DB Cargo UK
|Services||Bulk freight and intermodal logistics|
DB Cargo UK, formerly DB Schenker Rail UK and English, Welsh & Scottish Railway (EWS), is a British rail freight company headquartered in Doncaster, England.
The company was founded in 1995 as North & South Railways, acquiring five of the six freight companies sold during the privatisation of British Rail,[note 1] becoming the UK market leader in rail freight transportation. In November 2007, EWS was sold to Deutsche Bahn, and in January 2009 rebranded as DB Schenker. In March 2016 it was rebranded as DB Cargo UK.
- 1 History
- 2 Services and rolling stock
- 3 Steam Operations
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
In 1988, British Rail's (BR) freight operations were split into two divisions Railfreight Distribution (RfD) and Trainload Freight (TLF). RfD took over BR's Freightliner and Speedlink services and general wagonload and trainload services, excluding coal, petroleum, aggregates and metals. BR's bulk trainload services were handled by the Trainload Freight division. In 1991 the Rail Express Systems brand was created, to handle mail and postal services.
After the passing of the Railways Act 1993, five rail freight companies were formed from RfD and TLF. On 1 April 1994, TLF was split into three separate geographical businesses: Trainload Freight North East, Trainload Freight West and Trainload Freight South East, with each initially given existing contracts, based on the geographic origin of the traffic flow or in the case of power station coal the split was determined by the location of the power stations concerned. There were also some trainload services previously operated by the contract services business of RfD. The three new businesses were to be re-branded as Loadhaul, Mainline Freight and Transrail Freight for the short duration of their existence.
The remainder of RfD was split into two companies: Freightliner (container operations between ports), with the residual RfD company operating freight trains through the Channel Tunnel. The Mail and Parcels business were sold as Rail Express Systems and Red Star Parcels.
The companies were subsequently put up for sale by competitive tender.
English, Welsh & Scottish Railway
To bid for the ex-BR businesses being offered for sale, North and South Railways Limited was formed. It was owned by a consortium headed by Wisconsin Central, with financing provided by Berkshire Partners, Goldman Sachs and Fay Richwhite.
On 9 December 1995, North and South Railways purchased Rail Express Systems for £24 million. With this came the contract for the Royal Mail train service, including the Travelling Post Office trains, and the contract to haul the Royal Train. A fleet of 164 locomotives and 677 postal vans were included along with depots at Bristol Barton Hill, Cambridge, Crewe and London Euston.
Then on 24 February 1996, British Rail's three trainload freight companies, Loadhaul, Mainline Freight and Transrail Freight were acquired for £225 million. The sale included 914 locomotives and 19,310 wagons.
All four companies were subsequently merged into North and South Railways, nullifying the government's effort to create multiple competitive rail freight firms through the privatisation; the decision to allow the creation of a rail freight company with a dominant market position was justified by the additional competition faced from other transport modes. At the time rail had a 6% share of the freight market.
On 10 July 1996 the holding company's name was changed to English, Welsh & Scottish Railway Holdings Limited. In October 1996, Loadhaul and Mainline Freight were merged with Transrail Freight, and employees transferred to Transrail Freight, which was then renamed to English, Welsh & Scottish Railway Limited.
One of the first actions of the enlarged company was to seek volunteers for redundancy, as it sought to reduce staff numbers by around 3,000, from 7,600.
On 24 December 1996, EWS was announced as the preferred bidder for the loss-making Railfreight Distribution, for which it received grants and subsidies estimated to amount to £242 million over eight years . including subsidies for the use of the Channel Tunnel. Railfreight Distribution's businesses included international containerised freight, movement of cars and automotive components by rail, and freight services for the Ministry of Defence. The sale included 157 locomotives. It was concluded on 12 March 1997. At this point, EWS controlled 90% of the rail freight market. Railfreight Distribution was renamed English Welsh & Scottish Railway International on 1 December 1998.
