English Tangier

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Tangier was a possession of King Charles II between 1661 and 1684. Charles acquired the city as part of the dowry when he married Catherine of Braganza. The marriage treaty was an extensive renewal of the alliance between England and Portugal; opposed by Spain (at war with Portugal) but clandestinely supported by France. England garrisoned and fortified the city, against hostile (but disunited) Moroccan forces. When, later, Morocco was united under the Alaouites, the cost of maintaining the garrison against Moroccan attack greatly increased, and Parliamentary refusal to provide funds for its upkeep (a refusal linked to fears of 'Popery') forced Charles to give up possession. In 1684 the English blew up the defences and evacuated the city, which subsequently became part of Morocco.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Tangier commands the entry into the Mediterranean and was the principal commercial centre on the North West coast of Africa. The Portuguese started their colonial empire by taking nearby Ceuta in 1415, and they occupied Tangier in 1471. Years of conflict between Portugal and the Moroccans under the Wattasid and Saadi dynasties followed. However, in 1659, the position changed: Rule of Morocco by the Saadi dynasty (who had steadily lost control of the country to various warlords) finally came to an end with the death of Ahmad al-Abbas and the Alaouite conquest of Marrakech.[1] After the Dila'i interlude the Alaouite Dynasty came to the forefront. Mulai al-Rashid took Fes in 1666, and Marrakech in 1669, essentially unifying all of Morocco, except the ports occupied by Portugal, Spain, and England. Before then, in about 1657, Ahmad al-Khadir ibn Ali Ghaïlan (known to the English as Guyland or Gayland) and his family had taken control of much of the Gharb, the Rif and the coastal areas around Tangier. At about that time, Ghaïlan appears to have considerably increased attacks on the (Portuguese) Tangier Garrison.[2] But, at the same time, Ghaïlan was under pressure from the Alaouites.

Portugal[edit]

The Treaty of the Pyrenees in November 1659 specifically pledged Louis XIV to withdraw support from Portugal under the Braganzas, and released Spanish troops and ships to pursue the continuing Portuguese Restoration War. Portugal, severely weakened and with little support in other countries, sought a renewal of the alliance with England to counterbalance the renewed Spanish threat to its independence. The alliance (originating in 1373) had been adjusted and renewed in 1654 (under Cromwell) and was again renewed in 1660 after the English Restoration. Negotiations for the marriage of Charles to Catherine of Braganza (originally proposed by Charles I) had started shortly on or, perhaps, before[3] the Restoration, and the proposed marriage was mentioned by the Venetian envoy to London as early as June 1660.[4] As part of the dowry Portugal was to hand over the port of Tangier and the island of Bombay/Mumbai but it is unclear when those detailed terms were agreed and publicly known: Some were widely rumoured early, certainly before the marriage treaty itself. Portugal had been in possession of Tangier since 1471, but the Portuguese government was content to part with it,[5] albeit many had reservations.[6] The anchorage was expensive to maintain, not particularly safe for shipping,[7] exposed to the Atlantic and to the destructive Levanter (easterly) winds, and so required significant improvement. Portugal, hard pressed in its War of Independence with Spain, and struggling against Dutch aggression in the East Indies, could not hope to maintain all of its overseas possessions without English assistance and could not afford to commit troops to the defence of Tangier while fighting Spain in the Iberian peninsula. Indeed, Portugal had offered Tangier to France in 1648 in soliciting support against Spain.[8] However, cession of Tangier to England was not popular and the Governor of Tangier, Fernando de Meneses refused to take part. He was replaced in 1661 by the more compliant Luis de Almeida.[2]

Spain[edit]

