Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles related to the professional practice of engineering. It includes the initial education for becoming an engineer and any advanced education and specializations that follow. Engineering education is typically accompanied by additional examinations and supervised training as the requirements for a professional engineering license.
Technology education in primary and secondary schools often serves as the foundation for engineering education at the university level. (Douglas, Iverson & Kalyandurg, 2004). In the United States, engineering education is a part of the STEM initiative in public schools. Service-learning in engineering education is gaining popularity within the variety of disciplinary focuses within engineering education including mechanical engineering, construction science, computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, and other forms of related education.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 4 North America
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
Engineering training in Kenya is typically provided by the universities. Registration of engineers is governed by the Engineers Registration Act. A candidate stands to qualify as a registered engineer, R.Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years post graduation work experience.
All registrations are undertaken by the Engineers Registration Board which is a statutory body established through an Act of the Kenyan Parliament in 1969. A minor revision was done in 1992, to accommodate Technician Engineer grade. The Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the Republic of Kenya in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. Under CAP 530 of the Laws of Kenya, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in Kenya.
Engineering training in South Africa is typically provided by the universities, universities of technology and colleges for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (previously Further Education and Training). The qualifications provided by these institutions must have an Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) accreditation for the qualification for graduates and diplomats of these institutions to be registered as Candidate Certificated Engineers,Candidate Engineers, Candidate Engineering Technologists and Candidate Engineering Technicians.
The academic training performed by the universities is typically in the form of a four-year BSc(Eng), BIng or BEng degree. For the degree to be accredited, the course material must conform to the ECSA Exit Level Outcomes (ELO).
Certified Professional Engineers (PrEng) are persons that are accredited by ECSA as an engineering professional. Legally, a Certified Professional Engineers sign off is required for any major project to be implemented, in order to ensure the safety and standards of the project.
Professional Certificated Engineers (PrCertEng) are persons that are holders of one of seven Government Certificates of Competency and who have been registered by ECSA as engineering professionals.
- See "Decades of Engineering Excellence" in further reading below.
Engineering training in Tanzania is typically provided by various universities and technical institutions in the country. Graduate Engineers are registered by Engineers Registration Board (ERB) after undergoing three years of practical training. A candidate stands to qualify as a professional engineer, P.Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years post graduation work experience. Engineers Registration Board is a statutory body established through an Act of the Tanzanian Parliament in 1968. Minor revision was done in 1997 to address the issue of engineering professional excellence in the country.
The Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the United Republic of Tanzania in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. According to Tanzania Laws, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in United Republic of Tanzania.
In India, there are several engineering colleges imparting undergraduate and graduate courses in engineering, applied engineering and sciences. The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Anna University chennai, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, the Indian School of Mines, (Now IIT Dhanbad), Gujarat Technological University Ahmedabad, the VIT University and University of Mumbai  are the renowned and reputed institutes in the country. In total more than 5000 universities and colleges offer engineering courses.
List of engineering schools in Indonesia
- Faculty of Engineering of Ahmad Dahlan University
- Faculty of Engineering of Andalas University
- Faculty of Engineering of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University
- Faculty of Engineering of University of Indonesia
- Faculty of Engineering of Gadjah Mada University
- Bandung Institute of Technology
- Tenth of November Institute of Technology, Surabaya
- Faculty of Engineering of University of Lampung
- Faculty of Engineering of Diponegoro University
Activities on Engineering Education in Malaysia are spearheaded by the Society of Engineering Education Malaysia (SEEM). SEEM was established in 2007 and launched on 23 February 2009. The idea of establishing the Society of Engineering Education was initiated on April, 2005 with thecreating of a Pro-team Committee for SEEM. The objectives of this society are to contribute to the development of education in the fields of engineering educationand science and technology, including teaching and learning, counseling, research, service and public relations.
In Pakistan engineering certification is carried out by the Pakistan Engineering Council, a statutory body, constituted under the PEC Act No. V of 1976 of the constitution of Pakistan and amended vide Ordinance No.XXIII of 2006, to regulate the engineering profession in the country. It aims to achieve rapid and sustainable growth in all national, economic and social fields. The council is responsible for maintaining realistic and internationally relevant standards of professional competence and ethics for engineers in the country. PEC interacts with the Government, both at the Federal and Provincial level by participating in Commissions, Committees and Advisory Bodies. PEC is a fully representative body of the engineering community in the country.