The new company had over 900 locomotives, 19,000 freight wagons, and 7,000 employees. Track access charges were renegotiated and after 1,800 job redundancies the workers involved in profit sharing and other incentivised working plans; as a result shipping rates were reduced by over 30%. Many locomotives inherited on foundation were considered unreliable, and expensive to maintain; the company invested heavily in modernisation of its rolling stock; by 2002 £750 million had been invested, including 280 new locomotives and over 2,000 new wagons.[note 2]
The railway featured a logo that was colloquially known as the "Beasties", consisting of three heads: the lion of England, the dragon of Wales and the stag of Scotland. A larger version of the logo was called the "Big Beasties".
Services included mail, locomotive hire, wagonload traffic (branded 'Enterprise', founded by Transrail Freight), cross channel trains via the Channel Tunnel, trainload freight including oil, aggregates, cement and traffic related to the coal, electricity generation and steel industries, and infrastructure trains for Railtrack. Following privatisation EWS began to compete for Intermodal contracts,[note 3] while it faced competition from Freightliner in its core markets. Turnover in 1999 was £533.7 million, an 80% market share by value.
In January 2001, the Canadian National Railway announced it had agreed to purchase Wisconsin Central. The deal, which included Wisconsin Central's 42.5% stake in EWS, was concluded in October 2001.
The contract with Royal Mail was lost in 2003 to road transport. EWS acquired the assets of wagon bogie company, Probotec Limited in 2005,[note 4] It was formed into a new subsidiary, Axiom Rail that also took over responsibility for some of the depots and leasing surplus locomotives overseas.
In November 2005, EWS acquired wagon maintenance business Marcroft. As a result of the potential of the acquisition to reduce competition in the UK wagon repair market the acquisition was referred to the Competition Commission by the Office of Fair Trading, who required EWS to sell all or part of the business excluding Marcroft's works at Stoke on Trent. That was incorporated into the Axiom business.
By 2006, turnover was approaching £1 billion. In 2006 the Office of Rail Regulation fined the company £4.1million for anti-competitive practices in the coal haulage business, in which it had held a near monopoly, following complaints by Enron and Freightliner Heavy Haul in 2001 and 2002.[note 5]
DB Cargo UK
On 28 June 2007, Deutsche Bahn announced it had agreed to purchase EWS, subject to receiving regulatory approval. for £309 million At the time EWS had a market share of around 70% in the United Kingdom and around 5,000 employees. After the transaction was approved by the European Commissioner for Competition, the sale was completed on 13 November 2007.
At the time of the sale, it was announced that EWS would not be rebranded, but on 1 January 2009, EWS was rebranded as DB Schenker along with Deutsche Bahn's Railion and DB Schenker divisions.
The first locomotive painted in DB Schenker livery was Class 59 59206 at Toton Depot in January 2009, being formally unveiled at the National Railway Museum, York on 21 January 2009. [note 6]
In 2009, DB Schenker Rail began work to enable Class 92 hauled trains to operate freight services on the High Speed 1 by installing in cab TVM signalling. The project received funding from the European Commission and it was originally anticipated services would begin in early 2010. On 25 March 2011, for the first time a modified class 92 locomotive travelled from Dollands Moor to Singlewell using the TVM430 signalling system. The first of five planned test trains ran as a loaded container train from Hams Hall, West Midlands to Novara, Italy on 27 May 2011. DB planned to upgrade an additional five Class 92 locomotives to allow them to run on High Speed 1, making a fleet of six.
In July 2011, a trial run of wagons carrying curtain walled swap bodies built to a larger European loading gauge was run from Dollands Moor, Folkestone to east London. From 11 November 2011 a weekly service using European sized swap bodies has run between Barking, London and Wroclaw, Poland using High Speed 1.
On 2 March 2016, DB Schenker was rebranded as DB Cargo UK. On 17 October 2016, new DB Cargo UK CEO Hans-Georg Werner announced plans to cut 893 jobs in a bid to counter 'unprecedented' market changes. This was due to a combination of:
- Changes in Government energy policy had resulted in the early closure of coal-fired power stations, hence DB Cargo UK ran 78% fewer coal trains compared to 2015.
- UK steel volumes dropping, with the industry hit by high energy prices. This resulted in DB Cargo UK running 33% fewer steel trains from 2015. However, Werner recognised that "overall UK steel demand remains stable."
In 2017, DB Cargo UK announced a loss after tax for the financial year of £57 million against a turnover of £325 million.
