English as a second or foreign language
English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Instruction for English-language learners may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). English as a foreign language (EFL) is used for non-native English speakers learning English in a country where English is not commonly spoken.
The term ESL has been seen by some to indicate that English would be of secondary importance. For example, where English is used as a Lingua Franca in a multilingual country. The term ESL can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English. The terms English Language Learners (ELL), and more recently English Learners (EL), have been used instead, and the students’ home language and cultures are considered important.
The way English learners are instructed depends on their level of English proficiency and the programs provided in their school or district. In some programs, instructions are taught in both, English and their home language. In other programs, instructions are only in English, but in a manner that is comprehensible to the students (Wright, 2010). Yet, there are other programs in which ELLs are pulled out of the classroom for separate English instruction, or the instruction can also be given in the classroom itself (Wright, 2010).
English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live in countries where English dominates and instruction for those who do not. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on. Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms.
Although English is the principal language in both the US and the United Kingdom, it differs between the two countries, primarily in pronunciation and vocabulary. For example, some words and phrases that are inoffensive in the US are offensive in the UK and vice versa. These differences are the butt of many jokes. "We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except, of course, language" (Oscar Wilde, in The Canterville Ghost). Similarly, Bertrand Russell said: "It is a misfortune for Anglo-American friendship that the two countries are supposed to have a common language." Another similar variation attributed to George Bernard Shaw, is that England and America "are two countries [or nations] divided [or separated] by a common language [or tongue]."
- 1 Terminology and types
- 2 Difficulties for learners
- 3 Social challenges and benefits
- 4 Peer Tutoring for ESL students
- 5 Exams for learners
- 6 Qualifications for teachers
- 7 Professional associations and unions
- 8 Acronyms and abbreviations
- 9 See also
- 10 References and notes
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Terminology and types
The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.
English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL), and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) are also used.
Other terms used in this field include English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for special purposes and English for specific purposes (ESP), and English for academic purposes (EAP). Those who are learning English are often referred to as English language learners (ELL).
English outside English-speaking countries
EFL, English as a foreign language, indicates the teaching of English in a non–English-speaking region. Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while one works for an organization or business with an international focus. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status (what linguistic theorist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries"); it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately. Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The Chinese EFL Journal and Iranian EFL Journal are examples of international journals dedicated to specifics of English language learning within countries where English is used as a foreign language.
English within English-speaking countries
The other broad grouping is the use of English within the English-speaking world. In what Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i.e., countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, this use of English is generally by refugees, immigrants, and their children. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies and the Philippines, where English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by a majority of the population.
In the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand this use of English is called ESL (English as a second language). This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language (see also Second language). TESL is the teaching of English as a second language. There are also other terms that it may be referred to in the US including: ELL (English Language Learner) and CLD (Culturally and Linguistically Diverse).
In the UK and Ireland, the term ESL has been replaced by ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). In these countries TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK and Ireland, the term EAL (English as an additional language) is used, rather than ESOL, when talking about primary and secondary schools, in order to clarify that English is not the students' first language, but their second or third. The term ESOL is used to describe English language learners who are above statutory school age.
Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. The term Limited English proficiency (LEP) was first used in 1975 by the Lau Remedies following a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court. ELL (English Language Learner), used by United States governments and school systems, was created by James Crawford of the Institute for Language and Education Policy in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them. Recently, some educators have shortened this to EL – English Learner.
Typically, a student learns this sort of English to function in the new host country, e.g., within the school system (if a child), to find and hold down a job (if an adult), or to perform the necessities of daily life (cooking, taking a cab/public transportation, or eating in a restaurant, etc.). The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program. It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens. In practice, however, this is extremely rare. Particularly in Canada and Australia, the term ESD (English as a second dialect) is used alongside ESL, usually in reference to programs for Aboriginal peoples in Canadian or Australians. The term refers to the use of standard English by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. It is often grouped with ESL as ESL/ESD.
All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, not all of the English teachers in the world would agree on just only a simply single term(s). The term TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is used in American English to include both TEFL and TESL. This is also the case in Canada as well as in Australia and New Zealand. British English uses ELT (English language teaching), because TESOL has a different, more specific meaning; see above.