In Austria, similar to Germany, an engineering degree can be obtained from either Universities or Fachhochschulen. As in most of Europe, the education usually consists of a 3-year Bachelor's Degree and a 2-year Master's Degree.
A lower engineering degree is offered by Höheren Technische Lehranstalten, (HTL, Higher Technical Institute), a form of secondary college which reaches from grade 9 to 13. There are disciplines like civil engineering, electronics, information technology, etc.
In the 5th year of HTL, as in other secondary schools in Austria, there is a final exam, called Matura. Graduates obtain an Ingenieur engineering degree after three years of work in the studied field.
In Denmark, the engineering degree is delivered by either Universities or Engineering Colleges (e.g. Engineering College of Aarhus).
Students receive first a baccalaureate degree (3 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally. The engineering doctorate degree is the PhD (3 years of studies).
The quality of Danish engineering expertise has long been much vaunted. Danish engineers especially from Engineering Colleges have also been praised at being very practical (i.e. skilled at physical work related to their discipline), ascribed to the high quality of the apprenticeship courses many Danish engineers go through as part of their education.
Finland's system is derived from Germany's system. Two kinds of schools are recognized, the universities and the Ammattikorkeakoulus (literally vocational college, which are some times translated as University of applied sciences.
Universities award typically 'Bachelor of Science in Technology' and 'Master of Science in Technology' degrees. Bachelor's degree is a three-year degree as master's degree is equivalent for two-year full-time studies. In Finnish the master's degree is called diplomi-insinööri, similarly as in Germany (Diplom-Ingenieur). The degrees are awarded by engineering schools or faculties in universities (in Aalto University, Oulu and Vaasa) or by separate universities of technology (Tampere UT and Lappeenranta UT). The degree is a scientific, theoretical taught master's degree. Master's thesis is important part of master's degree studies. Master's degree qualifies for further study into Licentiate or Doctorate. Because of the Bologna process, the degree tekniikan kandidaatti ("Bachelor of Technology"), corresponding to three years of study into the master's degree, has been introduced.
The AMK's are municipally administered schools that traditionally award 3.5-, to 4.5-year vocational degrees called insinööri (amk). The aim of the degree is professional competency with less emphasis on scientific study. Although they may be called "Bachelor's degrees" in English, Finnish universities do not recognize them as equal to tekniikan kandidaatti, but require approximately one year of additional study. Recently, AMK's have also begun awarding a higher AMK degrees (Master of Engineering), designed for AMK-engineers already involved in the working life (at least two years of professional experience). AMK's do not have the right to award Licentiates or Doctorates. Similarly, AMK-degree does not entitle one to apply for academic postgraduate studies without further preliminary studies at university.
In France, the engineering degree is mainly delivered by "Grandes Écoles d'Ingénieurs" (graduate schools of engineering) upon completion of 3 years of Master's studies. Many Écoles recruit undergraduate students from CPGE (2 or 3 years high level program after the Baccalauréat), even though some of them include an integrated undergraduate cycle. Other students accessing these Grandes Ecoles may come from other horizons, such as DUT or BTS (Technical 2-year university degrees) or standard 2-year university degrees. In all cases, recruitment is highly selective. Hence graduate engineers in France have studied a minimum of 5 years after the baccalaureate. Since 2013, the French engineering degree is recognized by the AACRAO as a Master of Science in Engineering. To be able to deliver the engineering degree, an École Master 's curriculum has to be validated by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur (Commission of the Engineering Title). It is important for the external observer to note that the system in France is extremely demanding in its entrance requirements (numerus clausus, using student rank in exams as the only criterion), despite being almost free of tuition fees, and much stricter in regards to the academic level of applying students than many other systems. The system focuses solely on selecting students by their engineering fundamental disciplines (mathematics, physics) abilities rather than their financial ability to finance large tuition fees, thus enabling a wider population access to higher education. In fact, being a graduate engineer in France is considered as being near/at the top of the social/professional ladder. The engineering profession grew from the military and the nobility in the 18th century. Before the French Revolution, engineers were trained in schools for technical officers, like "École d'Arts et Métiers" (Arts et Métiers ParisTech) established in 1780. Then, other schools were created, for instance the École Polytechnique which was established in 1794. Polytechnique is one of the grandes écoles that have traditionally prepared technocrats to lead French government and industry, and has been one of the most privileged routes into the elite divisions of the civil service known as the "grands corps de l'État".