In 2019, DB Cargo signed an agreement with Maritime Transport Ltd to create a new rail freight operation called Maritime Intermodal. From 1 April 2019, Maritime took over the running of DB's freight terminals at Trafford Park (Manchester), Birmingham (Birch Coppice) and Wakefield Europort. Three British Rail Class 66 locomotives have been repainted in blue Maritime livery and named:
- 66005 Maritime Intermodal One
- 66047 Maritime Intermodal Two
- 66142 Maritime Intermodal Three
It is expected that up to ten locomotives will receive the blue livery.
Services and rolling stock
In May 1996, an order for 250 Class 66s and 30 Class 67s was placed. These replaced all of the 20, 31, 33, 37, 47, 56, 58, 73 and 86 class locomotives. Through improved utilisation, they also replaced many of the newer 60 and 90 class locomotives.
Several of these redundant locomotives saw further use on infrastructure trains in Europe with Class 37s operated in France (40), Italy (2) and Spain (14), Class 56s in France (30), and Class 58s in France (26), the Netherlands (3) and Spain (8).
In 2018 DB Cargo sold 10 Class 66 locomotives to GBRf for an undisclosed sum, comprising 8 stored and 2 active locomotives many with significant engine defects.
Current Fleet in the UK
|Class 08||Shunter||1953||5||0-6-0||08499, 08714, 08735, 08737, 08995 (All for Sale or withdrawn)|
|Class 59||Diesel locomotive||1994 - 1995||6||Co-Co||59201 - 206 Acquired from National Power in 1998. Listed for Sale in 2019.|
|Class 60||Diesel locomotive||1989 - 1993||86||Co-Co||Fleet of 100 inherited from EWS with 10 sold to Colas in 2014 and 4 to DCR in 2019. 15 operational examples in 2018 with 39 in store at Toton depot and 32 in Toton yard.|
|Class 66||Diesel locomotive||1998 - 2000||161||Co-Co||Fleet of 250 inherited from EWS with 10 sold to GB Railfreight in 2018. DB Cargo UK operates 161 examples, with the remainder exported to DB Cargo operations elsewhere in Europe.|
|Class 67||Diesel locomotive||1999 - 2000||28||Bo-Bo||67001 - 022, 67024 - 26, 67028 - 30. Fleet of 30 inherited from EWS with 2 sold to Colas. 17 Operational with 11 Stored in 2018.|
|Class 90||Electric locomotive||1987 - 1990||24||Bo-Bo||90017 - 90040. Stored at Crewe (10) ; 90017, 022-023, 025, 027, 030-033, 038.|
|Class 92||Electric locomotive||1993 - 1996||17||Co-Co||30 total with 17 in UK and 13 exported|
Exported Locomotive Fleet details
|Class 58||Diesel locomotive||1983 - 1987||27||Co-Co||EWS inherted the BR fleet of 50 locomotives, the majority subsequently being exported to work on high speed line construction in France and Spain, with 10 being sold on to Transfesa (now stored in Alicante, Spain). The 27 still in DB Cargo ownership are also in store at Metz and Rouen, France and Barcelona, Spain.|
|Class 66||Diesel locomotive||1998 - 2000||79||Co-Co||79 exported to DB Cargo operations in Europe.|
|Class 92||Electric locomotive||1993 - 1996||13||Co-Co||9 exported to DB Cargo Romania and 4 to DB Cargo Bulgaria. In 2018, DB Cargo Romania sold their fleet of Class 92s to Transagent Rail Croatia.|
Carriages and Wagons
As well as an extensive fleet of freight wagons, DB Schenker Rail operate a small fleet of Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages. Some of the former are on lease to Abellio ScotRail for use on Fife Circle services, while the latter form the DB Schenker Company Train.
DB Cargo's primary maintenance depot is Toton. The electric fleet is maintained at Crewe. With a modern fleet requiring less maintenance, many of the depots EWS inherited have closed. Some of its other facilities including Bristol Barton Hill, Cambridge, Eastleigh and Newcastle were transferred to fellow Deutsche Bahn subsidiary LNWR (now Arriva TrainCare).
