Energy in Portugal

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Portugal electricity production 1980-2019

Energy in Portugal describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Portugal. Energy policy of Portugal will describe the politics of Portugal related to energy more in detail. Electricity sector in Portugal is the main article of electricity in Portugal.


Energy in Portugal[1]
Capita Prim. energy Production Import Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 10.52 309 45 265 47.5 60.3
2007 10.61 292 54 254 51.6 55.2
2008 10.62 281 52 249 51.2 52.4
2009 10.63 280 57 240 51.2 53.1
2012 10.65 268 62 222 51.2 48.1
2012R 10.58 249 53 212 49.8 45.9
2013 10.46 253 67 200 49.0 44.9
Change 2004-09 1.0% -9.2% 25.4% -9.3% 7.7% -11.9%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh . Prim. energy includes energy losses

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated


Sines power plant (hard coal) started operation in 1985–1989 in Portugal. According to WWF its CO2 emissions were among the top dirty ones in Portugal in 2007.[2] That coal power plant went offline in January 2021, leaving only one remaining coal power plant in the country, which closed at 7h15 on the 19th of November 2021.[3] [4]

Natural gas[edit]

Maghreb–Europe Gas Pipeline (MEG) is a natural gas pipeline, from Algeria through Morocco to Andalusia, Spain.

Renewable energy[edit]

Portugal's renewable electricity production from 1980 until 2019

Renewable energy in Portugal was the source for 25.7% of total energy consumption in 2013.[5] In 2014, 27% of Portugal's energy needs were supplied by renewable sources.[6] In 2016, 28% of final energy consumption in Portugal came from renewable sources.[7]

Portugal aims to be climate neutral by 2050 and to cover 80% of its electricity consumption with renewables by 2030.[8]

In 2018, Portugal committed to close all of the country's coal producing facilities by 2030, making it almost completely reliant on renewable energy in the coming years.[9] As of 2019, coal still provided 40% of Portugal's electricity needs.[8] In April 2021, only a single coal power plant was still in operation, which itself closed on 19 November 2021.[10]


Portugal has supported and increased the solar electricity (Photovoltaic power) and solar thermal energy (solar heating) during 2006–2010. Portugal was 9th in solar heating in the EU and 8th in solar power based on total volume in 2010.


Portugal has also been using water power to generate power for the country. In the 2010s, a local company, Wave Roller installed many devices along the coast to make use of the water power.[11]

Nuclear power[edit]

Nuclear energy in Portugal is very limited and strictly non-commercial. Portugal has one 1MW research reactor located in the National Nuclear Research Centre at Sacavém, which is in permanent shutdown state. Further nuclear energy activities are not planned in the near future. Other nuclear activities include medical applications such as radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, as well as use of industrial radioactive sources.

In 1971, Portugal planned to build an 8,000 MW nuclear power plant to be completed by 2000. Plans were delayed until 1995 when it was decided to not proceed with the project.[12] In 2004, the Government of Portugal rejected a proposal to reconsider its decision.[13] After the Carnation Revolution, a military coup in April 1974 which overthrew the Estado Novo regime, projects for the construction of nuclear power plants have since been postponed or dismissed by the government.[14][15]

Presently Portugal has no spent fuel. In September 2007, the core of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) was converted from high enriched to low enriched fuel, all enriched uranium as well as all spent fuel has been shipped to the United States in the framework of the “United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program”. Liquid effluents produced in the RPI, as well as effluents of medical applications are stored locally, and later discharged in accordance with national law. Solid radioactive waste and discarded sealed sources are centrally stored in the national intermediate radioactive waste storage.

Electricity in Portugal[edit]

Pego power plant
The electricity use in Portugal (gross production + imports – exports – losses) was 51.2 TWh in 2008. Portugal imported 9 TWh electricity in 2008. Population was 10.6 million.[16] In 2018 electricity was generated by 23% hydroelectricity, 26% natural gas, 22% wind, 20% coal, 5% biomass, 2% solar and 2% oil. In 2019 electricity was generated by 19% hydroelectricity, 32% natural gas, 26% wind, 10% coal, 6% biomass, 2% solar, 2% oil and 1% other combustibles.[17][18][19]


The sustainable strategy has been a shift from individual to collective transport within the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Metro Lisbon (ML), collective buses, Companhia Carris de ferro de Lisboa).

Global warming[edit]

CO2 emissions in 2009 (million tonnes)[20][21]
CO2 People (million)
Chile 66 16.8
Belarus 61 9.7
Syria 57 21.2
Turkmenistan 57 5.0
Portugal 57 10.6
Bangladesh 55 160.0
Libya 55 6.3
Serbia 52 7.4
Finland 52 5.3

According to Energy Information Administration the {{CO2}} emissions from energy consumption of Portugal were in 2009 56.5 Mt, slightly over Bangladesh with 160 million people and Finland with 5.3 million people.[22] The emissions per capita were (tonnes): Portugal 5.58, India 1.38, China 5.83, Europe 7.14, Russia 11.23, North America 14.19, Singapore 34.59 and United Arab Emirates 40.31.[23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015 Archived 2016-03-13 at WebCite, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 Archived 2015-05-05 at WebCite + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013 Archived 2014-09-02 at the Wayback Machine, 2012 Archived 2013-03-09 at the Wayback Machine, 2011 Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, 2009 Archived 2013-10-07 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 2009-10-12 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  2. ^ Dirty Thirty WWF 2007
  3. ^ "EDP shutters Sines power plant in Portugal, country to be coal-free by November". Institute for Energy Economics & Financial Analysis. 2021-01-15. Retrieved 2021-05-22.
  4. ^ "Acabou a produção de eletricidade a partir do carvão em Portugal". Expresso (in European Portuguese). 2021-11-20. Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  5. ^[bare URL PDF]
  6. ^[bare URL PDF]
  7. ^[bare URL PDF]
  8. ^ a b "Photovoltaikmarkt in Portugal wächst rasant". Erneuerbare Energien. 26 July 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  9. ^ "Governo admite substituir carvão por biomassa no Pego". No. Environment. Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  10. ^ "EDP shutters Sines power plant in Portugal, country to be coal-free by November". Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  11. ^ "Portugal takes a step closer to commercial wave energy – AW-Energy Oy".
  12. ^ "Countries which had concrete plans for nuclear power reactors, or actually start construction and cancelled all plans, or even phased out nuclear energy". World Information Service on Energy. 1998-11-16. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
  13. ^ "Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries". World Nuclear Association. April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  14. ^ Lorenzo Cimarossa, Model for Evaluation of Nuclear Energy Costs in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico - Technical University of Lisbon (December 2010); pg.12 2.5.2 History of Nuclear Energy in Portugal
  15. ^ "Nuclear power: When the steam clears". The Economist. March 24, 2011.
  16. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: 27, 54
  17. ^ see: Downloads -> Revised historical data
  18. ^ "APREN - Production".
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-06-20. Retrieved 2015-07-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion". Archived from the original (XLS) on 2011-10-21. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  21. ^ "IEA Key World Energy Statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2016-11-06. 2011, October, population in the end tables
  22. ^ "World carbon dioxide emissions data by country: China speeds ahead of the rest". The Guardian. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 2016-11-06.
  23. ^ "World carbon dioxide emissions country data co2". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-11-06.