Inside a French company the title of Ingénieur refers to a rank in qualification and is not restricted. Therefore, you can find sometimes Ingénieurs des Ventes (Sales Engineers), Ingénieur Marketing, Ingénieur Bancaire (Banking Engineer), Ingénieur Recherche & Développement (R&D Engineer), etc.
Students receive first a baccalaureate degree (3–4 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally, the degree received after completing an engineering education was the German Diplom-Ingenieur - the German language has adopted the French noun. Using the title Ingenieur is legally regulated and limited to the according academic graduates. The engineering doctorate degree is the Doktor-Ingenieur.
The quality of German engineering expertise has long been much vaunted, especially in the field of mechanical engineering. This is supported by the degree to which the various theories governing aerodynamics and structural mechanics are named after German scientists and engineers such as Ludwig Prandtl. German engineers have also been praised at being very practical (i.e. skilled at physical work related to their discipline), ascribed to the high quality of the apprenticeship courses many German engineers go through as part of their education.
In Italy, the engineering degree and "engineer" title is delivered by Polytechnic Universities upon completion of 5 years of studies. Additional master's degree (2 years) and doctorate programs (5 years) provide the title of "Dottore in ingegneria". Students that started studies in Polytechnic Universities before 2005 (when Italy adopted the Bologna declaration) need to complete a 5 years program to get the engineer title. In this case the master's degree is obtained after 1 year of studies. Only people with an engineer title can be employed as "engineers". Still, some with competence and experience in an engineering field that do not have such a title, can still be employed to perform engineering tasks as "specialist", "assistant", "technologist" or "technician". But, only engineers can take legal responsibility and provide guarantee upon the work done by a team in their area of expertise. Sometimes a company working in this area, which temporarily does not have any employees with an engineer title must pay for an external service of an engineering audit to provide legal guarantee for their products or services.
In the Netherlands there were two paths to study engineering. At the Dutch 'technical hogeschool', being a professional school (equivalent to a polytechnic in the UK and a University of applied sciences internationally), award a practically orientated degree and the title ing. after four years study. The universities offered a more academically oriented degree and the title ir. after five years study.
This changed in 2002 when the Netherlands switched to the Bachelor-Master system. This is a consequence of the Bologna process. In this accord 29 European countries agreed to harmonize their higher education system and create a European higher education area.
In this system the professional schools award a bachelor's degree and the title BEng or ing. after four years study. The universities with engineering programs award a bachelor's degree and the title BSc after the third year. A university bachelor is expected to continue his education for one or two more years to earn his master's degree and the title MSc or ir. A vocational bachelor may be admitted to a university master's degree program although often they are required to take additional courses. The higher vocational technical schools have started to develop master's degree programs specifically for their students. This slightly awkward situation is expected to disappear due to the European harmonization process.
In Poland after 3,5 years of technical studies, one gets inżynier degree (inż.), which corresponds to B.Sc. or B.Eng. After that, one can continue studies, and after 2 years of post-graduate programme (supplementary studies) can obtain additional M.Sc. (or M.Eng.) degree, called magister, mgr, and that time one has two degrees: magister inżynier, mgr inż. (literally: master engineer). The mgr degree formerly (until full adaptation of Bologna process by university) could be obtained in integrated 5 years B.Sc-M.Sc. programme studies. Graduates having magister inżynier degree, can start 4 years doctorate studies (Ph.D.), which require opening of doctoral proceedings (przewód doktorski), carrying out own research, passing some exams (e.g. foreign language, philosophy, economy, leading subjects), writing and defense of doctoral thesis. Some Ph.D. students have also classes with undergraduate students (B.Sc., M.Sc.). Graduate of doctorate studies of technical university holds scientific degree of doktor nauk technicznych, dr inż., (literally: "doctor of technical sciences") or other e.g. Doktor Nauk Chemicznych (lit. "doctor of chemical sciences").
