English-based creole languages

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An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language, for which English is the lexifier. Most English creoles were formed in British colonies, following the great expansion of British naval military power and trade in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The main categories of English-based creoles are Atlantic (the Americas and Africa) and Pacific (Asia and Oceania).

Origin[edit]

It is disputed to what extent the various English-based creoles of the world share a common origin. The monogenesis hypothesis[1][2] posits that a single language, commonly called proto–Pidgin English, spoken along the West African coast in the early sixteenth century, was ancestral to most or all of the Atlantic creoles (the English creoles of both West Africa and the Americas).

List[edit]

Eastern Caribbean[edit]

Name Country Number of speakers[3] Notes

Atlantic[edit]

Western Caribbean[edit]

Jamaican Patois  Jamaica 2,670,000 (2001)~3,035,000
Belizean Creole  Belize L1 Users: 170,000 (2014) L2 Users: 300,000 (2014)
Miskito Coast Creole  Nicaragua 18,400 Dialect: Rama Cay Creole
Limonese Creole  Costa Rica 55,100 (1986)
Panamanian Creole English  Panama 268,000 (2000)
San Andrés–Providencia Creole  Colombia 33,000 (1995)
Esmeraldeño-Chota Creole  Ecuador 250,000
Afro-Seminole Creole  USA 200 (1990) Ethnic population: 500 (2007)
Gullah  USA 350 (2010) Ethnic population: 250,000
Bahamian Creole  Bahamas 309,000 (2014)
Turks and Caicos Creole English  Turks and Caicos 10,700 (1995)
Virgin Islands Creole  US Virgin Islands

 British Virgin Islands

 Sint Maarten

 Saint-Martin

 Sint Eustatius

 Saba

52,300 (1980)~76,500
Anguillan Creole  Anguilla 11,500 (2001)
Antiguan Creole  Antigua and Barbuda 67,000 (2001)~147,520
Saint Kitts Creole  Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,000 (1998)
Montserrat Creole  Montserrat 3,820 (2011)
Vincentian Creole  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 138,000 (1989)
Grenadian Creole  Grenada 89,200 (2001)
Tobagonian Creole  Trinidad and Tobago 300,000 (2011)
Trinidadian Creole  Trinidad and Tobago 1,000,000 (2011)
Bajan Creole  Barbados 256,000 (1999)
Guyanese Creole  Guyana 650,000~682,000

Suriname[edit]

Sranan Tongo  Suriname L1 users: 67,300 (2013)~410,700 L2 users: 300,000
Saramaccan  Suriname 14,100 (2013)~17,100
Ndyuka  Suriname 21,700 (2013)~39,700. Dialects: Aluku, Paramaccan
Kwinti  Suriname 200 (2005)

Africa[edit]

Krio  Sierra Leone 692,000~716,110 L2 users: 4,000,000 (1987)
Kreyol  Liberia 1,500,000 (L2; 1984)
Ghanaian Pidgin  Ghana 5,000,000 (2011) L2 users: 2,000 (1990)
Nigerian Pidgin  Nigeria 30,000,000 (2005)
Cameroonian Pidgin  Cameroon 2,000,000 (L2; 1989)
Equatorial Guinean Pidgin  Equatorial Guinea 6,000 (2011) L2 users: 70,000 (2011)

Pacific[edit]

Hawaiian Creole  Hawaii 600,000 (2012) 100,000 on the US mainland. L2 users: 400,000
Ngatikese Creole  Micronesia 700
Tok Pisin  Papua New Guinea 122,000 (2004) L2 users: 4,000,000
Pijin  Solomon Islands 24,400 (1999) L2 users: 307,000 (1999)
Bislama  Vanuatu 10,000 (2011) L2 users
Pitcairn-Norfolk  Pitcairn

 Norfolk Island

430 (2011)~532
Australian Kriol  Australia 4,200 (2006) L2 users: 10,000 (1991)
Torres Strait Creole  Australia 6,040 (2006)

Marginal[edit]

Other[edit]

Not strictly creoles, but sometimes called thus:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hancock, I. F. (1969). "A provisional comparison of the English-based Atlantic creoles". African Language Review. 8: 7–72. 
  2. ^ Gilman, Charles (1978). "A Comparison of Jamaican Creole and Cameroon Pidgin English". English Studies. 59: 57–65. 
  3. ^ Simons, Gary F; Fennig, Charles D, eds. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.