Engine power

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Engine power or horsepower is the maximum power that an engine can put out. It can be expressed in kilowatts or horsepower. The power output depends on the size and design of the engine, but also on the speed at which it is running and the load or torque. Maximum power is achieved at relatively high speeds and at high load.

Examples[edit]

Various engines[edit]

The following tables give some examples of engine power for a wide variety of engines and vehicles.

Heat Engine/Heat pump type Peak Power Output Power-to-weight ratio Example Use
Wärtsilä RTA96-C 14-cylinder two-stroke Turbo Diesel engine[1] 80,080 kW 108,920 hp 0.03 kW/kg 0.02 hp/lb Emma Mærsk container ship
Suzuki 538 cc V2 4-stroke gas (petrol) outboard Otto engine[2] 19 kW 25 hp 0.27 kW/kg 0.16 hp/lb Runabout boats
DOE/NASA/0032-28 Mod 2 502 cc gas (petrol) Stirling engine[3] 62.3 kW 83.5 hp 0.30 kW/kg 0.18 hp/lb Chevrolet Celebrity[•] 1985
GM 6.6 L Duramax LMM (LYE option) V8 Turbo Diesel engine[4] 246 kW 330 hp 0.65 kW/kg 0.40 hp/lb Chevrolet Kodiak[•], GMC Topkick[•]
Junkers Jumo 205A opposed-piston two-stroke Diesel engine[5] 647 kW 867 hp 1.1 kW/kg 0.66 hp/lb Ju 86C-1 airliner, B&V Ha 139 floatplane
GE LM2500+ marine turboshaft Brayton gas turbine[6] 30,200 kW 40,500 hp 1.31 kW/kg 0.80 hp/lb GTS Millennium cruiseship, QM2 ocean liner
Mazda 13B-MSP Renesis 1.3 L Wankel engine[7] 184 kW 247 hp 1.5 kW/kg 0.92 hp/lb Mazda RX-8[•]
PW R-4360 71.5 L 28-cylinder supercharged Radial engine 3,210 kW 4,300 hp 1.83 kW/kg 1.11 hp/lb B-50 Superfortress, Convair B-36
C-97 Stratofreighter, C-119 Flying Boxcar
Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose"
Wright R-3350 54.57 L 18-c s/c Turbo-compound Radial engine 2,535 kW 3,400 hp 2.09 kW/kg 1.27 hp/lb B-29 Superfortress, Douglas DC-7
C-97 S/f prototype, Kaiser-Frazer C-119F
O.S. Engines 49-PI Type II 4.97 cc UAV Wankel engine[8] 0.934 kW 1.252 hp 2.8 kW/kg 1.7 hp/lb Model aircraft, Radio-controlled aircraft
GE LM6000 marine turboshaft Brayton gas turbine[9][10][disputed ] 44,700 kW 59,900 hp 5.67 kW/kg 3.38 hp/lb Peaking power plant
GE CF6-80C2 Brayton high-bypass turbofan jet engine[10] Boeing 747[•], 767, Airbus A300
BMW V10 3L P84/5 2005 gas (petrol) Otto engine[11] 690 kW 925 hp 7.5 kW/kg 4.6 hp/lb Williams FW27 car[•], Formula One auto racing
GE90-115B Brayton turbofan jet engine[12][13][disputed ] 83,164 kW 111,526 hp 10.0 kW/kg 6.10 hp/lb Boeing 777
PWR RS-24 (SSME) Block II H2 Brayton turbopump[14][15] 63,384 kW 85,000 hp 138 kW/kg 84 hp/lb Space Shuttle (STS-110 and later) [•]
PWR RS-24 (SSME) Block I H2 Brayton turbopump[16] 53,690 kW 72,000 hp 153 kW/kg 93 hp/lb Space Shuttle
  1. Full vehicle power-to-weight ratio shown below

Notable low ratio, (listed as weight to power)[edit]

