English Standard Version
|This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (November 2012)|
|English Standard Version|
|Full name||English Standard Version|
|2001 (revisions in 2007 and 2011); Apocrypha 2009|
|Derived from||RSV—1971 Revision|
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with Septuagint influence.
Deutero./Apoc.: Göttingen Septuagint, Rahlf's Septuagint and Stuttgart Vulgate.
NT: 83% correspondence to Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece 27th edition.[verification needed]
|Translation type||Formal Equivalence|
|Version revision||2007, 2011|
|Copyright||Copyright 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a ministry of the Good News Publishers of Wheaton, Illinois, U.S.; Apocrypha Copyright 2009 by Oxford University Press.|
The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible. It is a revision of the 1971 edition of the Revised Standard Version that employs an "essentially literal" translation philosophy.
Work on this translation was prompted, in the early 1990s, by what Dr. Lane T. Dennis stated was a need for a new literal translation by scholars and pastors. A translation committee was formed, and it sought and received permission from the National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA to use the 1971 edition of the RSV as the English textual basis for the ESV. About 6% was revised in the ESV.
The stated intent of the translators was to follow an "essentially literal" translation philosophy while taking into account differences of grammar, syntax, and idiom between current literary English and the original languages. The ESV uses some inclusive language.
The ESV underwent a minor revision in 2007, and the publisher did not identify the updated text as a revised edition. The update changed about 500 words by focusing on grammar, consistency and clarity. The most notable change was "wounded for our transgressions" to "pierced for our transgressions". Another edition was issued in April 2011,[why?] and the 2007 edition has been gradually phased out.
The publisher, citing that the ESV has been growing in popularity, authorized an edition of the ESV with the Biblical apocrypha included, which was developed by Oxford University Press and published in January, 2009.[verification needed] The publisher's hope for this new edition which includes the Apocrypha is that it will be used widely in seminaries and divinity schools where these books are used as a part of academic study.[verification needed]
The ESV version of the Apocrypha is a revision of the Revised Standard Version 1977 Expanded Edition. The team translating the Apocrypha includes Bernard A. Taylor, David A. deSilva, and Dan McCartney, under the editorship of David Aiken.[verification needed] In the edition including these books, they are printed and arranged in the order of the RSV and NRSV Common Bibles. The Oxford translating team relied on the Göttingen Septuagint for all of the Apocrypha except 4 Maccabees (relying there on Rahlf's Septuagint) and 2 Esdras (the Ancient Greek of which has not survived), which used the German Bible Society's 1983 edition Vulgate.
The ESV has been used as the text of a number of study Bibles, including:
- A series of ESV study bibles by Crossway Books: the ESV Global Study Bible, ESV Literary Study Bible, ESV Student Study Bible, and ESV Study Bible
- The Scofield Study Bible III (an update and revision of the classic dispensational premillennialist Scofield Reference Bible) by Oxford University Press
Mark L. Strauss, in a paper presented at the 2008 annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, criticized the ESV for using dated language and stated it is unsuited for mainstream use. On the other hand, he has defended gender-inclusive language in translation and claims the ESV uses similar gender-inclusive language and speculated that criticism of the ESV by competing Bible translations is contrived for marketing purposes. ESV translator Wayne Grudem has responded that, while on occasion the ESV translates person or one where previous translations used man, it keeps gender-specific language and does not go as far as other translations; the ESV website makes a similar statement. ESV translator William D. Mounce has called these arguments against the ESV ad hominem.
Criticism has arisen in the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, which uses the ESV as its official translation, that its frequent translation of the Hebrew word mishpatim ("judgements" or "decrees") as "rules" is not only an impoverished translation of a very rich word, but also somewhat legalistic.
- Clontz (2008, Preface) ranks the English Standard Version in sixth place in a comparison of twenty-one translations, at 83% correspondence to the Nestle-Aland 27th ed.
- Rose Publishing 2006
- Stec 2004, p. 421
- Decker, Rodney (2004), "The English Standard Version: A Review Article" (PDF), The Journal of Ministry & Theology 8 (2): 5–31
- Crossway Staff 2006
- Strauss 2008
- Crossway Bibles 2011, p. VII
- Decker, Rodney (2004), "The English Standard Version: A Review Article" (PDF), The Journal of Ministry & Theology 8 (2): 16–17
- Dennis 2011
- Butterfield, Glen (2013). Bible Unity. WestBowPress. p. 42. ISBN 9781490805498.