Spain had tolerated Portuguese occupation of Tangier as part of the Treaty of Tordesilhas and had left it undisturbed under Portuguese administration during the Iberian Union and the long-running Restoration War. But Spain was strongly opposed to English possession of Tangier and insisted that the cession would be illegal. Indeed, the paper presented by the Spanish Ambassador in May 1661 openly threatened war.[9] Apart from the threat which an English naval presence at the Straits of Gibraltar would (and did) pose to Spain's Atlantic trade, the English fleet activities in the Mediterranean under Robert Blake and Edward Montagu between 1650 and 1659 had shown the vulnerability of the maritime links between Spain and its Italian possessions, Sicily and Naples. With its emphasis on its transatlantic possessions, Spain had no Mediterranean fleet, could not protect its shipping there, and a hostile naval force at Tangier would make the transfer of Spanish troops from Italy to Spain for intended war against Portugal rather more difficult. By a proclamation of 7 September 1660, Charles had declared peace with Spain (announced in Spain on 22 September),[10] but in the same month, the Commons passed a bill annexing Dunkirk and Jamaica (both taken from Spain by Cromwell and both demanded back by Spain from Charles II).[11] There was a fear in England that the Portuguese commander at Tangier would hand the port over to Spain rather than heretic England or that Spain would otherwise attempt physically to prevent the handover, even if that fell short of war.[12]

Dutch Republic[edit]

The Dutch, in intense trade competition with England (when not actually at war), had no wish to see the English navy further establish the Mediterranean power it had developed under Cromwell and so also opposed English occupation of Tangier.[13] Any alliance between Portugal (with which it was still at war) and England (against which it had suffered heavily in the First Anglo-Dutch War) was an undesirable prospect: The Dutch hoped to seize further Portuguese overseas possessions and, in 1660, equipped a fleet for that purpose.[14][15] The Dutch tried, unsuccessfully, to strengthen relations with King Charles by the Dutch Gift in July 1660. The States-General also sought, in negotiations from July 1660 until September 1662, a treaty or pact of friendship with England, but refused to extend such a treaty to any colonies outside Europe except, specifically, the island of Pulo Run.[16] While the negotiation of that Anglo-Dutch treaty went on, Charles offered to mediate between the United Provinces and Portugal (the Anglo-Portuguese treaty, a very short time later, required this). That intervention resulted in the Treaty of The Hague of 6 August 1661, ignored by the VOC which seized Cranganore, Cochin, Nagapattinam and Cannanore from Portugal in 1662-1663. King Charles (at the time) sought the advancement of his nephew, later William III, as Stadtholder; Johan De Witt, the Grand Pensionary, was a confirmed Republican, and had excluded William III through the 'secret' (but widely leaked) Act of Seclusion annex to the Treaty of Westminster. The States General were unable or unwilling to rein in the VOC's aggressively anti-English and, particularly, anti-Portuguese activities, hence the Dutch Republic had no significant influence in Restoration England, and De Witt's diplomatic failures in 1660-1661 marked the beginning of the end of the Dutch Golden Age.

France[edit]

In France, Cardinal Mazarin was at the height of his powers following the formation of the League of the Rhine in 1658, the defeat of the Prince of Condé and Spain at the Battle of the Dunes the same year (much aided by Cromwell's army and navy), and the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees on 7 November 1659. Spain (then allied with English Royalists) and France (allied with Commonwealth England) made peace, and (by the Treaty) Louis XIV was betrothed to Maria Theresa of Spain. The Treaty also required France to cease direct or indirect support for Portugal.[17] Six months after the Treaty was signed, in May 1660, Charles II was restored. A Spain (with significant Italian and Netherlands territory) allied to England under King Charles was potentially more powerful than Mazarin sought and after the Restoration he very quickly restored relations with England. By August, the marriage of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans to Henrietta Anne, sister of King Charles II, was proposed. It is likely that he encouraged the Braganza marriage, but he died on 9 March 1661, and Louis took personal control of government. In July 1661, Louis sent the Comte d'Estrades as Ambassador to London, and it is clear from the instructions and correspondence between them that the treaty between England and Portugal was welcomed by France.[18] At the time, France had no significant Mediterranean or East Indies naval presence, and English possession of Tangier and Bombay posed no threat. In 1656, Louis (or Mazarin) had proposed cession of Tangier to France,[8] but no agreement had been reached, and the peace with Spain probably precluded any further similar proposal.