In Portugal, there are two paths to study engineering: the polytechnic and the university paths. In theory, but many times not so much in practice, the polytechnic path is more practical oriented, the university path being more research oriented.
In this system, the polytechnic institutes award a licenciatura (bachelor) in engineering degree after three years of study, that can be complemented by a mestrado (master) in engineering after two plus years of study.
Regarding the universities, they offer both engineering programs similar to those of the polytechnics (three years licenciatura plus two years mestrado) as mestrado integrados (integrated masters) in engineering programs. The mestrado integrado programs take five years of study to complete, awarding a licenciatura degree in engineering sciences after the first three years and a mestrado degree in engineering after the whole five years. Further, the universities also offer doutoramento (Ph.D.) programs in engineering.
Being an holder of an academic degree in engineering is not enough to practice the profession of engineer and to have the legal right of the use of the title engenheiro (engineer) in Portugal. For that, it is necessary to be admitted and be a member of the Ordem dos Engenheiros (Portuguese institution of engineers). At the Ordem dos Engenheiros, an engineer is classified as an E1, E2 or E3 grade engineer, accordingly with the higher engineer degree he or she holds (respectively doutoramento, mestrado or licenciatura). Holders of the ancient pre-Bologna declaration five years licenciatura degrees in engineering are also classified as E2 engineers.
Alternatively, holders of engineering licenciatura degrees may choose to practice the profession of engenheiro técnico (technical engineer), having for that to be admitted and be a member of the Ordem dos Engenheiros Técnicos (Institution of technical engineers). Holders of the ancient bacharelatos (pre-Bologna three years bachelor's degrees) can only practice the profession of engenheiro técnico since the admission to the Ordem dos Engenheiros is not allowed to them.
Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation was a first Russian educational institution founded by Peter the Great in 1701. It provided Russians with technical education for the first time and much of its curriculum was devoted to producing sailors, engineers, cartographers and bombardiers to support Russian expanding navy and army. Then in 1810, the Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical university becomes the first engineering higher learning institution in the Russian Empire, after addition of officers classes and application of five-year term of teaching. So initially more rigorisms of standards and teaching terms became the traditional historical feature of the Russian engineering education. In Russia, the degree is специалист инженер (specialist engineer) or master's degree is an engineer, was traditional a degree after 5–6 years of study, but now (when Russia adopted the Bologna declaration) appears a first degree "bachelor is an engineer" after 4 years of study. Additional programs (3–4 years, after a traditional specialist-magister) provide the title of "Doctor of Science in Engineering" ("Доктор наук инженер").
In Romania, the engineering degree and "engineer" title is delivered by Polytechnic Universities upon completion of 4 years of studies. Additional master's degree (2 years) and doctorate programs (4–5 years) provide the title of "doctor inginer". Students that started studies in Polytechnic Universities before 2005 (when Romania adopted the Bologna declaration) need to complete a 5 years program to get the engineer title. In this case the master's degree is obtained after 1 year of studies. Only people with an engineer title can be employed as "engineers". Still, some with competence and experience in an engineering field that do not have such a title, can still be employed to perform engineering tasks as "specialist", "assistant", "technologist" or "technician". But, only engineers can take legal responsibility and provide guarantee upon the work done by a team in their area of expertise. Sometimes a company working in this area, which temporarily does not have any employees with an engineer title must pay for an external service of an engineering audit to provide legal guarantee for their products or services.
In Slovakia, an engineer (inžinier) is considered to be a person holding master's degree in technical sciences or economics. Several technical and economic universities offer 4-5-year master study in the fields of chemistry, agriculture, material technology, computer science, electrical and mechanical engineering, nuclear physics and technology or economics. A bachelor's degree in similar field is prerequisite. Absolvents are awarded with the Ing. title always put in front of one's name; eventual follow-up doctoral study is offered both by universities and some institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.
