Engineering education in India

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India is one of the largest producers of engineers in the world.

In India, there are numerous engineering colleges imparting undergraduate and graduate courses in engineering, applied engineering and sciences.

History[edit]

The impulse for creation of centers of technical training came from the British Raj rulers of India. While Superintending Engineers were mostly recruited from Britain, lower grades e.g. Craftsmen, Artisans and sub-overseers who were recruited locally. The necessity to make them more efficient, led to the establishment of industrial schools attached to Indian Ordnance Factories and other engineering establishments.

The first engineering college was established in the [chennai]S.A engineering college in 1847 for the training of Civil Engineers at Roorkee, Thomason College (which later become IIT Roorkee) which made use of the large workshops and public buildings there that were erected for the Upper Ganges Canal.

In pursuance of the Government policy, three Engineering Colleges were opened by about 1856 in the three Presidencies. In Bengal Presidency, a College called the Calcutta College of Civil Engineering (which later became Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur) was opened at the Writers' Building in November 1856. In Bombay Presidency, the Overseers' School at Pune eventually became the College of Engineering, Pune and was affiliated to the Bombay University in 1858. In the Madras Presidency, the industrial school attached to the Gun Carriage Factory became ultimately the College of Engineering, Guindy and affiliated to the Madras University (1858).

Indian Institutes of Technology[edit]

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) has 23 centers located in Bhubaneswar, Bombay, Delhi, Gandhinagar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, Mandi, Patna, Roorkee, Ropar, Dhanbad, Palakkad, Tirupati, Bhilai, Goa, Jammu, Dharwad and Varanasi. All IITs enjoy the status of the Institutes of National Importance and are autonomous universities that draft their own curricula. Many IITs are members of LAOTSE, an international network of universities in Europe and Asia. LAOTSE membership allows the IITs to exchange students and senior scholars with universities in other countries.

Admission to undergraduate B.Tech and integrated M.Tech programs are through JEE Advanced (the Joint Entrance Examination Advanced) in which around 150,000 students appear annually out of which only around 11,032[1] get selected. These 150,000 students are initially sorted out by the JEE Mains (Joint Entrance Examination Mains) which is conducted by the central board ( Delhi). Around 1.3 million students appear for this exam. Admission to most postgraduate courses in IITs is granted through various written entrance examinations: GATE (for M.Tech.), JAM (for M.Sc.) and CEED (for M.Des.). The admission for Ph.D. program is based primarily on a personal interview, though candidates may also have to appear for written tests. The IITs are also well known for their special reservation policy, which is significantly different from the one applied in other educational institutions of India.

National Institutes of Technology[edit]

The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are colleges of engineering and technology education in India. All NITs enjoy the status of the Institutes of National Importance and are autonomous universities that draft their own curricula. They were originally called Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs). In 2002, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, decided to upgrade, in phases, all the original 17 RECs as NITs. There are currently 31 NITs, with the inception of 10 new NITs in the year 2010 and another in 2015. The 31 NITs are located in Allahabad, Agartala, Bhopal, Durgapur, Hamirpur, Kozhikode, Kurukshetra, Jalandhar, Jamshedpur, Jaipur, Nagpur, Patna, Raipur, Rourkela, Silchar, Srinagar, Surathkal, Surat, Tiruchirappalli, Warangal. The Government of India has introduced the National Institutes of Technology (NIT) Act 2010 to bring 31 such institutions within the ambit of the act and to provide them with complete autonomy in their functioning. The NITs are deliberately scattered throughout the country in line with the government norm of an NIT in every major state of India to promote regional development. The individual NITs, after the introduction of the NIT Act, have been functioning as autonomous technical universities and hence can draft their own curriculum and functioning policies.[2]

The admission to undergraduate programs of all the NITs was done by the All India Engineering Entrance Examination popularly known as AIEEE. From the year 2013, AIEEE was replaced by JEE-Main (Joint Entrance Examination - Main) in which 40% weightage is given to the Higher Secondary results and 60% (as per new rules the weightage of marks in board has been changec and HS board percentage is not counted) weightage given to the JEE(Main) results.The examination is objective by nature and is conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). More than fourteen lakh(1,400,000) applicants took part in 2013 for approximately 15500 seats in the B. Tech and B. Arch programmes available in all the NITs put together.

