Enfield revolver

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Enfield Mk II Revolver
Enfield Mk II revolver.JPG
TypeService revolver
Place of originBritish Empire
Service history
In service1880–1911
Used bySee Users
WarsBritish colonial conflicts
Production history
DesignerRSAF Enfield
Designed1879
ManufacturerRSAF Enfield
Produced1880 – 1889
Specifications
Length11.5 in (292 mm)
Barrel length5.75 in (146 mm)

Cartridge.476" Revolver Mk II
Calibre.476 Enfield
ActionDouble-action revolver
Rate of fire18 rounds/minute
Muzzle velocity600 ft/s
Effective firing range25 yd (22 m)
Maximum firing range200 yd
Feed system6-round cylinder
Sightsfixed front post and rear notch

The Enfield Revolver was a self-extracting British handgun designed and manufactured at the government-owned Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield; initially in the .476 calibre (actually 11.6 mm)[1]

The .476 calibre Enfield Mk I and Mk II revolvers were the official sidearm of both the British Army and the North-West Mounted Police, as well as being issued to many other Colonial units throughout the British Empire. The term "Enfield Revolver" is not applied to Webley Mk VI revolvers built by RSAF Enfield between 1923 and 1926.

The Enfield No. 2 is an unrelated .38 calibre revolver that was the standard sidearm of British and Commonwealth forces during World War II.

Enfield Mk I & Mk II Revolvers[edit]

The first models of Enfield revolver were the .422-calibre Mark I (c.1880) and the .476-calibre Mark II (c.1882). They were the official British military sidearms from 1880 through 1887[2].

The .476 Enfield cartridge for which the Enfield Mk I/Mk II was chambered fired a 265 gr (17.2 g) lead bullet, and was loaded with 18 gr (1.2 g) of black powder.[3] The cartridge was found to be underpowered, however, during the Afghan War and other contemporary Colonial conflicts, as it lacked the stopping power believed necessary for military use at the time.

Unlike most other self-extracting revolvers (such as the Webley service revolvers or the Smith & Wesson No. 3 Revolver), the Enfield Mk I/Mk II was complicated to unload, having an Owen Jones selective extraction/ejection system which was supposed to allow the firer to eject spent cartridges, whilst retaining live rounds in the cylinder. The Enfield Mk I/Mk II had a hinged frame, and when the barrel was unlatched, the cylinder would move forward, operating the extraction system and allowing the spent cartridges to simply fall out. The idea was that the cylinder moved forward far enough to permit fired cases to be completely extracted (and ejected by gravity), but not far enough to permit live cartridges (i.e., those with projectiles still present, and thus longer in overall length) from being removed in the same manner.

The system was obsolete as soon as the Enfield Mk I was introduced, especially as it required reloading one round at a time via a gate in the side (much like the Colt Single Action Army or the Nagant M1895 revolvers). Combined with the cumbersome nature of the revolver, and a tendency for the action to foul or jam when extracting cartridges, the Enfield Mk I/Mk II revolvers were never popular and eventually replaced in 1889 by the .455 calibre Webley Mk I revolver.


Service[edit]

 Canada: Northwest Mounted Police Service[edit]

The Enfield Mk. II was the issue sidearm of the North-West Mounted Police in Canada from 1883 until 1911.[4] NWMP Commissioner Acheson G. Irvine ordered 200 Mark IIs in 1882,[5] priced at C$15.75 each,[6] which were shipped by London's Montgomery and Workman in November that year, arriving in December.[7] They replaced the Adams.[8]

Irvine liked them so much that, in one of his final acts as Commissioner, he ordered another 600, which were delivered in September 1885.[9] His replacement, Lawrence W. Herchmer, reported the force was entirely outfitted with Enfields (in all 1,079 were provided)[10] and was pleased with them, but concerned about the .476 round being too potent.[10]

The first batch was stamped NWMP-CANADA (issue number between) after delivery; later purchases were not.[11] They were top-break single- or double-action,[9] and fitted with lanyard rings.[12] Worn spindle arms would fail to hold empty cases on ejection, and worn pivot pins could cause barrels to become loose, resulting in inaccuracy.[9] Its deep rifling would allow firing of slugs of between .449 and .476 in (11.4 and 12.1 mm) diameter.[9] Complaints began arising as early as 1887, influenced in part by the British switching to Webleys,[10] and by 1896, hinge wear and barrel loosening were a real issue.[7]

Beginning in late 1904,[7] the Mark II began to be phased out in favor of the .45 calibre Colt New Service revolver, but the Enfield remained in service until 1911.[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Barnes, p.175, ".476 Ely/.476 Enfield Mk-3".
  2. ^ Maze, Robert J: "Howdah to High Power", p. 37. Excalibur Publications, 2002.
  3. ^ Maze, Robert J: "Howdah to High Power" (Excalibur Publications, 2002), p. 32.
  4. ^ Maze, Robert J: "Howdah to High Power", p. 37. Excalibur Publications, 2002.
  5. ^ Phillips, Roger F., & Klancher, Donald J. Arms & [sic] Accoutrements of the Mounted Police 1873-1973 (Bloomfield, ON: Museum Restoration Service, 1982), p. 21.
  6. ^ Phillips & Klancher, p. 207 note 2 to Chapter 3; Sessional Papers, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, 1885, p. 164, & Sessional Papers 5-7, 1885, p. 265.
  7. ^ a b c d Phillips & Klancher, p. 23.
  8. ^ A small number of Adams revolvers remained in possession of RCMP officers until 1888. Phillips & Klancher, p. 207 note 7 to Chapter 3.
  9. ^ a b c d Phillips & Klancher, p. 21.
  10. ^ a b c Phillips & Klancher, p. 22.
  11. ^ Phillips & Klancher, pp. 21 & 23.
  12. ^ Phillips & Klancher, photo p. 22.

References[edit]

  • Barnes, Frank C., ed. by John T. Amber. Cartridges of the World, p. 175, ".476 Ely/.476 Enfield Mk-3", and p. 174, ".455 Revolver MK-1/.455 Colt". Northfield, IL: DBI Books, 1972. ISBN 0-695-80326-3.
  • Hogg, Ian V., and John Walter.Pistols of the World, 4th Ed. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-87349-460-1.
  • Maze, Robert J. Howdah to High Power. Tucson, Arizona: Excalibur Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-880677-17-2.
  • Phillips, Roger F., & Klancher, Donald J. Arms & [sic] Accoutrements of the Mounted Police 1873-1973. Bloomfield, ON: Museum Restoration Service, 1982. ISBN 0-919316-84-0.
  • Wilson, Royce. "A Tale of Two Collectables". Australian Shooter magazine, March 2006.

External links[edit]