Electricity sector in Sri Lanka
Electricity generation in Sri Lanka is primarily run by hydro power and thermal heat, with sources such as photovoltaics and wind power in early stages of deployment. Although potential sites are being identified, other power sources such as geothermal, nuclear, peat, solar thermal and wave power are not used in the power generation process for the national grid.
- 1 History
- 2 Power generation
- 3 Power transmission
- 4 Electricity use
- 5 See also
- 6 References and Notes
Sri Lanka's first public electricity supply was made available in Colombo in 1895 by Messrs Boustead Bros. The business was soon taken over by the United Planters Co., Who extended it and in 1899 built the Colombo electric tramways. In 1902, the Colombo Electric Tramways and Lighting Co. Ltd. was formed and provided electricity supply until 1927 when the Department of Government Electrical Undertakings (DGEU) was established to control the utility, which had by then been purchased by the Government. DGEU was succeeded in 1969 when the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB), a statutory corporation, was established on the 1st of November 1969 under the Act of Parliament No.17 of 1969.
In 1913 having had his initial proposals on hydro power ignored by the Engineering Association of Ceylon, D. J. Wimalasurendra constructed the first Ceylon's small hydro power station in at Blackpool, between Nanu Oya and Nuwara Eliya, to supply electricity to the Nuwara Eliya town. In 1918, he submitted a paper to the Engineering Association of Ceylon titled "Economics of Hydro Power Utilization in Ceylon", in it he proposed the possibility of hydro power from Maskelioya and Kehelgamuoya capable of lighting 100,000 lamps (114.5 MW) and the concept of developing a national grid. It was only in 1923, that the British colonial government undertake the development of hydro power in Ceylon, the Laxapana Hydro Power Scheme, the construction of which started in 1924 was thus resumed in 1938 and done to the finish. However, it was commissioned as the first hydro power plant of Sri Lankan history in December 1950. Between 1978 - 1985 under the Master Plan of Mahaweli Development Programme added seven hydro power stations to the national grid with a total installed capacity of 810 MW this can be considered as a great leap forward for electricity generation in Sri Lanka 
Electricity in Sri Lanka is generated using three primary sources — thermal power (which includes energy from biomass, coal, and all other fuel-oil sources), hydro power (including small hydro), and other non-conventional renewable energy sources (solar power and wind power):
Hydroelectricity is the oldest and historically the principal source of electricity generation in Sri Lanka, holding a share of 48% of the total available grid capacity in December 2013 and 58% of power generated in 2013. Hydroelectric power generation has been constantly under development since the introduction of the national grid itself, but its market share is declining because suitable new sites are scarce. Currently, ten large hydroelectric power stations are in operation, with the single largest hydroelectric source being the Victoria Dam. Although a large portion of the country's hydroelectric resource are tapped, the government continues to issue small hydro development permits to the private sector, for projects up to a total installed capacity of 10 MW per project.
State-run hydroelectric developments are categorized into three main geographic sectors.
- Laxapana Complex consists of six main dams with related power stations — Broadlands, Canyon, Castlereigh, Laxapana, Maskeliya, and Norton dams.
- Mahaweli Complex consists of eight dams and related power stations: Bowatenna, Kotmale, Moragahakanda, Polgolla, Randenigala, Rantembe, Upper Kotmale, and the Victoria dams.
- Samanala Complex consists of the Gal Oya, Kukule Ganga, Samanala, and Udawalawe dams.
Thermal power stations in Sri Lanka now roughly match the installed hydroelectric generation capacity, with a share of nearly 49% of the available capacity in December 2013 and 40% of power generated in 2013. Thermal power stations in Sri Lanka runs on diesel, other fuel oils, naptha or coal. The Norocholai Coal Power Station, the only coal-fired power station in the country, was commissioned in late 2011, adding a further 300 megawatts of electrical capacity to the grid. It is currently planned to add an additional 600 MW of capacity to Norocholai in the next half decade. The second and final coal power station, the Sampur Coal Power Station, is under consideration in Trincomalee and is expected to be in-service by the end of 2017.
The use of wind energy was seen in the country even before 500 BC. The ancient Sinhalese used the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BC, making Sri Lanka one of the first countries in the world to use wind power. Evidence of this has been found in Anuradhapura and in other cities.
The development of modern wind farms has been considered by local and international developers for many years. Such developments were largely hampered due to the many obstacles faced in such developments in economics and infrastructure. The first commercial grid-connected wind farm is the 3 MW Hambantota Wind Farm, northwest of Hambantota.
Unlike other power sources, power developments from this source would face many challenges during its development timeline. Poor accessibility to potential sites is the first obstacle in the development of a wind farm. Most key transport routes around the country are too narrow or is constructed with tight turns to support transportation of turbines larger than 600 KW. Constructing wind farms with turbines smaller than the current commercial-scale megawatt-class turbines would prove to be uneconomical due to the high cost incurred during development.
