Energy in Poland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bełchatów Power Station is a lignite-fired power station that produces 27-28 TWh of electricity per year, or 20% of the total power generation in Poland.

Energy in Poland describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Poland.

In 2009, Poland was world's 9th largest hard coal producer. The country is also the second largest coal consumer in Europe behind Germany.[1]

Overview[edit]

Energy in Poland[2]
Capita Prim. energy Production Import Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 38.2 1,067 917 157 131 296
2007 38.1 1,129 845 294 140 305
2008 38.1 1,138 830 352 142 299
2009 38.2 1,093 785 352 137 287
2010 38.2 1,180 784 373 144 305
2012 38.5 1,178 797 402 148 300
2012R 38.5 1,138 831 360 148 294
2013 38.5 1,135 825 301 150 292
Change 2004-10 0.0 % 10.6 % -14.5 % 138 % 10.3 % 3.1 %
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[3]

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

2015 fuel taxes, in PLN[4]
Diesel Gasoline Natural gas Coal Electricity
per unit liter liter m3 GJ GJ MWh
Excise 1.459 1.669 1.28 1.28
Environment

Coal[edit]

In 2009 Poland produced 78 megatonnes (Mt) of hard coal and 57 Mt of brown coal.

Coal and the environment[edit]

Coal mining has far-reaching effects on local water resources. Coal mining requires large amounts of water. Mining activities have dropped the water level of Lake Ostrowskie by almost two meters in the KuyaviaPomerania and the lakes in the Powidz Landscape Park. According to Poznań's University of Agriculture, the water drainage in the Kleczew brown coal mining areas has formed craters in the area.[1]

Coal and the public[edit]

In April 2008, five thousand people demonstrated in Kruszwica to protect cultural heritage and the nature reserve at Lake Gopło. This was the first protest of its kind in the country's history. Gopło Millennium Park (Nadgoplański Park Tysiąclecia) is protected by the European Union's Natura 2000 program and includes a major bird sanctuary. The Tomisławice opencast mine (less than 10 kilometers away from the Kruszwica mine) was due to open in 2009.[1]

Coal and business[edit]

The Bełchatów Power Station in the Łódź region supplies almost 20% of Poland's energy. It is the largest brown coal power plant in Europe.

Electricity[edit]

In 2008, a net 143 TWh of electricity were produced in coal-based power plants.[5]

Renewable energy[edit]

A binding European Union resolution stipulates a 15% renewable energy target in 2020. According to the Polish National Renewable Energy Action Plan, the 2020 figure is set to exceed this target by 0.5% at 15.5% of overall energy use, broken down as 19.1% of total electricity consumption (15.2 TWh wind power and 14.2 TWh biomass), 17% in the heating and cooling sector, and 10.1% in the transport sector.

Progress towards targets[edit]

Renewable energy Progress Report Poland, 2013 and 2014.[6]
2013 2014
Renewable energy share of heating and cooling sector 14.07% 13.95%
Renewable energy share of electricity sector 10.73% 12.40%
Renewable energy share of transport sector 6.03% 5.67%
Renewable energy share of total energy consumption 11.34% 11.45%

As of year end 2014 Poland had achieved an 11.45% share of renewable energy use as a percentage of overall energy usage. The overall 2014 share breaks down as 13.95% of the heating and cooling sector, 12.40% of the electricity sector and 5.67% of the transport sector.

Sources[edit]

Wind power[edit]

EU and Poland Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]
No Country 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
- EU-27 153,641[14] 142,042[14] 128,751[15] 117,384[16] 105,696 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
9 Poland 5,782[14] 5,100[14] 3,834[17] 3,390[18] 2,497 1,616 1,107 725 544 276 153 83 63 63 27 0 0 0 0

The Polish NREAP plan is targetting 6,700 MW of wind power by 2020 whilst EWEA's 2009 forecast suggests a higher wind capacity of 10–12 GW is possible.[19]

The Polish government had plans to reach 2,000 MW in wind power capacity and a 2.3% share of wind generation in domestic energy consumption by 2010.[20] By the end of 2010, the capacity stood at 1,107 MW.[21] If Poland had the same wind power density as Denmark, there would have been 23 GW of wind power by the end of 2008.[22]

Hydroelectric power[edit]

In 2014 there were 2,364 MW installed capacity of hydroelectric power as well as 1,406 MW pumped storage capacity.[23] In 2015 hydroelectricity generated approximately 1.1% of total electricity in Poland.[24]