Systems of simplified English
Several models of "simplified English" have been suggested or developed for international communication, among them:
- Basic English, developed by Charles Kay Ogden (and later also I. A. Richards) in the 1930s; a recent revival has been initiated by Bill Templer
- Threshold Level English, developed by van Ek and Alexander
- Globish, developed by Jean-Paul Nerrière
- Basic Global English, developed by Joachim Grzega
- Nuclear English, proposed by Randolph Quirk and Gabriele Stein but never fully developed
Difficulties for learners
Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is more closely related to English than Chinese is. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition (SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research.
Language learners often produce errors of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, as they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds (for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make' not 'he makes').
Some students may have very different cultural perceptions in the classroom as far as learning a second language is concerned. Cultural differences in communication styles and preferences are also significant. For example, a study looked at Chinese ESL students and British teachers and found that the Chinese learners did not see classroom discussion and interaction as important but placed a heavy emphasis on teacher-directed lectures.
English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them. For example:
- The interdentals, /θ/ and /ð/ (both written as th) are relatively rare in other languages.
- Phonemic contrast of /i/ with /ɪ/ (beat vs bit vowels), of /u/ with /ʊ/ (fool vs full vowels), and of /ɛ/ with /æ/ (bet vs bat vowels) is rare outside northwestern Europe, so unusual mergers or exotic pronunciations such as [bet] for bit may arise. Note that [bɪt] is a pronunciation often used in England and Wales for bet, and also in some dialects of American English. See Northern cities vowel shift, and Pin-pen merger.
- Native speakers of Japanese, Korean, and most Chinese dialects have difficulty distinguishing /r/ and /l/, also present for speakers of some Caribbean Spanish dialects (only at the end of syllables), what is known as lallation.
- Native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, Spanish or Galician, and Ukrainian may pronounce [h]-like sounds where a /r/, /s/, or /ɡ/, respectively, would be expected, as those sounds often or almost always follow this process in their native languages, what is known as debuccalization.
- Native speakers of Arabic, Tagalog, Japanese, Korean, and important dialects of all current Iberian Romance languages (including about all of Spanish) have difficulty distinguishing [b] and [v], what is known as betacism.
- Native speakers of almost all of Brazilian Portuguese, of some African Portuguese registers, of Portuguese-derived creole languages, some dialects of Swiss German, and several pontual processes in several Slavic languages, such as Bulgarian and Ukrainian, and many dialects of other languages, have instances of /l/ or /ɫ/ always becoming [w] at the end of a syllable in a given context, so that milk may be variously pronounced as [mɪu̯k], [mɪʊ̯k], or [mɪo̯k]. This is present in some English registers—known as l-vocalization—but may be shunned as substandard or bring confusion in others.
- Native speakers of many widely spoken languages (including Dutch and all the Romance ones) distinguish voiceless stop pairs /p/, /t/, /k/ from their voiced counterparts /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ merely by their sound (and in Iberian Romance languages, the latter trio does not even need to be stopped, so its native speakers unconsciously pronounce them as [β], [ð], and [ɣ ~ ɰ] – voiced fricatives or approximants in the very same mouth positions – instead much or most of the time, that native English speakers may erroneously interpret as the /v/ or /w/, /ð/ and /h/, /w/, or /r/ of their language). In English, German, Danish, and some other languages, though, the main distinguishing feature in the case of initial or stressed stopped voiceless consonants from their voiced counterparts is that they are aspirated [pʰ tʰ kʰ] (unless if immediately preceded or followed by /s/), while the voiced ones are not. As a result, much of the non-English /p/, /t/ and /k/ will sound to native English ears as /b/, /d/ and /ɡ/ instead (i.e. parking may sound more like barking).
- Ukrainian, Turkish and Azeri speakers may have trouble distinguishing between /v/ and /w/ as both pronunciations are used interchangeably for the letter v in those languages.
Languages may also differ in syllable structure; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it (e.g. strengths, straw, desks, glimpsed, sixths). Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese, for example, broadly alternate consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan and Brazil often force vowels between the consonants (e.g. desks becomes [desukusu] or [dɛskis], and milk shake becomes [miɽukuɕeːku] or [miwki ɕejki], respectively). Similarly, in most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s], and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word (e.g. school becomes [eskul], [iskuɫ ~ iskuw], [ɯskuɫ] or [əskuɫ] for native speakers of Spanish, Brazilian and European Portuguese, and Catalan, respectively).