England[edit]

In 1659, Cromwell's England was allied to France by the Treaty of Paris, was allied to Portugal, was at war with Spain, and was not a party to the Treaty of the Pyrenees. Charles was, technically, allied to Spain and so pledged to resist Portugal's independence and to raise forces against France by the Treaty of Brussels, the converse of the Commonwealth position. Charles declared peace with Spain in September 1660 (after his Restoration) but there was already speculation about a possible Portuguese marriage.[19] There is debate as to who proposed Charles' marriage to Catherine of Braganza, and when, but by a letter dated 5/15 June 1660, the Queen Regent of Portugal, Luisa de Guzmán, requested Charles' consent to send Francisco de Mello as Ambassador Extraordinary to negotiate a new treaty.[20] According to Clarendon's account, the Ambassador suggested the treaty and marriage to the Lord Chamberlain, the Earl of Manchester who informed the King. Charles consulted Clarendon (Lord Chancellor), Southampton (Lord Treasurer), Ormonde (Lord Steward of the Household), Lord Manchester, and Sir Edward Nicholas (Secretary of State), and enquired as to Tangier of Admirals Lord Sandwich and Sir John Lawson.[21] But Clarendon is vague, perhaps misleading, as to chronology. The Ambassador, de Mello, had a private audience with Charles on 28 July 1660 (7 August 1660 NS) and (after other meetings) returned to Lisbon on 18/28 October 1660.[22] The Queen Regent was pleased, and made him Marquis de Sande[23]' He returned to England on 9 February 1661 (N.S.) and from then until announcement of the marriage at the opening of the Cavalier Parliament on 8/18 May 1661 there were rumours and counter-rumours, amongst them suggested marriages to Mademoiselle d'Orleans (who had previously rejected Charles), to an unidentified 'Princess of Parma', and to Princess Maria of Nassau.[24] Indeed, rumours continued even after that, but the treaty was signed on 23 June 1661, witnessed by Clarendon, Southampton, Albemarle, Ormonde, Manchester, Nicholas, and Morrice.[25]

English take possession[edit]

Before the treaty with Portugal (or the marriage to Catherine) was announced,[26] Admiral Sir Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich was commissioned to bring Catherine over to England. In July, 1660, Montagu had secured the position of Clerk of the Acts at the Navy Board for his kinsman and protégé, Samuel Pepys. In February 1661, Pepys speculates on "two great secrets": Who the King would marry, and the destination of the fleet then being fitted out (in this case, sheathed – a protection against shipworm in tropical waters).[15] On 20 April Pepys was told that the destination was Algiers; and on 10 June that Sandwich was to proceed to Algiers to "settle the business", go back to Lisbon and collect Catherine in three ships, meeting another fleet there.[27][28] He also carried instructions to seek peaceful arrangements with Tripoli, Tetuan, and Salé. The corsair fleet of Algiers was a growing problem and the business which was to be settled, by negotiation or by bombardment, was a treaty not to molest English ships.[29] Sandwich left London on 13 June for the fleet (with John Lawson as Vice-Admiral) assembled at the Downs and from there (on 19 June) sailed to Malaga, where he anchored on July 4. Briefly delayed by illness, he arrived off Algiers on July 29. There was little negotiation, and a short bombardment, but weather prevented more significant action. Sandwich left Lawson to blockade Algiers, and proceeded to Lisbon, not yet in his official capacity as an Ambassador Extraordinaire, but rather to meet a second English fleet which was to meet him.[30] There was a perceived danger that the Spanish and Dutch would attack the Portuguese Brazil fleet and, reciprocally, Spain and the allied Dutch merchants feared that the English would attack the Spanish treasure fleet; hence there was some careful watching until those both arrived safely. The marriage, by proxy, of Charles and Catherine was notified to the Governor of Tangier (Don Luis D'Almeida) by letter from the King of Portugal on 4 September 1661.[31] Lord Sandwich sailed to Tangier on 3 October (arriving 10 October) taking transports for the evacuation of the Portuguese Tangier Garrison.[32] He was there for some three months, while awaiting the further fleet from England, which was bringing the new Governor and troops. Still expecting trouble from Spain or the Netherlands, Lawson's squadron joined him there, unsuccessful in subduing Algiers (although a storm severely damaged the harbour there the next year and enabled a peace later).[33] During the waiting time, there was correspondence with the other Barbary ports, and with Ghailan, who ostensibly welcomed Sandwich.[34] It is likely that Sandwich also used the time to obtain details of the city and its defences – Martin Beckman was with Sandwich's fleet at Algiers and Tangier and probably produced the map later seen by Pepys.[35]