The country is also in a long battle against its poor power grid. The grid, apart from being unstable in most provinces, is only capable of handling a small increases in load, typically limited to a few megawatts. Provinces with poor grids, such as the power grids in the Northern, North Central and North Western provinces needs complete upgrade to support further commercial-scale developments. This factor contributes to a large percentage in development costs for wind farms constructed such locations. The government policy limit of 10 MW per wind project also significantly decreases economies-of-scale, further straining such developments.
Despite the many technical obstacles, a few developments totaling 50 MW have been proposed till September 2009. In October 2009, cases were filed over political interference connected with the approving of wind projects, leading to a complete halt in the wind power industry in Sri Lanka. The Ministry made allegations of wrongdoing in allocating energy licences, including the structuring of the wind power tariff. There were also allegations that energy licenses are being sold, similar to how car licenses have been sold.
From December 2009 to March 2010, permits for another 50 MW of projects were issued by the Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority, before concerns relating to the issuing of permits were raised again, leading to another deadlock in the industry. As of June 2010, issuing of permits for the development of private wind farms were stopped.
In July 2010, engineers at the Ceylon Electricity Board raised further concerns regarding the approval of private wind projects with extra high tariffs, presumably some of the highest in the world. A review of the wind power tariff was expected to be carried out on 12 September 2010, after an agreed postponement.
Grid-connected solar power has only recently been introduced. The only operational commercial-scale solar-powered facility is the Buruthakanda Solar Park of 1.2 MW, operated by the Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority (SLSEA).
The Sri Lankan electric transmission network consists principally of 132kV facilities, with a 220kV backbone connecting major inland hydroelectric generation to the capital region.
|Line||No. of Ground Wires||No. of circuits||Nominal Voltage|
|New Laxapana-Bogawanthalawa Estate||1||2||132kV|
|New Laxapana-Canyon PS||2||1||132kV|
|Old Laxapana-Nuwara Eliya||2||2||132kV|
India – Sri Lanka grid interconnection
The connection involves the linking of the national grids of India and Sri Lanka via Rameshwaram in south India and Talaimannar in north-west Sri Lanka. The project involves the construction of a HVDC connection between Madurai in southern India and Anuradhapura in central Sri Lanka, through the Palk Strait. The link would measure approximately 285 kilometres (177 mi) in length, including 50 kilometres (31 mi) of submarine cables, and would take more than three years to construct. It would be implemented by the Power Grid Corporation of India Limited and Ceylon Electricity Board.
End-user power tariffs
The monthly end-user electricity tariffs effective from 20 April 2013 are as follows:
|User||Unit (kWh)/Time range||Tariff
|Fuel Adjustment Charge
(% of Total Energy Charge)
|Max. Demand Charge
(If the consumption is between 0-60 kWh per month)
(If the consumption is above 60 kWh per month)
|General Purpose (GP)||GP-1: ≤210||19.50||240.00||25||N/A|
|GP-2: Day (05:30-18:30)||20.50||3,000.00||1,100|
|GP-2: Peak (18:30-22:30)||25.00|
|GP-2: Off-peak (22:30-05:30)||14.50|
|GP-3: Day (05:30-18:30)||19.50||1,000|
|GP-3: Peak (18:30-22:30)||24.00|
|GP-3: Off-peak (22:30-05:30)||13.50|
|GV-1: ∞||14.65||600.00||0 or 25||N/A|
|Hotel (H)||H-1: ∞||22.00||600.00||15||N/A|
|H-2: Day (05:30-18:30)||14.65||3,000.00||1,100|
|H-2: Peak (18:30-22:30)||23.50|
|H-2: Off-peak (22:30-05:30)||09.80|
|H-3: Day (05:30-18:30)||12.60||1,000|
|H-3: Peak (18:30-22:30)||16.40|
|H-3: Off-peak (22:30-05:30)||8.85|
|Industry (I)||I-1: ∞||12.50||600.00||15||N/A|
|I-2: Day (05:30-18:30)||11.30||3,000.00||1,100|
|I-2: Peak (18:30-22:30)||21.00|
|I-2: Off-peak (22:30-05:30)||7.00|
|I-3: Day (05:30-18:30)||10.50||1,000|
|I-3: Peak (18:30-22:30)||24.00|
|I-3: Off-peak (22:30-05:30)||6.00|
In July 2010, the Ministry of Power and Energy, with the Lanka Electricity Company and the Ceylon Electricity Board introduced net metering, where consumers could generate their own power from renewable sources and credit excess production back to the power utility. While the power utility will not pay back in monetary values irrespective of how much credit a household generates, it allows the transferring of this credit between households. The first solar power facility intended for net metering was commissioned in July 2010.