- Tense, aspect, and mood – English has a relatively large number of tense–aspect–mood forms with some quite subtle differences, such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have eaten". Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. (See English verbs.)
- Functions of auxiliaries – Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses auxiliary verbs. These include negation (e.g. He hasn't been drinking.), inversion with the subject to form a question (e.g. Has he been drinking?), short answers (e.g. Yes, he has.) and tag questions (has he?). A further complication is that the dummy auxiliary verb do/does/did is added to fulfil these functions in the simple present and simple past, but not to replace the verb to be (He drinks too much./Does he? but He is an addict/Is he?).
- Modal verbs – English has several modal auxiliary verbs, which each have a number of uses. These verbs convey a special sense or mood such as obligation, necessity, ability, probability, permission, possibility, prohibition, intention etc. These include "must", "can", "have to", "need to", "will", "shall", "ought to", "will have to", "may", and "might".
- For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" (obligation) is usually "You don't have to be here at 8" (lack of obligation, choice). "Must" in "You must not drink the water" (prohibition) has a different meaning from "must" in "You must have eaten the chocolate" (deduction). This complexity takes considerable work for most English language learners to master.
- All these modal verbs or "modals" take the first form of the verb after them. These modals (most of them) do not have past or future inflection, i.e. they do not have past or future tense (exceptions being have to and need to).
- Idiomatic usage – English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage. For example, the use of different main verb forms in such apparently parallel constructions as "try to learn", "help learn", and "avoid learning" pose difficulty for learners. Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": "make a mistake", not "do a mistake"; and "do a favor", not "make a favor".
- Articles – English has two forms of article: the (the definite article) and a and an (the indefinite article). In addition, at times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an article; this is called the zero article. Some of the differences between definite, indefinite and zero article are fairly easy to learn, but others are not, particularly since a learner's native language may lack articles, have only one form, or use them differently from English. Although the information conveyed by articles is rarely essential for communication, English uses them frequently (several times in the average sentence) so that they require some effort from the learner.
- Phrasal verbs – Phrasal verbs (also known as multiple-word verbs) in English can cause difficulties for many learners because of their syntactic pattern and because they often have several meanings. There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English.
- Prepositions – As with many other languages, the correct use of prepositions in the English language is difficult to learn, and it can turn out to be quite a frustrating learning experience for ESL/EFL learners. For example, the prepositions "on" (rely on, fall on), "of" (think of, because of, in the vicinity of), and "at" (turn at, meet at, start at) are used in so many different ways and contexts, it is very difficult to remember the exact meaning for each one. Furthermore, the same words are often used as adverbs (come in, press on, listen in, step in) as part of a compound verb (make up, give up, get up, give in, turn in, put on), or in more than one way with different functions and meanings (look up, look on, give in) (He looked up her skirt/He looked up the spelling/Things are looking up/When you're in town, look me up!; He gave in his homework/First he refused but then he gave in; He got up at 6 o'clock/He got up the hill/He got up a nativity play). Also, for some languages, such as Spanish, there is/are one/some prepositions that can mean multiple English prepositions (i.e. en in Spanish can mean on, in, or at). When translating back to the ESL learners' respective L1, a particular preposition's translation may be correct in one instance, but when using the preposition in another sense, the meaning is sometimes quite different. "One of my friends" translates to (transliterated) wahed min isdiqa'i in Arabic. Min is the Arabic word for "from", so it means one "from" my friends. "I am on page 5" translates to ich bin auf Seite 5 in German just fine, but in Arabic it is Ana fee safha raqm 5 (I am "in" page 5).
- Word formation – Word formation in English requires a lot of rote learning. For example, an adjective can be negated by using the prefixes un- (e.g. unable), in- (e.g. inappropriate), dis- (e.g. dishonest), non- (non-standard) or a- (e.g. amoral), as well as several rarer prefixes.