Vehicle Power Vehicle Weight Weight to Power ratio
Benz Patent Motorwagen 954 cc 1886[17] 560 W / 0.75 bhp 265 kg / 584 lb 2.1 W/kg / 779 lb/hp
Stephenson's Rocket 0-2-2 steam locomotive with tender 1829[18] 15 kW / 20 bhp 4,320 kg / 9524 lb 3.5 W/kg / 476 lb/hp
CBQ Zephyr streamliner diesel locomotive with railcars 1934[19] 492 kW / 660 bhp 94 t / 208,000 lb 5.21 W/kg / 315 lb/hp
Alberto Contador's Verbier climb 2009 Tour de France on Specialized bike[20] 420 W / 0.56 bhp 62 kg / 137 lb 6.7 W/kg / 245 lb/hp
Force Motors Minidor Diesel 499 cc auto rickshaw[21][22] 6.6 kW / 8.8 bhp 700 kg / 1543 lb 9 W/kg / 175 lb/hp
PRR Q2 4-4-6-4 steam locomotive with tender 1944 5,956 kW / 7,987 bhp 475.9 t / 1,049,100 lb 12.5 W/kg / 131 lb/hp
Mercedes-Benz Citaro O530BZ H2 fuel cell bus 2002[23] 205 kW / 275 bhp 14,500 kg / 32,000 lb 14.1 W/kg / 116 lb/hp
TGV BR Class 373 high-speed Eurostar Trainset 1993 12,240 kW / 16,414 bhp 816 t / 1,798,972 lb 15 W/kg / 110 lb/hp
General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main battle tank 1980[24] 1,119 kW / 1500 bhp 55.7 t / 122,800 lb 20.1 W/kg / 81.9 lb/hp
BR Class 43 high-speed diesel electric locomotive 1975 1,678 kW / 2,250 bhp 70.25 t / 154,875 lb 23.9 W/kg / 69 lb/hp
GE AC6000CW diesel electric locomotive 1996 4,660 kW / 6,250 bhp 192 t / 423,000 lb 24.3 W/kg / 68 lb/hp
BR Class 55 Napier Deltic diesel electric locomotive 1961 2,460 kW / 3,300 bhp 101 t / 222,667 lb 24.4 W/kg / 68 lb/hp
International CXT 2004[25] 164 kW / 220 bhp 6,577 kg / 14500 lb 25 W/kg / 66 lb/hp
Ford Model T 2.9 L flex-fuel 1908 15 kW / 20 bhp 540 kg / 1,200 lb 28 W/kg / 60 lb/hp
TH!NK City 2008[26] 30 kW / 40 bhp 1038 kg / 2,288 lb 28.9 W/kg / 56.9 lb/hp
Messerschmitt KR200 Kabinenroller 191 cc 1955 6 kW / 8.2 bhp 230 kg / 506 lb 30 W/kg / 50 lb/hp
Wright Flyer 1903 9 kW / 12 bhp 274 kg / 605 lb 33 W/kg / 50 lb/hp
Tata Nano 624 cc 2008 26 kW / 35 bhp 635 kg / 1,400 lb 41.0 W/kg / 40 lb/hp
Bombardier JetTrain high-speed gas turbine-electric locomotive 2000[27] 3,750 kW / 5,029 bhp 90,750 kg / 200,000 lb 41.2 W/kg / 39.8 lb/hp
Suzuki MightyBoy 543 cc 1988 23 kW / 31 bhp 550 kg / 1,213 lb 42 W/kg / 39 lb/hp
Mitsubishi i MiEV 2009[28] 47 kW / 63 bhp 1,080 kg / 2,381 lb 43.5 W/kg / 37.8 lb/hp
Holden FJ 2,160 cc 1953[29] 44.7 kW / 60 bhp 1,021 kg / 2,250 lb 43.8 W/kg / 37.5 lb/hp
Chevrolet Kodiak/GMC Topkick LYE 6.6 L 2005[4][30] 246 kW / 330 bhp 5126 kg / 11,300 lb 48 W/kg / 34.2 lb/hp
DOE/NASA/0032-28 Chevrolet Celebrity 502 cc ASE Mod II 1985[3] 62.3 kW / 83.5 bhp 1,297 kg / 2,860 lb 48.0 W/kg / 34.3 lb/hp
Suzuki Alto 796 cc 2000 35 kW / 46 bhp 720 kg / 1,587 lb 49 W/kg / 35 lb/hp
Land Rover Defender 2.4 L 1990[31] 90 kW / 121 bhp 1,837 kg / 4,050 lb 49 W/kg / 33 lb/hp

