Energy in Romania

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Energy in Romania describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Romania.

Romania has significant oil and gas reserves, substantial coal deposits and it has substantial hydroelectric power installed. However, Romania imports oil and gas from Russia and other first world countries, (it mainly imports from the EU). To ease this dependency Romania seeks to use nuclear power as an alternative to electricity generation. So far, the country has two nuclear reactors, located at Cernavodă, accounting for about 18–20% of the country's electricity production, with the second one online in 2007. Nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities.

Electric power in Romania is dominated by government enterprises, although privately operated coal mines and oil refineries also existed. Accordingly, Romania placed an increasingly heavy emphasis on developing nuclear power generation. Electric power was provided by the Romanian Electric Power Corporation (CONEL). Energy used in electric power generation consisted primarily of nuclear, coal, oil, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Of the electricity generated in 2007, 13.1 percent came from nuclear plants then in operation, 41.69 percent from thermal plants (oil and coal), and 25.8 percent from hydroelectric sites.[1] It was predicted in 2007 that the generation structure by the year 2010 would be 10.2 percent hydroelectric, 12.2 percent oil, 22.9 percent coal, 10.2 percent LNG, and 44.5 percent nuclear.


Energy in Romania[2]
Capita Prim. energy Production Import Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 21.69 448 327 133 49.2 91.5
2007 21.55 453 320 141 52.8 91.9
2008 21.51 458 335 124 53.5 89.9
2009 21.48 400 329 77 48.7 78.4
2012 21.39 417 321 89 53.2 81.8
2012R 0.08 406 316 92 52.2 79.0
2013 19.98 370 301 69 49.9 68.8
−1.0% −10.8% 0.7% −42.0% −1.1% −14.4%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh . Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power [3]

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

Energy strategy 2007[edit]

According to the National Energy Strategy adopted by the government in September 2007, investments in upgrading power plants would top EUR 35 bln in the 2007–2020 period. EUR 8.6 bln will be invested in the electricity generation.[4]

Climate change[edit]

In the decade between 1989 and 1999, Romania saw decrease of its greenhouse gas emissions by 55%. This can be accounted for by a 45% decrease in energy use due to languishing economy, and a 15% decrease in its carbon intensity of energy use. In this period of time the carbon intensity of Romania's economy decreased by 40%, while Romania's GDP declined 15%. Romania's GDP has recovered significantly since then.[5]


Romania's oil production peaked in the 1970s.
Gas production does not fare any better

Possessing substantial oil refining capacities, Romania is particularly interested in the Central Asia – Europe pipelines and seeks to strengthen its relations with some Persian Gulf states. With 10 refineries and an overall refining capacity of approximately 468,000 bbl/d (74,400 m3/d), Romania has the largest refining industry in the region. Romania's refining capacity far exceeds domestic demand for refined petroleum products, allowing the country to export a wide range of oil products and petrochemicals—such as lubricants, bitumen, and fertilizers—throughout the region.[6]

Energy producers were dominated by government enterprises, although privately operated coal mines and oil refineries also existed. Accordingly, Romania placed an increasingly heavy emphasis on developing nuclear power generation.

Electric power[edit]

According to the data displayed by Electrica Furnizare SA in August 2017 (source, the structure of electricity production of Romania in 2016 was provided by:

1. High-carbon energy sources: 40.13%, as follows

  • 24.47% – coal
  • 14.99% – natural gas
  • 0.28% – naphta
  • 0.39% – other conventional sources

2. Low-carbon sources: 59.87%, as follows

  • 28.86% – hydro-energy
  • 17.49% – nuclear
  • 10.13% – wind power
  • 0.75% – biomass
  • 2.60% – solar energy
  • 0.05% – other renewable sources

Hydroelectric power[edit]

Vidraru Dam, where the largest hydroelectric power plant is located

Romania has an estimated total usable hydropower of 36,000 GWh per year.[4]

Wind power[edit]

Solar power[edit]

Nuclear power[edit]

Romania placed a heavy emphasis on nuclear power generation. The country's first nuclear power plant, the Cernavodă Number One located near Cernavodă, opened in 1993. Two reactors were operational in 2007 when atomic power generation was an estimated 21,158 million kilowatts, or 23.1 percent of total electric power.

To cover the increasing energy needs of its population and ensure the continued raising of its living standard, Romania plans several nuclear power plants. Nuclear power proposals were presented as early as in the 1990s, but plans were repeatedly canceled even after bids were made by interested manufacturers because of high costs and safety concerns.

Besides the nuclear power plant in Cernavodă, which consists of two nuclear reactors, the Government has recently announced that it plans to build another nuclear power plant which would most likely be located near one of the major rivers in Transylvania. The new nuclear power plant would consist of two or four nuclear reactors and would have a total output of 2,400 MW. The feasibility studies will be ready by mid-2009.[7]

Romania has always chosen CANDU nuclear reactors because they use natural unenriched uranium which is cheap and available locally and because they can be refueled online.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Report from state power company
  2. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  3. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010 Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Facts and figures The Swedish Energy Agency Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
  4. ^ a b Nine O'Clock, issue 4013, page 7
  5. ^ Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT)
  6. ^ Romania has the largest power sector in south-eastern Europe
  7. ^ Nine O'Clock