Locomotive haulage for Passenger services
Since its inception, EWS had provided locomotives for the Caledonian Sleeper. It inherited the contract from Rail Express Systems to provide Class 37 and 47s north of Edinburgh Waverley. In March 1998, it also began hauling the services south from Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central to London Euston with Class 90s. Class 67s replaced the Class 37s and 47s in the early 2000s. This contract was taken over by GBRf in March 2015.
As of October 2014, Class 67s haul passenger services for Arriva Trains Wales, Chiltern Railways and First ScotRail. Class 67s are also used as Thunderbird rescue locomotives for Virgin Trains East Coast. EWS also provides locomotives for the Venice-Simplon Orient Express.
EWS have previously hauled passenger trains for Anglia Railways, Arriva Trains Northern, First Great Western First North Western, National Express East Anglia, Valley Lines, Virgin CrossCountry Virgin West Coast and Wrexham & Shropshire.
From September 2016 Virgin Trains East Coast hired class 90 locomotives from DB Cargo for use on services to Leeds, York and Newcastle. Locomotives used have varied as demand required.
In April 1996, EWS adopted a maroon and yellow livery. Initial repaints carried EW&S lettering, however this was simplified to EWS in January 1997. In January 2009, the DB Schenker corporate red livery was adopted. A few locomotives have been repainted in other liveries including Class 90s in GNER, First ScotRail and Direct Rail Services liveries, and Class 67s in Royal Train, Wrexham & Shropshire and unbranded Arriva Trains Wales liveries.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Alongside DB Cargo's regular work some steam charters are operated in the UK by steam locomotives on DB Cargo's operating licence. DB unlike the other company West Coast Railways however only operate steam locos which are fitted with air brakes.
|Key:||Operational||Under Repair||Expired Mainline Certificate/Withdrawn from Service/Stored||Under overhaul/restoration/construction||Due to be certified in future||Operational, Heritage Railway/Museum|
|Number||Name||Class||Livery||Owner||Tops No||Mainline until||Max Speed||Air Brk's||Location||Photograph||Notes|
|2001||Cock O' The North||LNER P2 2-8-2||N/A||Doncaster P2 Locomotive Trust ||988##||-||75 mph||Yes||Doncaster||Streamlined shape newbuild, replica of original|
|2007||Prince of Wales||LNER P2 2-8-2||N/A||A1 Steam Locomotive Trust ||988##||-||75 mph||Yes||Darlington||Original shape newbuild, next member of class|
|5029||Nunney Castle||GWR "Castle" 4-6-0||N/A||Jeremy Hosking||98728||-||75 mph||Yes||Crewe LNWR|
|6024||King Edward I||GWR "King" 4-6-0||N/A||Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust||98824||-||75 mph||Yes||Minehead|
|34046||Braunton||SR "West Country" 4-6-2||BR Green, Late Crest||Jeremy Hosking||98746||2023||75 mph||Yes||Crewe LNWR||Currently outshopped as 34052 Lord Dowding.|
|35028||Clan Line||SR "Merchant Navy" 4-6-2||BR Green, Late Crest||Merchant Navy Locomotive Preservation Society||98828||2024||75 mph||Yes||Stewarts Lane|
|46100||Royal Scot||LMS "Royal Scot" 4-6-0||BR Green, Early Emblem||Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust||98701||2022||75 mph||Yes||Crewe LNWR|
|6233||Duchess of Sutherland||LMS "Princess Coronation" 4-6-2||LMS Crimson Lake||Princess Royal Class Loco. Trust||98834||2025||75 mph||Yes||York NRM|
|60007||Sir Nigel Gresley||LNER A4 4-6-2||BR Blue||Sir Nigel Gresley Locomotive Trust||98898||-||75 mph||Yes||York NRM|
|60009||Union of South Africa||LNER A4 4-6-2||BR Green, Late Crest||John Cameron||98809||2019||75 mph||Yes||Bury|
|4464||Bittern||LNER A4 4-6-2||LNER Garter Blue||Jeremy Hosking||98819||-||75 mph||Yes||Margate||Recently moved to the Hornby Hobbies Visitor Centre for temporary display.|
|60103||Flying Scotsman||LNER A3 4-6-2||BR Green, Late Crest||National Collection||98872||2023||75 mph||Yes||York NRM|
|60163||Tornado||LNER A1 4-6-2||BR Apple Green||A1 Steam Locomotive Trust||98863||2022||90 mph||Yes||Carnforth MPD|
|60532||Blue Peter||LNER A2 4-6-2||N/A||Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust||98832||-||75 mph||No||Crewe LNWR|
|70000||Britannia||BR Standard Class 7 4-6-2||BR Green, Late Crest||Royal Scot Locomotive and General Trust||98700||2020||75 mph||Yes||Crewe LNWR|
|71000||Duke of Gloucester||BR Standard Class 8 4-6-2||BR Green, Early Emblem (on completion)||Class 8 Steam Locomotive Trust||98802||-||75 mph||Yes||Tyseley LW||To be based at Tyseley following overhaul|
- DB Schenker Company Train
- History of rail transport in Great Britain
- List of companies operating trains in the United Kingdom
- Rail freight transport in Great Britain
- The sixth rail freight company created during privatisation, Freightliner, was privatised through a management buyout.