On 6 September 1661, King Charles appointed Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough, as governor and captain general of all the forces in Tangier. When Peterborough landed he found the town derelict and under constant attack from some 17,000 Berbers.[36][37]

The Tangier Regiment (later known as the 2nd Regiment of Foot and later still as the Queen's (Royal West Surrey) Regiment) arrived in Tangier on 29 January 1662, together with a former Parliamentarian regiment[38] from the garrison of Dunkirk and with remnants of two regiments from the disbanded Royalist Irish Forces which had been serving in Flanders;[39] they officially took over Tangier from Montagu's small naval garrison. The three additional regiments were also placed under Peterborough's command; thus he arrived in Tangier with a force of five hundred horse and two thousand foot, with between two and three hundred soldiers' wives, to serve in a domestic capacity. This was the first time that wives had officially accompanied an English army on an overseas posting. These units were augmented later in 1661 by elements of Rutherfurd's (Scottish Royalist) Regiment[40] and Roger Alsop's (Parliamentarian) Regiment[41] just before Peterborough was replaced by Andrew Rutherfurd, 1st Earl of Teviot as governor. The regiments were merged (into two in 1662) ultimately becoming a single regiment (1668), and this, the Tangier Regiment, remained in Tangier thereafter, a total of 23 years, until the port was finally evacuated in 1684.

The English planned to improve the harbour by building a mole, which would reach 1,436 feet long and cost £340,000 before its demolition. The improved harbour was to be six hundred yards long, thirty feet deep at low tide, and capable of keeping out the roughest of seas.[42] Work began on the fortified harbour at the end of November, 1662, and work on the Mole in August, 1663.[43] Each redoubt had four hundred men guarding the excavation site, while to the front balls of spikes, stakes and piles of gunpowder-and-stone mix, which acted as basic landmines, were laid.[36] The work continued for some years under a succession of governors. With an improved harbour the town would have played the same role that Gibraltar later played in British naval strategy.[44]

Tangier declared a free city[edit]

On 4 June 1668, Tangier was declared a free city by charter, with a mayor and corporation to govern it instead of the army. The charter made it equal to English towns.[36]

In 1674, William O'Brien, 2nd Earl of Inchiquin took up the post of governor, in succession to the Earl of Middleton. In 1675, a garrison school was founded, led by the Rev. Dr George Mercer.

On 30 December 1676, Charles ordered a survey of the city and garrison of Tangier, which was costing about £140,000 a year to maintain. The survey showed that the total inhabitants numbered 2,225, of whom fifty were army officers, 1,231 other ranks, with 302 army wives and children. Amongst the buildings was a hospital and an army school.

Tangier circa 1670

In 1680, the pressure from the Moroccans increased, as the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail joined forces with the Chief of Fez in order to pursue a war against all foreign troops in his land. Reinforcements were needed at the Garrison, which was raised to 3,000 in number. The Royal Scots, shortly followed by a further (new) foot regiment, the Second Tangier Regiment, (later the King's Own, 4th Regiment of Foot) raised on 13 July 1680, were sent to Tangier, reinforced the King's Battalion (formed from the Grenadier and Coldstream Guards) and the remnant of the old Tangier Regiment. The Guards Battalion had landed in July 1680, and fierce attacks were made against the Moors, who had gained a footing on the edge of the town, finally defeating them by controlled and well-aimed musket fire. The Battalion remained in Tangier until the fort was abandoned.

Also in 1680 the Earl of Inchiquin resigned and was replaced by Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory, who died before taking up his post.[36]

Growing concerns about the cost of the colony[edit]

For some time Parliament had been concerned about the cost of maintaining the Tangier garrison. By 1680 the King had threatened to give up Tangier unless the supplies were voted for its sea defences, intended to provide a safe harbour for shipping. The fundamental problem was that in order to keep the town and harbour free from cannon fire the perimeter of the defended area had to be vastly increased. A number of outworks were built[45] but the siege of 1680 showed that the Moroccans were capable of isolating and capturing these outworks by entrenchments and mining.