In Spain, the engineering degree is delivered by Universities in Engineering Schools, called "Escuelas de Ingeniería". Like with any other degree in Spain, students need to pass a series of examinations based on Bachillerato's subjects (Selectividad), select their bachelor's degree, and their marks determine whether they are access the degree they want or not.
Students receive first a grado degree (4 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally, the degree received after completing an engineering education is the Spanish title of "Ingeniero". Using the title "Ingeniero" is legally regulated and limited to the according academic graduates.
An institution offering engineering education is called "teknisk högskola" (institute of technology). These schools primarily offers five-year programmes resulting in the civilingenjör degree (not to be confused with the narrower English term "civil engineer"), internationally corresponding to a Master of Science in Engineering degree. These programmes typically offers a strong backing in the natural sciences, and the degree also opens up for doctoral (PHD) studies towards the degree "teknologie doktor". Civilingenjör programmes are offered in a broad range of fields: Engineering physics, Chemistry, Civil engineering, surveying, Industrial engineering and management, etc. There also are shorter three-year programmes called högskoleingengör (Bachelor of Science in Engineering) are typically more applied.
In Turkey, engineering degrees range from a bachelor's degree in engineering (for a 4-year period), to a master's degree (adding 2 years), and to a Doctoral Degree (usually 4 – 5 years).
The title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree, and the use of the title by others (even persons with much more work experience) is illegal.
The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (UCTEA) was established in 1954 and separates engineers and architects to professional branches, with the condition of being within the framework of laws and regulations and in accordance with the present conditions, requirements and possibilities and to also establishes new Chambers for the group of engineers and architects, whose professional or working areas are similar or the same.
UCTEA is maintaining its activities with its 23 Chambers, 194 branches of its Chambers and 39 Provincial Coordination Councils. Approximately, graduates of 70 related academic disciplines in engineering, architecture and city planning are members of the Chambers of UCTEA.
In the UK, like in United States and Canada, professional engineers are trained in universities but some can start in a technical apprenticeship (4–5 years) prior to enrolling in a university engineering degree. However unlike the US and Canada engineers do not require a license to practice the profession in the UK. People who do not attend university can enroll in the Engineering Council UK examination program administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute. All accredited engineering courses are assessed and approved by the Professional Engineering Institutions reflecting the subject covered; IMechE, IET, BCS, ICE, IStructE etc. Some of these institutions have previously invested heavily in engineering subjects and have become globally renowned.
The degree then counts in part to qualifying as a Chartered Engineer after a period (usually 4–8 years beyond the first degree) of structured professional practice, professional practice peer review and, if required, further exams to then become a corporate member of the relevant professional body. The term 'Chartered Engineer' is regulated by Royal Assent its use is restricted only to those registered; the awarding of this status is devolved to the professional institutions by the Engineering Council.
In the UK, most engineering courses take 3 years for an undergraduate bachelors (BEng) and a 4-year period for an Undergraduate Masters. Students who read a 4 years engineering course are awarded a Masters of Engineering (as opposed to Masters of Science in Engineering) Some universities allow a student to opt out after one year before completion of the programme and receive a Diploma if a student has successfully completed second year or certificate if only successfully completed year one. Many courses include an option of a year in industry, which is usually a year before completion. Students who opt for this are awarded a Sandwich degree.
BEng graduates may be registered as an "Incorporated Engineer" by the Engineering Council after a period of structured professional practice, professional practice peer review and, if required, further exams to then become a member of the relevant professional body. The term 'Incorporated Engineer' is regulated by Royal Assent its use is restricted only to those registered; the awarding of this status is devolved to the professional institutions by the Engineering Council.
In the UK, the term "engineer" is applied to non-degree vocations such as technologists, technicians, draftsmen, machinists, mechanics, plumbers, electricians, repair people, semi-skilled and even unskilled occupations.
In recent developments by government and industry, to addressing the growing skills deficit in many fields of UK engineering, there has been a strong emphasis placed on dealing with Engineering in school and providing students with positive role models from a young age.