Common power, (listed as weight to power)[edit]

Vehicle Power Vehicle Weight Weight-to-Power ratio
Toyota Prius 1.8 L 2010 (petrol only)[32] 73 kW / 98 bhp 1,380 kg / 3,042 lb 53 W/kg / 31 lb/hp
Bajaj Platina Naked 100 cc 2006[33] 6 kW / 8 bhp 113 kg / 249 lb 53 W/kg / 31 lb/hp
Subaru R2 type S 2003[34] 47 kW / 63 bhp 830 kg / 1,830 lb 57 W/kg / 29 lb/hp
Ford Fiesta ECOnetic 1.6 L TDCi 5dr 2009[35] 66 kW / 89 bhp 1,155 kg / 2,546 lb 57 W/kg / 29 lb/hp
Volvo C30 1.6D DRIVe S/S 3dr Hatch 2010[36] 80 kW / 108 bhp 1,347 kg / 2,970 lb 59.4 W/kg / 27.5 lb/hp
Ford Focus ECOnetic 1.6 L TDCi 5dr Hatch 2009[37] 81 kW / 108 bhp 1,357 kg / 2,992 lb 59.7 W/kg / 27 lb/hp
Ford Focus 1.8 L Zetec S TDCi 5dr Hatch 2009[38] 84 kW / 113 bhp 1,370 kg / 3,020 lb 61 W/kg / 27 lb/hp
Honda FCX Clarity 4 kg Hydrogen 2008[39] 100 kW / 134 bhp 1,600 kg / 3,528 lb 63 W/kg / 26 lb/hp
Hummer H1 6.6 L V8 2006[40] 224 kW / 300 bhp 3,559 kg / 7,847 lb 63 W/kg / 26 lb/hp
Audi A2 1.4 L TDI 90 type S 2003[41] 66 kW / 89 bhp 1,030 kg / 2,270 lb 64 W/kg / 25 lb/hp
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden/Chevrolet Astra 1.7 L CTDi 125 2010[42] 92 kW / 123 bhp 1,393 kg / 3,071 lb 66 W∕kg / 24.9 lb∕hp
Mini (new) Cooper 1.6D 2007[43] 81 kW / 108 bhp 1,185 kg / 2,612 lb 68 W/kg / 24 lb/hp
Toyota Prius 1.8 L 2010 (electric boost)[32] 100 kW / 134 bhp 1,380 kg / 3,042 lb 72 W/kg / 23 lb/hp
Ford Focus 2.0 L Zetec S TDCi 5dr Hatch 2009[44] 100 kW / 134 bhp 1,370 kg / 3,020 lb 73 W/kg / 23 lb/hp
General Motors EV1 electric car Gen II 1998[45] 102.2 kW / 137 bhp 1,400 kg / 3,086 lb 73 W/kg / 23 lb/hp
Toyota Venza I4 2.7 L FWD 2009[46] 136 kW / 182 bhp 1,706 kg / 3,760 lb 80 W/kg / 20.7 lb/hp
Ford Focus 2.0 L Zetec S 5dr Hatch 2009[47] 107 kW / 143 bhp 1,327 kg / 2,926 lb 81 W/kg / 20 lb/hp
Fiat Grande Punto 1.6 L Multijet 120 2005[48] 88 kW / 118 bhp 1,075 kg / 2,370 lb 82 W/kg / 20 lb/hp
Mini (classic) 1275GT 1969 57 kW / 76 bhp 686 kg / 1,512 lb 83 W/kg / 20 lb/hp
Opel/Vauxhall/Holden/Chevrolet Astra 2.0 L CTDi 160 2010[49] 118 kW / 158 bhp 1,393 kg / 3,071 lb 85 W∕kg / 19.4 lb∕hp
Ford Focus 2.0 auto 2007[50] 104.4 kW / 140 bhp 1,198 kg / 2,641 lb 87.1 W/kg / 19 lb/hp
Subaru Legacy/Liberty 2.0R 2005[51] 121 kW / 162 bhp 1,370 kg / 3,020 lb 88 W/kg / 19 lb/hp
Subaru Outback 2.5i 2008[52] 130.5 kW / 175 bhp 1,430 kg / 3,153 lb 91 W/kg / 18 lb/hp
Smart Fortwo 1.0 L Brabus 2009[53] 72 kW / 97 bhp 780 kg / 1,720 lb 92 W/kg / 18 lb/hp
Toyota Venza V6 3.5 L AWD 2009[46] 200 kW / 268 bhp 1,835 kg / 4,045 lb 109 W/kg / 15 lb/hp
Toyota Venza I4 2.7 L FWD 2009[46] with Lotus mass reduction[54] 136 kW / 182 bhp 1,210 kg / 2,667 lb 112.2 W/kg / 14.7 lb/hp
Toyota Hilux V6 DOHC 4 L 4×2 Single Cab Pickup ute 2009[55] 175 kW / 235 bhp 1,555 kg / 3,428 lb 112.5 W/kg / 14.6 lb/hp
Toyota Venza V6 3.5 L FWD 2009[46] 200 kW / 268 bhp 1,755 kg / 3,870 lb 114 W/kg / 14.4 lb/hp