- Oxford University Press 2009, p. 1177
- Oxford University Press 2012
- Concordia Publishing House (31 October 2009), The Lutheran Study Bible: English Standard Version, Concordia Publishing House, ISBN 978-0-7586-1760-6, retrieved 7 December 2012
- ESV Global Study Bible. Crossway. ISBN 9781433535673.
- ESV Study Bible, HarperCollins Publishers Limited, 14 April 2011, ISBN 978-0-00-743766-5, retrieved 7 December 2012
- Crossway Bibles (10 August 2010), The Macarthur Study Bible: English Standard Version, Good News Publisher, ISBN 978-1-4335-0400-6, retrieved 7 December 2012
- Sproul, R C, ed. (1 July 2008), Reformation Study Bible (ESV), P & R Publishing Company, ISBN 978-1-59638-136-0, retrieved 7 December 2012
- Oxford University Press (2 March 2006), The Scofield Study Bible: English Standard Version, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-527877-4, retrieved 7 December 2012
- Concordia Publishing House (1 January 2005), Lutheran Service Book, Concordia Publishing House, pp. Copyright Page, ISBN 978-0-7586-1218-2, retrieved 7 December 2012
- Mounce 2011
- Brueggemann, Walter (25 January 2010), Genesis: Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-23437-9, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Clontz, T E; Clontz, J, eds. (December 2008), The Comprehensive New Testament: New Testament with Complete Textual Variation Mapping and Special Highlights of Parallels for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Josephus, Patristic Writings, Philo, Plato, Pseudepigrapha, and Talmud, Cornerstone Publications, ISBN 978-0-9778737-1-5, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Craigie, Peter (1983), Metzger, Bruce, ed., Psalms 1-50, Word Books, ISBN 978-0-8499-0218-5, retrieved 2012-12-07
- ESV Bible, Crossway, 2010, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Crossway Bibles (28 December 2011), Holy Bible: English Standard Version, Good News Publisher, ISBN 978-1-4335-3087-6, retrieved 2012-12-07
- "Manuscripts Used in Translating the ESV", About the ESV Translation (Crossway), 2010a, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Crossway Staff (21 February 2006), The Origin of the ESV, Crossway, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Dennis, Lane (April 2011), Word Changes in the ESV Bible Text -2011 (PDF), Crossway, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Grudem, Wayne (8 November 2005), Translating Truth: The Case for Essentially Literal Bible Translation, Weaton: Crossway, ISBN 978-1-58134-755-5, retrieved 2012-12-07
- Harris, Robert (1957), Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Books, ISBN 031025891X
- Isbell, Charles (June 1977), "Does the Gospel of Matthew Proclaim Mary's Virginity?", Biblical Archaeology Society 3 (2), retrieved 2012-12-07
- Johnson, S. Lewis (1953), "The Revised Standard New Testament", Bibliotheca Sacra 110: 62–65
- Mounce, Bill (2011), ETS Day 2 by Bill Mounce, Zondervan, retrieved 2012-12-07
- The English Standard Version Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 0195289102
- English Standard Version Bible with Apocrypha, Oxford University Press, 2012, retrieved 2012-12-07
- The Holy Bible: Revised Standard Version (Catholic ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 1586171003
- Bible Translations Comparison, Rose Publishing, 2006, ISBN 1596361336
- Ryken, Leland (2002), The Word of God in English, Wheaton: Crossway, ISBN 1581344643
- Stec, D (July 2004), "Review: The Holy Bible: English Standard Version", Vestus Testamentum (Leiden: Brill) 54 (3): 421, ISSN 0042-4935, JSTOR 1518879
- Strauss, Mark (25 November 2008), Why the English Standard Version (ESV) Should not become the Standard English Version (PDF), Presented at the annual Evangelical Theological Society meeting in Providence, Rhode Island, San Diego, retrieved 2014-11-19
- Unger, Merrill (1953), "The Revised Standard Old Testament", Bibliotheca Sacra 110: 54–61
- The Gideon: Development and Growth of the English Standard Version, The Gideons International, June–July 2013, retrieved 2013-10-14