- The main orders were: 250 EMD Series 66 locomotives from GM-EMD built in USA/Canada, 30 JT 42HW-HS from Alstom / Electro Motive Diesel (Spain/USA), and around 2500 wagons from Thrall Car Manufacturing Company, built at the Thrall Europa, York works.
- After 2002 began intermodal services from the ports of Felixstowe, Southampton, and Tilbury.
- Probotec was formed 2004 from Powell Duffryn Rail. Powell Duffryn Rail originated as the Cambrian Wagon Company, registered 1905, numerous amalgamations and changes of shareholding, became part of Powell Duffryn in 1935; also acquired the Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon Company in 1986.
- Complaints made in 2003 alleging predatory pricing in the passenger charter sector were not upheld.
- Previously two EWS locomotives had received DB Schenker branding — including a light blue British Rail Class 60 60074 named "Teenage Cancer Trust"
- "Edward A. Burkhardt". www.railword.com (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Phillips, Don (25 August 2005). "Free Flow: Getting the French on board". The New York Times.
- "Keith Heller's contribution to the railway honoured with locomotive naming". www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk. DB Schenker UK. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Alain Thauvette, Member of the Management Board of DB Schenker Rail (Region West)". www.dbschenker.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Butcher 2011, p. 13.
- ECMT 2001, p. 68.
- Haywood, Russ (2009). Railways, urban development and town planning in Britain: 1948–2008. Ashgate Publishing. p. 150.
- Parker 2012, p. 479.
- ECMT 2001, p. 67.
- Parker 2012, pp. 479–480.
- "New identities for freight companies", Rail (221): 13, 2 March 1994
- ECMT 2001, p. 70.
- "New freight identities revealed", Rail (231): 8, 20 July 1994
- "Bright new identies for TLF businesses" The Railway Magazine issue 1121 September 1994 page 12
- Parker 2012, pp. 479–482.
- Companies House extract company no 3116332 DB Schenker Rail (UK) Holdings Limited formerly English, Welsh & Scottish Railway Holdings Limited formerly North & South Railways Limited
- Parker 2012, p. 480.
- "German rail giant confirms £300m deal for EWS shares". The Daily Telegraph. 29 June 2007.
- "The Sale of Rail Freight Distribution" (PDF). Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions / National Audit Office. 26 March 1999. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012.
- "Rail Privatisation". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard, House of Commons. 27 December 1996. volume 296, 275W.
- Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 67.
- "Confirmed – Wisconsin Central buys Rail express systems" Rail issue 268 20 December 1995 page 9
- "BR freight is finally sold to Burkhardt" Rail issue 274 13 March 1996 page 6
- Thalmann, Philippe (2004). The dynamics of freight transport development: a UK and Swiss comparison. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 34–36. ISBN 0-7546-3756-5.
- ECMT 2001, p. 88.