Map of Tangier under English rule, 1680

The garrison at Tangier had to be constantly reinforced, having cost nearly two million pounds of royal treasure, and many lives had been sacrificed in its defence. Merchant ships continued to be harassed by Barbary pirates, and undefended crews were regularly captured into slavery. The so-called Popish Plot in England had intensified the dread of Catholicism, and the King's frequent request for more troops to increase the size of the garrison raised suspicions that a standing army was being retained in Tangier to ensure a Catholic succession and absolute monarchy.

In October 1680, Colonel Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, arrived as governor, but was taken mortally ill soon afterwards. Lt-Colonel Edward Sackville [46] of the Coldstream Guards took over the governorship temporarily[36] until on 28 December 1680 Colonel Piercy Kirke was appointed colonel and governor.

In England, in the Exclusion Crisis, the House of Commons of England petitioned the King to give his assent to the Bill of Exclusion (which had passed the Commons, but not the Lords) intended to disinherit the Duke of York (later James II & VII). The Earl of Shaftesbury (effectively the Prime Minister) urged Parliament to disapprove any taxes unless and until the bill was passed. The King refused to prejudice his brother's right of succession and dismissed the Exclusion Bill Parliament and, later, the Oxford Parliament. But he could no longer afford the cost of the colony in Tangier.

Evacuation of Tangier[edit]

Although the attempt by Sultan Moulay Ismail of Morocco to seize the town had been unsuccessful, a crippling blockade by the Jaysh al-Rifi ultimately forced the English to withdraw. In 1683, Charles gave Admiral Lord Dartmouth secret orders to abandon Tangier. Dartmouth was to level the fortifications, destroy the harbour, and evacuate the troops. In August 1683 Dartmouth, as Admiral of the Fleet and governor and captain general in Tangier, sailed from Plymouth. He was accompanied by Samuel Pepys, who wrote an account of the evacuation.[36]

Once in Tangier, one of Lord Dartmouth's main concerns was the evacuation of sick soldiers "and the many families and their effects to be brought off". The hospital ship Unity sailed for England on 18 October 1683 with 114 invalid soldiers and 104 women and children, alongside HMS Diamond. HMS Diamond arrived at The Downs on 14 December 1683. Dartmouth was also able to purchase the release of many English prisoners from Ismail's bagnio, including several officers and about 40 men, some of whom had spent 10 years in the hands of the Moroccans.[47]

All the forts and walls were mined for last-minute destruction.[48] On 5 February 1684 Tangier was officially evacuated, leaving the town in ruins. Thereafter Kirke's Regiment (The Tangier Regiment) returned to England. The main force of 2,830 officers and men and 361 wives and children finally completed the demolition of the harbour wall and fortifications, and evacuated the garrison during the early months of 1684. The 2nd Tangier Regiment left late in the second week of February for Plymouth with some six hundred men and thirty wives and children.[36] The Earl of Dumbarton's regiment (The Royal Scots) went into quarters at Rochester, and Trelawney's (Second Tangier) Regiment to Portsmouth. Some of the departing soldiers were to be rewarded with large land grants in the newly acquired Province of New York. Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, a lieutenant-governor of Tangier, became New York provincial governor and William "Tangier" Smith, the last mayor of Tangier, obtained 50 miles of Atlantic Ocean front property on Long Island.

Governors[edit]

Term Incumbent Notes
29 January 1662 to 1663 Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough, governor
1663 to 4 May 1664 Andrew Rutherford, 1st Earl of Teviot, governor
4 May 1664 to 1664 Sir Tobias Bridge, governor
1664 to April 1665 John Fitzgerald, governor
April 1665 to 1666 John Belasyse, 1st Baron Belasyse, governor unable to take oath of conformity
1666 to 1669 Sir Henry Norwood, governor
1669 to 1670 John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton, governor 1st Term
1670 to 1672 Sir Hugh Chomondeley, acting governor
1672 to 1674 John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton 2nd Term
1674 to 1675 Budget Meakin, acting governor
1675 to 1680 William O'Brien, 2nd Earl of Inchiquin, governor
1680 to 1680 Palmes Fairbourne, governor
1680 to 1680 Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory died after appointment but before taking up position
1680 to October 1680 Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, governor died soon after taking up position as governor
October 1680 to 28 December 1681 Sir Edward Sackville, governor
28 December 1681 to 1683 Sir Percy Kirke, governor
1683 to 6 February 1684 Admiral Lord Dartmouth, governor