Name Location Coordinates Capacity, MWe Type Ref
Żarnowiec Pomorskie 680 pumped storage [25]
Żar 500 pumped storage [26]
Solina Solina 200 pumped storage
Włocławek Kujawsko-Pomorskie 160 [27]
Żydowo Wielkopolskie 150 pumped storage [28]
Niedzica Małopolskie 92.75 [29]
Dychów Lubuskie 90 [30]
Rożnów Małopolskie 50 [31]
Grajówka Lubuskie 2.79 [32]

Solar power[edit]

PV in Poland (MWpeak)[33][34][35][36][37][37][38][39][40][41][42]
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1 2 1.8 3.4 4.2 29.9 110.9 195.7*
* Estimated figure

Air quality[edit]

Air quality information on PM10 displayed in Katowice, Poland

The PM10 warning limit is 300 μg/m3 in Poland, whereas it is 80 in Paris.[43]

Global warming[edit]

Poland opposed the 2009 EU proposal to support developing countries in applying measures against global warming, at a cost of 5-7 billion during the years 2010–2012.[44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "The True Cost of Coal" (PDF). Greenpeace. November 27, 2008. pp. 6, 54–57. Archived from the original on 2009-12-30. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  2. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  3. ^ "Energy in Sweden Facts and Figures" (PDF). The Swedish Energy Agency. 2010. p. 12. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  4. ^ Michel, Sharon. ENERGY PRICES AND TAXES, COUNTRY NOTES, 3rd Quarter 2015 Archived January 19, 2016, on Wayback Machine., page 40. International Energy Agency, 2015
  5. ^ "Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2010. p. 54. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  6. ^ "Progress reports - Energy - European Commission". Energy. Retrieved 2016-07-02. 
  7. ^ EWEA Staff (2010). "Cumulative installed capacity per EU Member State 1998 - 2009 (MW)". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  8. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2011). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2010" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  9. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2012). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2011" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  10. ^ Wind in power: 2012 European statistics February 2013
  11. ^ http://www.euractiv.com/sections/energy/polands-renewable-capacity-grows-94-6-gw-2014-311760
  12. ^ Polish URE.GOV Web Site
  13. ^ Polish Wind Association Web Site
  14. ^ a b c d e EWEA: "Wind in power: 2017 European statistics", February 2017
  15. ^ EWEA: "Wind in power: 2014 European statistics", February 2014
  16. ^ EWEA: "Wind in power: 2014 European statistics", February 2014
  17. ^ EWEA: "Wind in power: 2014 European statistics", February 2014
  18. ^ EWEA: "Wind in power: 2014 European statistics", February 2014
  19. ^ "EU Energy Police to 2050" (PDF). The European Wind Energy Association. March 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  20. ^ GWEC "Global Wind Report" Check |url= value (help) (PDF). Global Wind Energy Council. 2006. p. 25. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  21. ^ "Wind in Power – European Statistics" (PDF). The European Wind Energy Association. 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  22. ^ "Pure Power – Wind Energy Targets for 2020 and 2030" (PDF). The European Wind Energy Association. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-07. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  23. ^ "Publication: Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Poland 2016 Review, pg 98.". www.iea.org. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  24. ^ "Energy policies of IEA countries, Poland 2016, pg95.". 
  25. ^ "Zarnowiec Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant". Global Energy Observatory. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  26. ^ "Porabka-Zar Pumped Storage Power Plant Poland". Global Energy Observatory. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  27. ^ "Hydroelectric Power Plants in Poland - Pomorskie". Gallery. Power Plants Around The World. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  28. ^ "Zydowo Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Power Plant". Global Energy Observatory. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "ZEW Niedzica S.A." (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  30. ^ "ZEW Dychów" (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  31. ^ "TAURON Ekoenergia Sp. z o.o." (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  32. ^ "ZEW Dychów" (in Polish). Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  33. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2009 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 190, p. 72-102, 3/2009
  34. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2009 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 190, p. 72-102, 3/2009
  35. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2007 – EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 178, p. 49-70, 4/2007
  36. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2010 – EurObserv’ER[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ a b Photovoltaic energy barometer 2011 – EurObserv’ER
  38. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2012 – EurObserv’ER
  39. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2013 – EurObserv’ER
  40. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2014 – EurObserv’ER
  41. ^ Photovoltaic energy barometer 2015 – EurObserv’ER
  42. ^ "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2017 – EurObserv'ER". 
  43. ^ "Polish pollution akin to smoking 4,000 cigarettes a year". EurActiv.com. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  44. ^ "Puola ei suostu ilmastotalkoisiin" (in Finnish). YLE. October 2, 2009. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 

External links[edit]