Entities exempted for electricity-usage charges
Per Section 21-2 of the Sri Lanka Electricity Act No. 20 of 2009, the Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka has granted the following entities exemptions in electricity usage:
|Exemption No.||Person/Entity||Premises||Gazette No. & Date|
|EL/EX-D/11/001||MAS Fabric Park (Private) Limited||MAS Fabric Park, Kurunegala Road, Thulhiriya||Extraordinary Gazette – No. 1725/14 28 September 2011|
|EL/EX-D/11/002||Overseas Realty (Ceylon) PLC||World Trade Centre, Echelon Square, Colombo 1|
|EL/EX-D/11/003||Mireka Capital Land (Private) Limited||324, Havelock Road, Colombo 6|
|EL/EX-D/12/001||Asian Hotels and Properties PLC||No. 89, Galle Road, Colombo 3||General Gazette – No. 1744, 3 February 2012|
|EL/EX-D/12/002||BOC Property Development & Management (Private) Limited||BOC Merchant Tower, 28, St. Michael’s Road, Colombo 3|
|EL/EX-D/12/003||Millenium Development (Private) Limited||Excel World Entertainment Park, 338, T B Jayah Mawatha, Colombo – 10|
|EL/EX-D/12/004||Property Finance and Investments Kandy (Private) Limited||Kandy City Centre, 05, Dalada Vidiya, Kandy|
|EL/EX-D/12/005||Whittall Boustead (Private) Limited||148, Vauxhall Street, Colombo 2|
|EL/EX-D/12/006||Ceylon Carriers (Private) Limited||104, Nawala Road, Narahenpita, Colombo 5||Extraordinary Gazette – No. 1749/8, 12 March 2012|
|EL/EX-D/12/007||JayKay Marketing Services (Private) Limited||K-Zone Shopping Mall, 340, Galle Road, Moratuwa||Extraordinary Gazette – No. 1757/19, 11 May 2012|
|EL/EX-D/12/008||Platinum Realty Investments (Private) Limited||01, Bagatale Road, Colombo 3|
|EL/EX-D/12/009||Union Residencies (Private) Limited||No. 200, Union Place, Colombo 2|
|EL/EX-D/12/010||Pelwatte Sugar Industries PLC||Pelwatte Sugar Industries Buttala|
|EL/EX-G/12/001||Tokyo Cement Power (Lanka) Limited||10 MW Biomass Power Plant, Cod Bay, China Bay, Trincomalee||Extraordinary Gazette – No. 1759/31, 23 May 2012|
References and Notes
- Schools, hospitals, vocational training institutions and universities included, which are fully owned by the government, funded through the national budget, and providing services free-of-charge to the general public. Hospitals and schools are exempted from the Fuel Adjustment Charge (FAC).
- CEB Statistics, retrieved 2012-10-07
- Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka 2011 pg. 58
- Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka 2012 pg. 58
- Basnayaka, Chathuranga. "Ceylon Electricity Board" (PDF). University of Ruhuna. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Ceylon Electricity Board Statistical Digest 2013
- Energy permits for small hydro projects, retrieved 2012-10-07
- No more coal plants, retrieved 2010-08-08
- Ministry: Current energy projects (PDF), retrieved 2010-08-07
- G. Juleff, "An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka", Nature 379(3), 60–63 (January, 1996)
- Energy permits for wind projects (PDF), retrieved 2010-10-22[permanent dead link]
- Sri Lanka wind power probe to finish soon, archived from the original on 2010-01-03, retrieved 2010-08-07
- Wind powered electricity generation projects halted, retrieved 2010-09-12
- Uproar over wind power scheme, retrieved 2010-08-07
- SLSEA rejects CEB engineers’ concerns, retrieved 2010-08-07
- CEB to purchase wind power at world’s highest price, retrieved 2010-08-07
- Revision of Non-Conventional Renewable Energy Based Electricity Purchase Tariffs, retrieved 2010-09-12[permanent dead link]
- Extension of Period allowed for representations on proposed Non-Conventional Renewable Energy Based Electricity Purchase Tariffs, retrieved 2010-09-12[permanent dead link]
- Energy permits for solar projects (PDF), retrieved 2010-10-22[permanent dead link]
- Sri Lanka is to develop geothermal power, archived from the original on 2011-07-22, retrieved 2010-08-07
- Geothermal energy in Sri Lanka, retrieved 2010-08-07
- Geothermal energy for growing power demand, archived from the original on 2009-11-19, retrieved 2010-08-07
- "Sri Lanka eyes nuclear power plant after 2030". Lanka Business Online. 4 Jun 2014. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "India-Sri Lanka 285-Km Power Transmission Link By 2013". RTT News. Global Energy Network Institute. 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- "Electricity Tariffs for 2013" (PDF). Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka. May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Sri Lanka power utility to start net metering, archived from the original on 2011-07-13, retrieved 2010-08-07
- Net metering of electricity, retrieved 2010-08-07
- Sri Lanka gets first ever net metered solar photovoltaic plant, retrieved 2010-08-07
- "Sri Lanka Electricity Act No. 20 of 2009" (PDF). Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Electricity Exemptions Granted to Persons as per the Section 21 (2) of the Sri Lanka Electricity Act No. 20 of 2009" (PDF). Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka. 1 April 2000. Retrieved 21 April 2013.