FM. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  15. ^ Otuki, Neville (9 October 2017). "Diesel consumption drops for first time in 7 years". Daily Nation. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  16. ^ Lily Kuo (11 May 2016). "Kenya may have a lot more oil than it previously thought". New York City: Quartz Africa. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  17. ^ BBC News (23 April 2016). "Uganda picks Tanzania for oil pipeline, drops Kenya plan". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  18. ^ Wachira, George (26 April 2016). "Fast track Turkana-Lamu pipeline to beat Uganda to global oil markets". Business Daily Africa. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  19. ^ Ndiso, John (3 May 2018). "Corrupt officials to blame for loss of Kenya's forest cover: government report". Johannesburg: Reuters Africa. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  20. ^ a b World Bank. "Projects: The Eastern Electricity Highway Project under the First Phase of the Eastern Africa Power Integration Program". Washington, DC: World Bank.
  21. ^ a b c EAPP (2016). "About The Eastern Africa Power Pool". Addis Ababa: The Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP). Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  22. ^ Muhaita, Abel (2 August 2017). "Power line to reduce costs by seven shillings". The Star (Kenya). Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  23. ^ Staff Reporter (11 August 2012). "Kenya to link to Southern African power grid by 2015". The EastAfrican. Nairobi. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  24. ^ Asfaw S; Kulemeka N; et al. (July 2014). "Multinational Kenya–Tanzania Power Interconnection Project: Country : Kenya and Tanzania: Project Number : P-Z1- FA0-052" (PDF). Abidjan: African Development Bank. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  25. ^ "INSIDE STORY: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) to accelerate geothermal power: Lessons from Kenya - Climate and Development Knowledge Network". Climate and Development Knowledge Network. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  26. ^ "Kenya in cheaper geothermal option". The East African. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  27. ^ Organised by. "Kenya targets 5,000 MW of geothermal power by 2030". African-utility-week.com.
  28. ^ "Kenya plans nuclear plant by 2027". The East African. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  29. ^ "Office of public communications:Partick Nyoike". Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  30. ^ "Kenya to commission first nuclear plant in 2022". archive.is. 6 August 2013. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  31. ^ "Kenya Aims to Build a Nuclear Power Plant by 2017". Bloomberg L.P. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  32. ^ "Kenya gets Funding for Africa's Largest Wind Farm | Informed Comment". Juancole.com. 16 May 2013.

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