- Bradshaw, W.P. (2003) , "8. The Rail Industry", in Helm, Dieter; Jenkinson, Tim (eds.), Competition in Regulated Industries, p. 187
- " The end of rail freight as we know it" The Railway Magazine issue 1140 April 1996 page 7
- "Wisconsin unveils its new-look livery", Rail (278): 7, 8 May 1996
- "Wisconsin Central decides: It's the English, Welsh & Scottish Railway" The Railway Magazine issue 1142 June 1996 page 8
- ORR 2006, p. 6
- "New EW&S logo launched as company runs its first train" The Railway Magazine issue 1148 December 1996 page 6
- Wolmar, Christian (5 April 1996), "Rail freight to slash workforce", www.independent.co.uk, The Independent
- Companies House extract company no 3232475 DB Schenker Rail International Limited formerly English, Welsh & Scottish Railway International Limited formerly Railfreight Distribution Limited
- "English, Welsh & Scottish set to take over Railfreight Distribution" Rail issue 296 15 January 1997 page 9
- Sale of RfD 1999
- Horsman, Matthew (26 December 1996). "BR prefers US firm as freight bidder". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent.
- "RfD sale to EWS formally agreed" Rail issue 301 26 March 1997 page 10
- "The complete rise and fall of EWS " Rail issue 612 25 February 2009 pages 62–65
- Jay P. Pederson, ed. (1999). "Wisconsin Central Transportation Corporation". International Directory of Company Histories. 24. St. James Press.
- Hollingsworth, Brian (2000). "Class 66 Co-Co freight locomotive". Illustrated Directory of Trains of the World. MBI Publishing Company. p. 468. ISBN 0-7603-0891-8.
- House of Commons. Transport Committee, ed. (2003). "Mr Graham Smith, Planning Director and Mr Allen Mardsen, English, Welsh & Scottish Railway (EWS) examined". Ports: Oral and written evidence. The Stationery Office. pp. EV 16 – EV 18.
- Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 71.
- Gleed, Edward (2016). British Rail Class 60 Locomotives. The Crowood Press. ISBN 9781785001505.
- Nash & Fowkes 2004, pp. 67, 69–72, 72–73.
- Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 68, 72.
- "Freightliner Heavy Haul division challenges EWS" The Railway Magazine issue 1186 February 2000 page 6
- Nash & Fowkes 2004, p. 79.
- "EWS to acquire National Power's entire rail division from next April", Rail (312): 6, 27 August 1997
- Canadian railway to buy Wisconsin Central The New York Times 31 January 2001
- "EWS comes under CN" The Railway Magazine issue 1208 December 2001 page 15
- Jones, Alan (6 June 2003). "Royal Mail switches post transport from rail to road and air". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent.
- "Mail trains to be scrapped", BBC News, 6 June 2003
- "EWS acquires Probotec", www.worldcargonews.com, May 2005, archived from the original on 4 February 2016, retrieved 27 December 2018
- "EWS acquires Probotec assets", Logistics & Transport Focus, 7 (5): 14, June 2005
- "Industry News in Brief", www.railwaygazette.com, 1 June 2004,
Powell Duffryn Rail [has been] renamed Probotec Ltd, a name 'derived from Professional Bogie Technologies'.
- Burns, Hayden (December 2003), "Glamorgan Archives – Cambrian Wagon Works Ltd and Powell Duffryn Wagon Co. Ltd records", www.archiveswales.org.uk, archived from the original on 19 December 2013, retrieved 19 December 2013
- Moody's International Manual, 3: 6792, 1995 Missing or empty
- "Axiom gets its act together", Rail (555): 42–43, 20 December 2006
- Euro Cargo Rail Third Rail Freight Operator in France Archived 18 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine infrasite.net 11 April 2005
- Press Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Euro Cargo Rail
- "Euro Cargo Rail" Rail issue 667 6 April 2011 page 67
- EWS Railway Holdings Limited / Marcroft Holdings Limited merger inquiry, Competition Commission, 12 September 2006, archived from the original on 22 May 2013
- House of Commons: Transport Committee, ed. (2008). Freight transport: eighth report of session 2007–08. The Stationery Office. p. EV 80.
- Wright, Robert (17 November 2006), "Rail regulator fines EWS in competition case", www.ft.com, archived from the original on 14 September 2014
- ORR 2006, pp. 1–5, §1–17.
- English Welsh and Scottish Railway – No. 3/12/2003 – Decision by the Rail Regulator under the Competition Act 1998, Office of Fair Trading, archived from the original on 2 April 2014
- "Transport Committee – Written evidence from DB Schenker". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 25 November 2013.