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "African Kingdoms, North Africa". 
  2. ^ a b Stuart, Graham H (1955). The International City of Tangier. Stanford, California.  The URL is a preview location only.
  3. ^  Tout, Thomas Frederick (1887). "Catherine of Braganza(DNBoo)". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography 9. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 313. 
  4. ^ Hinds, Allen B (ed.). "Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice". British History Online.  Vol 32, entry date 2 June 1661 (N.S.).
  5. ^ Corbett, Sir Julian S (1904). England in the Mediterranean: A Study of the Rise and Influence of British Power within the Straits 1603-1713 2. pp. 5–11. 
  6. ^ Carte Manuscripts Bodleian Library, 73, 612-613
  7. ^ Elbl, Martin M. (2013). Portuguese Tangier (1472-1662). Baywolf Press. ISBN 978 0 921437 50 5.  A study of the anchorage--with a detailed reconstruction of the seventeenth-century port is at Figure 8.3.
  8. ^ a b Bejjit, Karim (2015). English Colonial Texts on Tangier. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 18. ISBN 978 1 4724 5788 2. 
  9. ^ "The Copy of a Paper presented to the King's Most Excellent Majesty by the Spanish Embassador, The third of May, 1661". Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership. 
  10. ^ "Venetian papers".  Vol 32, entry dated 22 September 1661.
  11. ^ Davenport, Frances Gardiner, ed. (1929). European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States II. Carnegie Institution of Washington.  at pp 57/58, note 4.
  12. ^ "Venetian papers".  Vol 33, entries dated 21 and 30 September 1661.
  13. ^ Harris, F.R. (1912). The Life of Edward Mountagu, K.G. 1. John Murray.  at page 196
  14. ^ Davenport, "Treaties".  p 58
  15. ^ a b "Pepys' Diary".  28 February 1661.
  16. ^ Davenport, "Treaties".  p 83, Art 15.
  17. ^ Article 60 of the treaty and 'Secret' Article 3
  18. ^ Letters and Negotiations of Count d'Estrades. R. Willock (Hathitrust). 1755. p. 109. 
  19. ^ "Venetian papers".  Entry dated 2 June 1660.
  20. ^ "State Papers, Portugal,".  SP 89/4/68 folio 156.
  21. ^ The Continuation of the Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon. Clarendon Press, Oxford (Google Books). 1760. pp. 333/336. 
  22. ^ "Venetian papers.".  Entry dated 29 October 1660.
  23. ^ "State Papers, Portugal". SP/89/4/81, fol 188.
  24. ^ "Venetian Papers".  for February to May 1661.
  25. ^ "Treaties".  p 62.
  26. ^ The marriage was announced at Charles' coronation, on 8 May 1661, and the marriage contract signed on 23 June 1661
  27. ^ "Pepys' Diary". 
  28. ^ "Pepys' Diary". 
  29. ^ The Navy of the Restoration, Tedder, A W, Cambridge University Press, 1916, at 80-81
  30. ^ J Eliot Hodgkin Manuscripts. Historical Manuscripts Commission. 1897. pp. 158–161. . Letters to Samuel Pepys.
  31. ^ Carte Manuscripts 73, 588, Bodleian
  32. ^ Harris, F.R. (1912). The Life of Edward Mountague, K.G. at p 205
  33. ^ "Pepys' Diary". , 1 Feb 1662
  34. ^ Carte Manuscripts 73, 633, Bodleian
  35. ^ "Pepys' Diary".  The map was sent to Pepys on 20th January (O.S.).
  36. ^ a b c d e f g John Wreglesworth. "Tangier: England's Forgotten Colony (1661-1684)". elsewhereonline.com.au. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  37. ^ For an alternative description of the town's condition, and references to related documents, see Elbl, Portuguese Tangier. Details of the landings and of the transfer of power in 1662 are given in the notes.