- Size of lexicon – The history of English has resulted in a very large vocabulary, including one stream from Old English and one from the Norman infusion of Latin-derived terms. (Schmitt & Marsden claim that English has one of the largest vocabularies of any known language.) One estimate of the lexicon puts English at around 250,000 unique words. This requires more work for a learner to master the language.
- Collocations – Collocation in English refers to the tendency for words to occur together with others. For example, nouns and verbs that go together (ride a bike/drive a car). Native speakers tend to use chunks[clarification needed] of collocations and ESL learners make mistakes with collocations.
- Slang and colloquialisms – In most native English speaking countries, large numbers of slang and colloquial terms are used in everyday speech. Many learners may find that classroom based English is significantly different from how English is usually spoken in practice. This can often be difficult and confusing for learners with little experience of using English in Anglophone countries. Also, slang terms differ greatly between different regions and can change quickly in response to popular culture. Some phrases can become unintentionally rude if misused.
- Silent letters - Within English, almost every letter has the 'opportunity' to be silent in a word, except F, J, Q, R, V, and Y. The most common is e, usually at the end of the word and is used to elongate the previous vowel(s). The common usage of silent letters can throw off how ESL learners interpret the language (especially those who are fluent in a Germanic language), since a common step to learning words in most languages is to pronounce them phonetically. Words such as Queue, Colonel, Knight and Wednesday tend to throw off the learner, since they contain large amounts of silent letters.
Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners. Usually these learners have had their first-language education interrupted. Many of these learners require a different level of support, teaching approaches and strategies, and a different curriculum from mainstream adult ESL learners. For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills, and these learners may avoid reading or writing. Often these learners do not start classroom tasks immediately, do not ask for help, and often assume the novice role when working with peers. Generally these learners may lack self-confidence. For some, prior schooling is equated with status, cultured, civilized, high class, and they may experience shame among peers in their new ESL classes.
Learners who have not had extensive exposure to reading and writing in a second language, despite having acceptable spoken proficiency, may have difficulties with the reading and writing in their L2. Joann Crandall (1993) has pointed out that most teacher training programs for TESOL instructors do not include sufficient, in most cases "no", training for the instruction if literacy. This is a gap that many scholars feel needs to be addressed.
Social and Academic Language Acquisition
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) are language skills needed in social situations. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) refers to the language associated with formal content material and academic learning. These skills usually take from five to seven years to develop.
The importance of reading in ESL instruction
According to some English professionals, reading for pleasure is an important component in the teaching of both native and foreign languages:
"Studies that sought to improve writing by providing reading experiences in place of grammar study or additional writing practice found that these experiences were as beneficial as, or more beneficial than, grammar study or extra writing practice."
Differences between spoken and written English
- Spelling and pronunciation: probably the biggest difficulty for non-native speakers, since the relation between English spelling and pronunciation does not follow the alphabetic principle consistently. Because of the many changes in pronunciation which have occurred since a written standard developed, the retention of many historical idiosyncrasies in spelling, and the large influx of foreign words (mainly from Norman French, Classical Latin and Greek) with different and overlapping spelling patterns, English spelling and pronunciation are difficult even for native speakers to master. This difficulty is shown in such activities as spelling bees. The generalizations that exist are quite complex and there are many exceptions, leading to a considerable amount of rote learning. The spelling and pronunciation system causes problems in both directions: a learner may know a word by sound but be unable to write it correctly (or indeed find it in a dictionary) or they may see a word written but not know how to pronounce it or mislearn the pronunciation. However, despite the variety of spelling patterns in English, there are dozens of rules that are 75% or more reliable.
There is also debate about "meaning-focused" learning and "correction-focused" learning. Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important. However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important.
Language has a very significant role in our lives. It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other. The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests. However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships. In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. "The number of non-native English speaking children in U.S. public schools continues to rise dramatically.
Although many non-English speakers tend to practice English classes in their countries before they migrate to any anglophone country to make it easier for them to interact with the people, many of them still struggle when they experience the reality of communicating with a real anglophone. Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible. Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues. The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes. There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect. However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive.
Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike. Computers help learners by making them more responsible for their own learning. Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found. In today's developed world, a computer is one of a number of systems which help learners to improve their language. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is a system which aids learners to improve and practice language skills. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible.