DB Schenker is wholly owned by Deutsche Bahn AG
- "Deutsche Bahn plans takeover of EWS and Transfesa". Deutsche Bahn. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
- "EWS sold to German Railways" The Railway Magazine issue 1276 August 2007 page 6
- Osborne, Alistair (29 June 2007). "German rail giant confirms £300m deal for EWS shares". The Telegraph.
- Case No COMP/M.4746 – Deutsche Bahn / English Welsh & Scottish Railway Holdings (EWS) (PDF), Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 6 November 2007
- "Go-ahead for EWS sale to German Railways" The Railway Magazine issue 1281 January 2008 page 8
- Annual Accounts for 9 months ended 31 December 2007: English Welsh & Scottish Railway Holdings Limited
- Falkner, James (29 June 2007). "DB gets go-ahead for rail takeovers". International Freighting Weekly. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011.
- "EWS to rebrand as DB Schenker in new year". ifw-net.com. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009.
- "EWS becomes DB Schenker" Rail issue 608 31 December 2008 page 17
- "Class 59 is first to receive UK DB Schenker German livery" Rail issue 610 28 January 2009 page 7
- "DB Schenker unveils new look for UK rail freight at the National Railway Museum, York" (Press release). DB Schenker. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011.
- "DB Schenker unveils new look" The Railway Magazine issue 1295 March 2009 page 11
- "Media Center". Retrieved 15 October 2010.[permanent dead link]
"Class 92 modifications for HS1 freight" (PDF). Railway Herald (179): 3. 1 June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2011.
"Freight trains set to use High Speed 1". DB Schenker Rail. 16 April 2009. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009.
- "European sized rail freight to arrive in the UK soon, following successful locomotive trial" (Press release). DB Schenker Rail (UK). 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
- "DB Schenker Rail operates first freight train over High Speed 1" (Press release). DB Schenker Rail (UK). 27 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
- "First freight on High Speed 1". Railway Gazette International. London. 29 May 2011.
- "Inaugural freight train on HS1" The Railway Magazine issue 1324 August 2011 page 9
- "DB Schenker to upgrade locomotives for High Speed 1 service". Railway Technology.com. 12 December 2011.
- "Locomotives upgraded for European rail freight services on High Speed 1". Press Releases. DB Schenker Rail (UK). 7 October 2011.
investment will give DB Schenker Rail UK a fleet of six High Speed 1 enabled locomotives[permanent dead link]
- "More Class 92 freights on HS1" The Railway Magazine issue 1329 January 2012 page 87
- "DB Schenker Rail operates first European sized freight train over High Speed 1", www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk, DB Schenker Rail (UK), 27 July 2011, archived from the original on 22 April 2012
- Silvester, Katie (December 2011), "Rail Professional interview: Alain Thauvette", www.railpro.co.uk, Rail Professional, archived from the original on 20 April 2012
- "DB Schenker delivers first Poland to UK service", www.rail.dbschenker.co.uk, DB Schenker Rail (UK), 15 November 2011[permanent dead link]
- The UK's leading rail freight company announces rebrand Archived 11 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine DB Cargo UK 2 March 2016
- "Maritime Intermodal launched". Rail Express (276): 6–7. May 2019.