Performance luxury, roadsters and mild sports, (listed as weight to power)[edit]

Increased engine performance is a consideration, but also other features associated with luxury vehicles. Longitudinal engines are common. Bodies vary from hot hatches, sedans (saloons), coupés, convertibles and roadsters. Mid-range dual-sport and cruiser motorcycles tend to have similar power-to-weight ratios.

Vehicle Power Vehicle Weight Weight-to-power ratio
Honda Accord sedan V6 2011 202 kW / 271 bhp 1630 kg / 3593 lb 124 W/kg / 13.26 lb/hp
Mini (new) Cooper 1.6T S JCW 2008[56] 155 kW / 208 bhp 1205 kg / 2657 lb 129 W/kg / 13 lb/hp
Mazda RX-8 1.3 L Wankel 2003 173 kW / 232 bhp 1309 kg / 2888 lb 141 W/kg / 12 lb/hp
Holden Statesman/Caprice / Buick Park Avenue / Daewoo Veritas 6 L V8 2007[57] 270 kW / 362 bhp 1891 kg / 4170 lb 143 W/kg / 12 lb/hp
Kawasaki KLR650 Gasoline DualSport 650 cc 26 kW / 35 bhp 182 kg / 401 lb 143 W/kg / 11 lb/hp
NATO HTC M1030M1 Diesel/Jet fuel DualSport 670 cc[58] 26 kW / 35 bhp 182 kg / 401 lb 143 W/kg / 11 lb/hp
Harley-Davidson FLSTF Softail Fat Boy Cruiser 1,584 cc 2009[59] 47 kW / 63 bhp 324 kg / 714 lb 145 W/kg / 11.3 lb/hp
BMW 7 Series 760Li 6 L V12 2006[60] 327 kW / 439 bhp 2250 kg / 4960 lb 145 W/kg / 11 lb/hp
Subaru Impreza WRX STi 2.0 L 2008[61] 227 kW / 304 bhp 1530 kg / 3373 lb 148 W/kg / 11 lb/hp
Honda S2000 roadster 1999[citation needed] 183.88 kW / 240 bhp 1250 kg / 2723 lb 150 W/kg / 11 lb/hp
GMH HSV Clubsport / GMV VXR8 / GMC CSV CR8 / Pontiac G8 6 L V8 2006[62] 317 kW / 425 bhp 1831 kg / 4037 lb 173 W/kg / 9.5 lb/hp
Tesla Roadster 2011[63] 215 kW / 288 bhp 1235 kg / 2723 lb 174 W/kg / 9.5 lb/hp

Sports vehicles and aircraft, (listed as weight to power)[edit]

Power-to-weight ratio is an important vehicle characteristic that affects the acceleration and handling - and therefore the driving enjoyment - of any sports vehicle. Aircraft also depend on high power-to-weight ratio to achieve sufficient lift.