In Canada, there are 43 institutions offering 278 engineering accredited programs delivering a Bachelor's degree after a term of 4 years. Many schools also offer graduate level degrees in the applied sciences. Accreditation means that students who successfully complete the accredited program will have received sufficient engineering knowledge in order to meet the knowledge requirements of licensure as a Professional Engineer. Alternately, Canadian graduates of unaccredited 3-year diploma, BSc, B.Tech, or B.Eng programs can qualify for professional license by association examinations. Some of the schools include: Concordia University, École de technologie supérieure, École Polytechnique de Montréal, University of Toronto, University of Saskatchewan, University of Victoria, University of Calgary, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, McGill University, Dalhousie University, Ryerson University, York University, University of Regina, Carleton University, McMaster University, University of Ottawa, Queen's University, University of New Brunswick, UOIT, University of Waterloo, University of Guelph, University of Windsor, Memorial University of Newfoundland, and Royal Military College of Canada just to name a few. Every university offering engineering degrees in Canada needs to be accredited by the CEAB (Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board), thus ensuring high standards are enforced at all universities. Engineering degrees in Canada are distinct from degrees in engineering technology which are more applied degrees or diplomas. An engineering education in Canada is held in high esteem.
Some of the first engineers designed irrigation canals, buildings, dams, and many other things to satisfy the needs of the people. Early engineers during war time designed weapons and war machines. Engineering education has changed since the times of the early engineers. "By the middle of the 20th century there were almost 1 million engineers in the United States."
The first professional degree in engineering is a bachelor's degree with few exceptions. This being said, interest in engineering has grown since 1999; the number of bachelor's degrees issued has increased by 20%.
Most bachelor's degree engineering programs require about two years of core courses. This is where a typical engineering student would learn mathematics (single- and multi-variable calculus and elementary differential equations), general chemistry, English composition, general and modern physics, computer science (typically programming), and introductory engineering in several areas that are required for a satisfactory engineering background and to be successful in their program of choice. Several courses in social sciences or humanities are often also required to be taken, but are commonly elective courses from a broad choice. Required common engineering courses typically include engineering drawing/drafting, materials engineering, statics and dynamics, strength of materials, electrical engineering, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and perhaps some systems or industrial engineering. The science and engineering courses include lecture and laboratory education, either in the same course(s) or in separate courses. However, some professors and educators believe that engineering programs should be changed to adopt more practical educating by focusing on skills that one would use in their future career field.
By the end of the first year an engineering student should be looking to decide what specialization they would like to study. Specializations could include the following: civil (including structural), mechanical, electrical (often including computers) chemical, biological, industrial, aerospace, materials (including metallurgical), agricultural, and many other specializations. After choosing a specialization an engineering student will begin to take class that will build on the education that they have received and focus their future education toward their specialization or field of study. Towards the end of their undergraduate education, engineering students often undertake a design or other special project specific to their field.
After formal education, the engineer will often enter an internship or engineer in training status for approximately four years. After that time the engineer can decide whether or not to take a state licensing test to make them a Professional Engineer. After successful completion of that test, the Professional engineer can place the initials P.E. after their name signifying that they are now a Professional Engineer. There are also graduate degree options for an engineer. Many engineers decide to complete a master’s degree in some field of engineering or business administration or get education in law, medicine, or other field.
Two types of doctorate are available also, the traditional Ph.D. or the doctor of engineering. The Ph.D. focuses on research and academic excellence, whereas the doctor of engineering focuses on practical engineering. The education requirements are the same for both degrees; however, the dissertation required is different. The Ph.D. requires the standard research problem, where the doctor of engineering focuses on a practical dissertation.
After graduation, continuing education courses may be needed to keep a government-issued engineering certificate valid, to keep skills fresh, to expand skills, or to keep up with new technology.
- List of engineering schools
- Education and training of electrical and electronics engineers
- Education for Chemical Engineers
- Engineer's degree
- Global Engineering Education
- Industrial visit
- Problem-based learning
- Project-based learning
- Engineering education research
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· Grobler, du Toit: Decades of Engineering Excellence (2013), Published by Chris van Rensburg Publications, Johannesburg, South Africa on behalf of ECSA, Johannesburg, ISBN 0-86846-116-4