Computers can provide help to the ESL learners in many different ways such as teaching students to learn a new language. The computer can be used to test students about the language they already learn. It can assist them in practicing certain tasks. The computer permits students to communicate easily with other students in different places. Nowadays the increasing use of mobile technology, such as smartphones and tablet computers, has led to a growing usage applications created to facilitate language learning, such as The Phrasal Verbs Machine from Cambridge. In terms of online materials, there are many forms of online materials such as blogs, wikis, webquest. For instance, blogs can allow English learners to voice their opinions,sharpen their writing skills and build their confidence. However, some who are introverted may not feel comfortable sharing their ideas on the blog. Class wikis can be used to promote collaborative learning through sharing and co-constructing knowledge. Its vitally important to remember that on-line materials are still just materials and thus need to be subject to the same scrutiny of evaluation as any other language material or source.
The learning ability of language learners can be more reliable with the influence of a dictionary. Learners tend to carry or are required to have a dictionary which allows them to learn independently and become more responsible for their own work. In these modern days, education has upgraded its methods of teaching and learning with dictionaries where digital materials are being applied as tools. Electronic dictionaries are increasingly a more common choice for ESL students. Most of them contain native-language equivalents and explanations, as well as definitions and example sentences in English. They can speak the English word to the learner, and they are easy to carry around. However, they are expensive and easy to lose, so students are often instructed to put their names on them.
Varieties of English
- The English language in England (and other parts of the United Kingdom) exhibits significant differences by region and class, noticeable both in accent (pronunciation) and in dialect (vocabulary and grammar).
- The numerous communities of English native speakers in countries all over the world also have some noticeable differences. See Irish English, Australian English, Canadian English, Newfoundland English, etc.
- English has no organization that controls a prestige dialect of the language – unlike the French Academie de la langue française, Spain's Real Academia Española, or Esperanto's Akademio.
Teaching English therefore involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for their purposes, but also exposure to regional forms and cultural styles so that the student will be able to discern meaning even when the words, grammar, or pronunciation are different from the form of English they are being taught to speak. Some professionals in the field have recommended incorporating information about non-standard forms of English in ESL programs. For example, in advocating for classroom-based instruction in African-American English (also known as Ebonics), linguist Richard McDorman has argued, "Simply put, the ESL syllabus must break free of the longstanding intellectual imperiousness of the standard to embrace instruction that encompasses the many "Englishes" that learners will encounter and thereby achieve the culturally responsive pedagogy so often advocated by leaders in the field."
Social challenges and benefits
ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and Math. There is also low mobility among these students from low to high performing groups, which can prevent them from achieving the same academic progress as native speakers. Similar tests are also used to place ESL students in college level courses. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college level academic literacy. Studies have shown that these tests can cause different passing rates among linguistic groups regardless of high school preparation.
Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is 43.4%. A study in Canada found that the high school dropout rate for all ESL students was 74%. High dropout rates are thought to be due to difficulties ESL students have in keeping up in mainstream classes, the increasing number of ESL students who enter middle or high school with interrupted prior formal education, and accountability systems.
The accountability system in the US is due to the No Child Left Behind Act. Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities. Because dropouts actually increase a school's performance, critics claim that administrators let poor performing students slip through the cracks. A study of Texas schools operating under No Child Left Behind found that 80% of ESL students did not graduate from high school in five years.
Access to higher education
ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. It is difficult for ESL students that arrive in the United States relatively late to finish this requirement because they must spend a longer time in ESL English classes in high school, or they might not arrive early enough to complete four years of English in high school. This results in many ESL students not having the correct credits to apply for college, or enrolling in summer school to finish the required courses.
ESL students can also face additional financial barriers to higher education because of their language skills. Those that don't place high enough on college placement exams often have to enroll in ESL courses at their universities. These courses can cost up to $1,000 extra, and can be offered without credit towards graduation. This adds additional financial stress on ESL students that often come from families of lower socioeconomic status. The latest statistics show that the median household income for school-age ESL students is $36,691 while that of non-ESL students is $60,280.[not in citation given] College tuition has risen sharply in the last decade, while family income has fallen. In addition, while many ESL students receive a Pell Grant, the maximum grant for the year 2011–2012 covered only about a third of the cost of college.
