An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language – i.e. for which English is the lexifier. Most English creoles were formed in British colonies, following the great expansion of British naval military power and trade in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The main categories of English-based creoles are Eastern (West African), Asian, Atlantic (The Americas), and Pacific.
It is disputed to what extent the various English-based creoles of the world share a common origin. The monogenesis hypothesis (Hancock 1969, Gilman 1978) posits that a single language, commonly called proto–Pidgin English, spoken along the West African coast in the early sixteenth century, was ancestral to most or all of the Atlantic creoles (the English creoles of both West Africa and the Americas).
Singlish: A language spoken in Singapore that includes elements of various Chinese varieties, Malay, and a host of others that are spoken on the island nation. Today, it is spoken by most Singaporeans.
Jamaican Patois, sometimes called Jamaican Creole, is an English-based creole language spoken in Jamaica, distinct from Jamaican Standard English, a dialect of English. It derives from a history of contact among many different types of speakers with many ethnic, linguistic, and social backgrounds. Jamaican Patois is the dominant language in Jamaica.
Belizean Creole or Belize Kriol: Most speakers live in Belize City, but nearly everyone else in Belize is either a first- or second-language speaker of Creole. It is the lingua franca in much of the country. Reported to be very close to Mískito Coast, and Islander (San Andrés) creoles. Historically an extension of Mískito Coast Creole. Dahufra was a creole used in the 16th to 18th centuries. Jamaican Patois is different in orthography and grammar. It is used by foresters, agriculturalists, fishermen, industrial, construction, and commerce workers, as well as government officials and teachers in everyday life .
Samaná English is spoken by about 8,000 people in the Samaná Peninsula, Dominican Republic, a mostly Spanish-speaking country. The speakers of Samaná English are the descendants of American former slaves who settled there in 1824. It is reported that there was a settlement of African slaves here in the early 1500s. The language is variously described a creole language, a dialect of English, or a linguistic entity fitting neither category. Samaná English is related to that of the Bahamian Creole language.
Nigerian Pidgin: While rudimentally spoken all over Nigeria, English is the accepted language of transaction and communication. The Nigerian Pidgin dates back to the colonial era, where locals were hired to work with the British colonials and ended up developing it to the Creole language it is today.
Cameroonian Pidgin English, Kamtok, or Cameroonian Creole: is a linguistic entity of Cameroon. It is also known as Kamtok. Two varieties are Limbe-Krio and Grafi. Cameroonian Pidgin English is an English-based creole language. About 5% of Cameroonians are native speakers of the language.
Kreyol: is spoken in Liberia, and has English and French as superstrate languages, with several West African languages as substrate.
Ngatikese Creole: Also called Ngatik Men's creole, is a creole spoken by the inhabitants of Sapwuahfik (formerly Ngatik) atoll of Pohnpei. It developed as a result of the 1837 Ngatik Massacre during which the island's male population was wiped out by the crew of Australian captain C.H. Hart and Pohnpeian warriors. Some of the Europeans and Pohnpeians settled and repopulated the island, taking the local women as wives. The island formed a new culture and language, a mixture of English and the Sapwuahfik dialect of Ponapean.