  38. ^ "The Second or The Queen's Royal Regiment (Sir Robert Harley's Regiment)". queensroyalsurreys.org.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  39. ^ "The Second or The Queen's Royal Regiment (John Fitzgerald's and Lewis Farrell's Regiments)". queensroyalsurreys.org.uk. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  40. ^ "Sir John Reynolds’ Regiment of Foot". BCW Project Regimental Wiki. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  41. ^ "Colonel Roger Alsop's Regiment of Foot". BCW Project Regimental Wiki. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  42. ^ GIS-based plans of the historic harbour and of its works, prepared from English and Portuguese documents, are available in Elbl, Portuguese Tangier (the plans show all the data in modern coordinates).
  43. ^ Sir Hugh Cholmley. "A Short account of the progress of the mole at Tangier". Early English Books Online – Text Creation Partnership. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  44. ^ Enid M. G. Routh — Tangier: England's lost Atlantic outpost, 1912; Martin Malcolm Elbl, "(Re)claiming Walls: The Fortified Médina of Tangier under Portuguese Rule (1471–1661) and as a Modern Heritage Artefact," Portuguese Studies Review 15 (1–2) (2007; publ. 2009): 103–192; a long study of the previous Portuguese Breakwater at Tangier, and interesting notes on the English Mole and its contractors are found in Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, Chapter Eight.
  45. ^ Diagrams mapping out the English 1662-1684 outworks to scale are presented in Elbl, Portuguese Tangier (mostly based on Sir Bernard De Gomme's engineering plans and on Hollar). The work discusses the various sources and their characteristics and is sound on the topography and works, but is, sadly, spoiled by preconceived anglophobia – Elbl considers Tangier, for the temporary English occupiers, was a gravy-pot(s) for operators wise to the workings of Court and Parliament whether officers, rapacious victuallers, speculators, rack-rent landlords in contradistinction to the previous grinding and dogged commitment of the Portuguese officers, victuallers, and landlords(pp 73-74).
  46. ^ "Sackville, Edward (c.1640-1714), of Bow Street, Covent Garden, Westminster (Member of Parliament)". The History of Parliament (British Political, Social and Local History). Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  47. ^ Dartmouth's extensive papers belonging to the Dartmouth Heirlooms Trust are held by Staffordshire County Council's Archives and Heritage Service, and by the Maritime Museum at Geeenwich.
  48. ^ A reassessment of the demolition, which critics of the operation deemed incomplete (as communicated by Samuel Pepys to Dartmouth, 1684), is presented in Elbl, Portuguese Tangier.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Corbett, J.S. England in the Mediterranean (London, New York, Bombay: Longmans, Green & Co, 1904)
  • E. Chappell, ed., The Tangier Papers of Samuel Pepys (London: Navy Records Society, vol. LXIII, 1935)
  • John Childs, The Army of Charles II (London: 1976)
  • Martin Malcolm Elbl, Portuguese Tangier (1471-1662): Colonial Urban Fabric as Cross-Cultural Skeleton (Peterborough: 2013), Chapter Eight and other (for the English Mole, the earlier Portuguese Breakwater, and their relative positions, from English plans; and for Wenceslaus Hollar at Tangier)
  • Sir James Halkett, 'Tangier – 1680: The Diary of Sir James Halkett', in Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research (1922)
  • W. F. Lord, The Lost Possessions of England (London: 1896)
  • E. M. G. Routh, Tangier: England's Lost Atlantic Outpost, 1661-1684 (London: 1912)
  • A. J. Smithers, The Tangier Campaign: the Birth of the British Army (Stroud: 2003)
  • Clifford Walton, A History of the British Standing Army, 1660-1700 (London: 1894)
  • Public Records Office ADM 106/294 Roger Allsopp 1673
  • ADM 106/314
  • ADM 12/18
  • ADM 12/28B
  • British Library Manuscript Collection: 1671-1675 – Samuel Luke, Merchant, Tangier, Morocco. Reference Sloane MSS
  • B. Museum Add. Mss.36528 Diary of John Luke (see & Judge Advocate to John Middleton, Earl of Middleton, Govr of Tangier)