Vehicle Power Vehicle Weight Weight-to-power ratio
Lotus Elise SC 2008 163 kW / 218 bhp 910 kg / 2006 lb 179 W/kg / 9 lb/hp
Ferrari Testarossa 1984 291 kW / 390 bhp 1506 kg / 3320 lb 193 W/kg / 9 lb/hp
Artega GT[64] 220 kW / 300 bhp 1100 kg / 2425 lb 200 W/kg / 8 lb/hp
Lotus Exige GT3 2006[65] 202.1 kW / 271 bhp 980 kg / 2160 lb 206 W/kg / 8 lb/hp
Chevrolet Corvette C6[66] 321 kW / 430 bhp 1441 kg / 3177 lb 223 W/kg / 7 lb/hp
Suzuki V-Strom 650 V-twin DualSport 650 cc 50 kW / 67 bhp 194 kg / 427 lb 258 W/kg / 6.4 lb/hp
Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06[66] 376 kW / 505 bhp 1421 kg / 3133 lb 265 W/kg / 6.2 lb/hp
Porsche 911 GT2 2007 390 kW / 523 bhp 1440 kg / 3200 lb 271 W/kg / 6.1 lb/hp
Lamborghini Murciélago LP 670-4 SV 2009[67] 493 kW / 661 bhp 1550 kg / 3417 lb 318 W/kg / 5.1 lb/hp
McLaren F1 GT 1997[68] 467.6 kW / 627 bhp 1220 kg / 2690 lb 403 W/kg / 4.3 lb/hp
Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 turboprop airliner[69] 7,562 kW / 10,142 bhp 17,185 kg / 37,888 lb 440 W/kg / 3.7 lb/hp
Supermarine Spitfire Fighter aircraft 1936 1,096 kW / 1,470 bhp 2,309 kg / 5,090 lb 475 W/kg / 3.46 lb/hp
Messerschmitt Bf 109 Fighter aircraft 1935 1,085 kW / 1,455 bhp 2,247 kg / 4,954 lb 483 W/kg / 3.40 lb/hp
Thunderbolt Land speed record car 3504 kW / 4700 bhp 7 t / 15432 lb 500 W/kg / 3.28 lb/hp
Ferrari FXX 2005 597 kW / 801 bhp 1155 kg / 2546 lb 517 W/kg / 3.2 lb/hp
Polaris Industries Assault Snowmobile 2009[70] 115 kW / 154 bhp 221 kg / 487 lb 523 W/kg / 3.16 lb/hp
Ultima GTR 720 2006[71] 536.9 kW / 720 bhp 920 kg / 2183 lb 583 W/kg / 3 lb/hp
Honda CBR1000RR 2009 133 kW / 178 bhp 199 kg / 439 lb 668 W/kg / 2.5 lb/hp
Ariel Atom 500 V8 2011 372 kW / 500 bhp 550 kg / 1212 lb 676.3 W/kg / 2.45 lb/hp
BMW S1000RR 2009 144 kW / 193 bhp 207.7 kg / 458 lb 693.3 W/kg / 2.37 lb/hp
Peugeot 208 T16 Pikes Peak 2013 652 kW / 875 bhp 875 kg / 1930 lb 745 W/kg / 2.2 lb/hp
KillaCycle Drag racing electric motorcycle 260 kW / 350 bhp 281 kg / 619 lb 925 W/kg / 1.77 lb/hp
MTT Turbine Superbike 2008[72] 213.3 kW / 286 bhp 227 kg / 500 lb 940 W/kg / 1.75 lb/hp
Vyrus 987 C3 4V V supercharged motorcycle 2010[73] 157.3 kW / 211 bhp 158 kg / 348.3 lb 996 W/kg / 1.65 lb/hp
BMW Williams FW27 Formula One 2005[74] 690 kW / 925 bhp 600 kg / 1323 lb 1150 W/kg / 1.43 lb/hp
Honda RC211V MotoGP 2004-6 176.73 kW / 237 bhp 148 kg / 326 lb 1194 W/kg / 1.37 lb/hp
Boeing 747-300[9][dead link] at Mach 0.84 cruise, 35,000 ft altitude[disputed ] 245 MW / 328,656 bhp 178.1 t / 392,800 lb 1376 W/kg / 1.20 lb/hp
John Force Racing Funny Car NHRA Drag Racing 2008[75] 5,963.60 kW / 8,000 bhp 1043 kg / 2,300 lb 5717 W/kg / 0.30 lb/hp
Koenigsegg One:1 2015 1000 kW / 1341 bhp 1310 kg / 2888 lb 763.35 W/kg / 2.15 lb/hp

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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