- "EWSR orders 250 new locomotives", Rail (280): 6, 5 June 1996
- "EWS has big loco switch-off" The Railway Magazine issue 1236 April 2004 page 64
- "British Beef is Alive and Kicking in France", Rail (371): 30–35, 1 December 1999
- "EWS confirms 37s for its Italian work", Rail (413): 56, 11 July 2001
- "EWS wins 37 Spanish work", Rail (397): 15, 29 November 2000
- France wnxx.com
- "Class 58 ACTS the part", Rail (489): 40–45, 9 June 2004
- "EWS must sell, not scrap its locomotives says Regulator", Rail (356): 12, 5 May 1999
- "DB Schenker to continue passenger services", Rail (673): 36–37, 29 June 2011
- EWS Executive Train Scot-rail
- "EWS to create touring train with four Mk 3s", Rail (489): 14, 9 June 2004
- "Silver 67 for EWS executive train" The Railway Magazine issue 1244 December 2004 page 7
- "Making the Class 60s super again" Rail issue 730 4 September 2013 page 48
- End of the line for Thornaby Railway Magazine 3 August 2011
- Depot integration puts Arriva's LNWR on track for future growth Global Rail News 5 May 2011
- "Four DB Schenker depots taken over by L&NWR" The Railway Magazine issue 1323 July 2011 page 81
- "New depots shared by EWS and Virgin" The Railway Magazine issue 1205 September 2001 page 73
- EWS awarded Sleeper contract Rail Technology Magazine 1 December 2005
- "Scottish sleeper power" The Railway Magazine issue 1166 June 1998 page 56
- "Highland sleepers awake after five-month break" Rail issue 408 2 May 2001 page 50
- Class 67 locomotives take to the West Highland Line Archived 17 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine ScotRail 6 June 2006
- "The Sleepers are stirring" Rail issue 756 3 September 2014 page 70
- "Fear and trepidation as EWS acquires RCS" The Railway Magazine issue 1226 June 2003 page 91
- Changeover day North Wales Coast Railway Noticeboard 26 March 2012
- Chiltern to employ Vossloh Class 68 power for Mainline services Rail Express 22 August 2014
- Thunderbirds are go for rail firm BBC News 25 May 2003
- "DB Schenker to continue passenger services" Rail issue 673 29 June 2011 pages 36/37
- "Anglia opts for EWS Class 90s" The Railway Magazine issue 1232 December 2003 page 63
- "Loco-hauled trains back on the S&C" The Railway Magazine issue 1229 1 September 2003 page 7
- First Great Western Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Taunton Trains
- "More locomotive haulage on North Wales coast", Rail (361): 55, 14 July 1999
- History Archived 29 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Riviera Trains
- The end of Wrexham & Shropshire North Wales Coast Railway noticeboard 7 February 2011
- "Princes charming", Rail (253): 4, 24 May 1995
- "New Royal Train locomotive unveiled", www.ews-railway.co.uk, 18 February 2004, archived from the original on 1 October 2006
- "HM The Queen names dedicated Royal Train locomotive at Bristol", www.ews-railway.co.uk, 25 February 2005, archived from the original on 1 October 2006
- "Rail reader's EWS logo unveiled at Toton depot", Rail (297): 8/9, 29 January 1997
- "Revised EWS livery launched" The Railway Magazine issue 1151 March 1997 page 6
- "First GNER 90 unveiled", Rail (359): 50, 16 June 1999
- "Operating enhancements for First Scotrail sleeper to be delivered by EWS and Axiom Rail", ews-railway.co.uk, 26 May 2006, archived from the original on 11 July 2006, retrieved 13 June 2006
- "Virgin hires DB Class 90 via DRS" Rail issue 739 8 January 2014 page 13
- "Arriva blue for Class 67" The Railway Magazine issue 1327 November 2011 page 81
- 2007 Prince of Wales P2 Steam Locomotive Trust
- 60163 Tornado Al Steam Locomotive Trust
- Mk3 train for 90mph-registered Tornado
- Decision of the Office of Rail Regulation – English Welsh and Scottish Railway Limited (PDF), Office of Rail Regulation, December 2006
- "The Sale of Rail Freight Distribution" (PDF). Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions / National Audit Office. 26 March 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012.
- "Rail Privatisation". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard, House of Commons, UK. 27 December 1996. volume 296, 275W.
- "Railway Reform – Regulation of Freight Transport Markets" (PDF), European Conference of Ministers of Transport, 2001, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2014
- Parker, David (2012), "Popular Capitalism. 1987–1997", The Official History of Privatisation: Popular Capitalism, 1987–97, 2
- Butcher, Louise (18 March 2011). "Railways: privatisation, 1987–1996". www.parliament.uk. House of Commons Library. p. 13.
- Nash, C.; Fowkes, T. (2004). "Rail Privatisation in Britain – Lessons for the Rail Freight Industry". European integration of rail freight transport (Round Table 125) (PDF). European Conference of Ministers of Transport. Economic Research Centre. OECD Publishing. pp. 61–94. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Sutton, Philip (August 2007). "Burkhardt on EWS". Rail Express. 135: 32–37.