Interaction with native speakers
ESL students often have difficulty interacting with native speakers in school. Some ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their poor English. Immigrant students often also lack knowledge of popular culture, which limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics. In classroom group activities with native speakers, ESL students often do not participate, again because of embarrassment about their English, but also because of cultural differences: their native cultures may value silence and individual work at school in preference to social interaction and talking in class.
These interactions have been found to extend to teacher–student interactions as well. In most mainstream classrooms, teacher-led discussion is the most common form of lesson. In this setting, some ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms. ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons. Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barrier, cultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional pastimes in their new country.
Supporters of ESL programs claim they play an important role in the formation of peer networks and adjustment to school and society in their new homes. Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers. ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culture, the expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings. ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism.
Peer Tutoring for ESL students
Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level. The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingual tutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee. Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other. In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by using this procedure. In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills.
Since there is not enough funding to afford tutors, and teachers find it hard to educate all students who have different learning abilities, it is highly important to implement peer-tutoring programs in schools. Students placed in ESL program learn together along with other non-English speakers, however by using peer tutoring in classroom it will avoid the separation between regular English classes and ESL classes. These programs will promote community between students that will be helping each other grow academically. To further support this statement, a study researched the effectiveness of peer tutoring and explicit teaching in classrooms. It was found that students with learning disabilities and low performing students who are exposed to the explicit teaching and peer tutoring treatment in the classroom, have better academic performance than those students who don’t receive this type of assistance. It was proven that peer tutoring is the most effective and no cost form of teaching
It has been proven that peer-mediated tutoring is an effective tool to help ESL students succeed academically. Peer tutoring has been utilized across many different academic courses and the outcomes for those students that have different learning abilities are outstanding. Classmates who were actively involved with other peers in tutoring had better academic standing than those students who were not part of the tutoring program. Based on their results, researchers found that all English student learners were able to maintain a high percentage of English academic words on weekly tests taught during tutoring session. It was also found that the literature on the efficacy of peer tutoring service combined with regular classroom teaching, is the best methodology practice that is effective, that benefits students, teachers, and parents involved.
Research on peer English immersion tutoring
Similarly, a longitudinal study was conducted to examine the effects of paired bilingual program and an English-only reading program with Spanish speaking English learners in order to increase students’ English reading outcomes. Students whose primary language was Spanish and were part of ESL program were participants of this study. Three different approaches were the focus in which immersing students in English from the very beginning and teaching them reading only in that language; teaching students in Spanish first, followed by English; and teaching students to read in Spanish and English simultaneously. This occurs through a strategic approach such as structured English immersion or sheltered instruction.
Findings showed that the paired bilingual reading approach appeared to work as well as, or better than, the English-only reading approach in terms of reading growth and results. Researchers found differences in results, but they also varied based on several outcomes depending on the student’s learning abilities and academic performance.
ESL teacher's training
Teachers in an ESL class are specifically trained in particular techniques and tools to help students learn English. In fact, research says that the quality of their teaching methods is what matters the most when it comes to educating English learners. It was also mentioned how it is highly important for teachers to have the drive to help these students succeed and "feel personal responsibility." It is important to highlight the idea that the school system needs to focus on school-wide interventions in order to make an impact and be able to help all English learners. There is a high need for comprehensive professional development for teachers in the ESL program.
Effects of peer tutoring on the achievement gap
Although peer tutoring has been proven to be an effective way of learning that engages and promotes academic achievement in students, does it have an effect on the achievement gap? It is an obvious fact that there is a large academic performance disparity between White, Black, and Latino students, and it continues to be an issue that has to be targeted. In an article it was mentioned that no one has been able to identify the true factors that cause this discrepancy. However it was mentioned that by developing effective peer tutoring programs in schools could be a factor that can potentially decrease the achievement gap in the United States.
Exams for learners
Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally:
- IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the world's most popular English test for higher education and immigration. It is managed by the British Council, Cambridge English Language Assessment and a consortium of Australian institutions, and is offered in general and academic versions. IELTS Academic is the normal test of English proficiency for entry into universities in the UK, Australia, Canada and other British English countries. IELTS General is required for immigration into Australia and New Zealand. Both versions of IELTS are accepted for all classes of UK visa and immigration applications. Also, a new Speaking and Listening test, IELTS Life Skills, was introduced in 2015 specifically to meet the requirements for some classes of UK visa application.