Indian Institutes of Engineering Science and Technology[edit]

Indian Institutes of Engineering Science and Technology (abbreviated as IIESTs) are a group of academic institutions in India for research and education in engineering. These were originally proposed by the Government of India in 2007 to meet the increasing demand for technological and scientific workforce in the industrial and service sectors of India as well as the growing need for qualified personnel in research and development. It was decided that the institutes under the banner of IIEST were to be created by upgrading existing engineering colleges or universities under the various State governments of India through an act of the Parliament of India, instead of founding completely new institutes. After upgrading, these institutes would also be granted the status of "Institutes of National Importance (INI)".[3] The first institute to be upgraded to IIEST was Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, which was a university under the Government of West Bengal prior to the upgrade process.

Indian Institute of Information Technology[edit]

Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) are a group of four institutes of higher education in India, focused on information technology. They are established by the central government, centrally funded, and managed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

The Institution of Engineers (India)[edit]

AMIE was established in 1920 in Kolkata, West Bengal and is acclaimed to have pioneered non-formal education in Engineering. IEI (I) conducts an examination for its Associate Membership(AMIE). This examination is considered to be on par with B.E. / B.Tech.[4] when contemplated as an eligibility qualification to write competitive examinations like the Indian Civil Service, Indian Engineering Services, GATE, etc., and for employment in Government, public and private sectors in India. This qualification is recognised by Ministry of HRD, Government of India as equivalent to B.E./ B.Tech.

There are 2 sections, namely Section A and Section B, who passed both of section he will be chartered engineer(CEng), chartered engineer(CEng) is considered as bachelor's degree in all National and International bodies.

Polytechnic Institutes[edit]

In India there are Institutions which offer three year diploma in engineering post Tenth class . These institutes have affiliation from state board of technical education of respective state governments. after which one can apply for post of junior engineer or continue higher studies by appearing for exams of AMIE to become an engineering graduate.

AICTE approved institutes by state[edit]

List of AICTE approved institutes by state, for the academic year 2017-2018:[dubious ]

S.No State/Union Territory Number of Engineering Institutes[4]
1 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 1
2 Andhra Pradesh 825
3 Arunachal Pradesh 10
4 Assam 59
5 Bihar 124
6 Chandigarh 14
7 Chhattisgarh 124
8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 3
9 Daman and Diu 2
10 Delhi 78
11 Goa 17
12 Gujarat 427
13 Haryana 416
14 Himachal Pradesh 64
15 Jammu & Kashmir 53
16 Jharkhand 73
17 Karnataka 756
18 Kerala 380
19 Madhya Pradesh 556
20 Maharashtra 1564
21 Manipur 4
22 Meghalaya 7
23 Mizoram 4
24 Nagaland 8
25 Orissa 303
26 Puducherry 29
27 Punjab 384
28 Rajasthan 402
29 Sikkim 5
30 Tamil Nadu 1339
31 Telangana 701
32 Tripura 13
33 Uttar Pradesh 1165
34 Uttarakhand 197
35 West Bengal 286
- Total 10396

Corruption in Engineering Education[edit]

Some of the engineering colleges have been known for involving themselves in the illegal practice of capitation fee. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), the regulatory body for technical education in India, has called "upon the students, parents and the general public not to pay any capitation fee or any other fee other than that mentioned in the Prospectus of the Institutions for consideration of admission.".[5] AICTE also mentions that the fee charged from students, has to be approved by the fee regulatory committee of the state, and the institute should mention the fee in its website.[6] As per AICTE norms, the educational institutions are not meant to charge a fee higher than what is mentioned in the prospectus. Educational regulatory agencies such as UGC [7] and regional level fee regulating bodies[8] has mandated that an institution should include the fee in the prospectus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]