Energy in Turkey
|Economy of Turkey|
|Economic history of Turkey|
Turkey consumes 1700 terawatt hours (TW/h) of primary energy per year, a little over 20 megawatt hours (MW/h) per person: most energy is imported fossil fuels but policy is to reduce that proportion, including by generating more electricity in the west to match demand.
Since 1990 annual primary energy consumption has almost tripled to 1700 TW/h[note 1] in 2016; including 31% oil, 28% gas and 27% coal; and CO2 emissions from fuel combustion have risen from 130 megatonnes (Mt) to 340 Mt. Almost all fossil fuel apart from lignite (brown coal) is imported. Turkey's energy policy prioritises reducing imports.
Electricity is generated mainly from coal, gas (about a third each) and hydro (about a quarter) with a small but growing amount from other renewables such as wind and solar. Nuclear power plants are under construction.
Turkey produces a lot of lignite, almost all of which is burnt in power stations, which churns out large amounts of carbon dioxide with a comparably low level of efficiency. Government subsidises coal-fired power stations despite the environmental impact of the coal industry and would like more to be built.
Annual gas demand is 50bcm, over 30% of Turkey’s total energy demand, and over half of which is supplied by Russia. All 81 provinces in Turkey are supplied with natural gas, which supplies most of the heat.
With the TurkStream pipeline from Russia still under construction currently most gas comes from Russia via the Blue Stream pipeline. Iranian gas comes through the Tabriz–Ankara pipeline. Azerbaijan supplies Turkey through the Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline (which they claim is the cheapest that Turkey buys) and South Caucasus Pipeline. Iraq may also supply gas in future, through the Southern Gas Corridor and gas from the Eastern Mediterranean is also a possibility.
At the moment only a small proportion of gas imports are re-exported to the EU. However Turkey aims to become a gas trading hub in 2018 and more re-export more. State-owned BOTAŞ controls 80% of the market 91 mt of CO2 were emitted by burning natural gas in 2015.
Turkey has no operational nuclear reactors, but it is building a nuclear power plant at Akkuyu, with expected operation in 2023.
Geothermal power in Turkey is used mainly for heating.
By massively increasing production of solar power in the south and wind power in the west Turkey could meet its entire predicted 2020 energy demand from renewable sources.
In October 2018 the government forecast electricity demand of 317 TWh for 2019. However in 2018 Turkey produced and consumed about 300 TWh so that forecast would be a 5% increase with the economy predicted for recession, and in the past several demand forecasts have been overestimates. Only about 1% is imported or exported. Prices on the wholesale market are controlled by the state electricity generation company, and prices to end consumers are regulated.
According to the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Turkey has the potential to cut 15 to 20 percent of total consumption through energy conservation.
With the increase in electricity generated by solar panels storage may become more important.
Thermal energy storage
Testing in Ankara suggested a payback time between 18 months and 3 years for adding ice thermal storage to hypermarket cooling systems.
Turkey could generate 20% of its total electricity from wind and solar by 2026 without extra transmission system costs.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Energy in Turkey.|
- Production + imports - exports from top right of IEA table in the citation. 1 Mtoe = 11.63 TWh
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- Shura2018, page 6