- CaMLA, a collaboration between the University of Michigan and Cambridge English Language Assessment offer a suite of American English tests, including the MET (Michigan English Test), the MTELP Series (Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency), MELAB (Michigan English Language Assessment Battery), CaMLA EPT (English Placement Test), YLTE (Young Learners Test of English), ECCE and ECPE.
- TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), an Educational Testing Service product, developed and used primarily for academic institutions in the USA, and now widely accepted in tertiary institutions in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the UK, South Korea, and Ireland. The current test is an Internet-based test, and is thus known as the TOEFL iBT. Used as a proxy for English for Academic Purposes.
- iTEP (International Test of English Proficiency), developed by former ELS Language Centers President Perry Akins' Boston Educational Services, and used by colleges and universities such as the California State University system. iTEP Business is used by companies, organizations and governments, and iTEP SLATE (Secondary Level Assessment Test of English) is designed for middle and high school-age students.
- PTE Academic (Pearson Test of English Academic), a Pearson product, measures reading, writing, speaking and listening as well as grammar, oral fluency, pronunciation, spelling, vocabular and written discourse. The test is computer-based and is designed to reflect international English for academic admission into any university requiring English proficiency.
- TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), an Educational Testing Service product for Business English used by 10,000 organizations in 120 countries. Includes a listening and reading test as well as a speaking and writing test introduced in selected countries beginning in 2006.
- Trinity College London ESOL offers the Integrated Skills in English (ISE) series of 5 exams which assesses reading, writing, speaking and listening and is accepted by academic institutions in the UK. They also offer Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE), a series of 12 exams, which assesses speaking and listening, and ESOL Skills for Life and ESOL for Work exams in the UK only.
- Cambridge English Language Assessment offers a suite of eighteen globally available examinations including General English: Key English Test (KET), Preliminary English Test (PET), First Certificate in English (FCE), Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) and Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE).
- London Tests of English from Pearson Language Tests, a series of six exams each mapped to a level from the Common European Framework (CEFR) – see below.
- Secondary Level English Proficiency test
- MTELP (Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency), is a language certificate measuring a students English ability as a second or foreign language. Its primary purpose is to assess a learner's English language ability at an academic or advanced business level.
- BULATS (Business Language Test),
Many countries also have their own exams. ESOL learners in England, Wales and Northern Ireland usually take the national Skills for Life qualifications, which are offered by several exam boards. EFL learners in China may take the College English Test, the Test for English Majors (TEM), and/or the Public English Test System (PETS). People in Taiwan often take the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT). In Greece English students may take the PALSO (PanHellenic Association of Language School Owners) exams.
The Common European Framework
Between 1998 and 2000, the Council of Europe's language policy division developed its Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The aim of this framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries.
The Common European Framework (CEF) divides language learners into three levels:
- A. Basic User
- B. Independent User
- C. Proficient User
Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing (A1, A2, B1, etc.).
This table compares ELT exams according to the CEF levels:
|CEF Level||ALTE Level||RQF Level||PTE General||Trinity College London ESOL GESE||Trinity College London ESOL ISE||UBELT exam||IELTS||Cambridge English Language Assessment BULATS||Cambridge English Language Assessment BEC||Cambridge English Language Assessment General||Cambridge English Language Assessment YLE||Cambridge English Language Assessment Skills for Life||CaMLA|
|C2||Level 5||Level 3||Level 5||Grade 12||ISE IV||4.0–5.0||8.5–9.0||90–100||n/a||CPE||n/a||n/a||ECPE|
|C1||Level 4||Level 2||Level 4||Grade 10,11||ISE III||3.0–3.5||7.0–8.0||75–89||Higher||CAE||n/a||Level 2||MET, MELAB|
|B2||Level 3||Level 1||Level 3||Grade 7,8,9||ISE II||2.0–2.5||5.5 – 6.5||60–74||Vantage||FCE||n/a||Level 1||MET, MELAB, ECCE|
|B1||Level 2||Entry 3||Level 2||Grade 5,6||ISE I||1.5||4.0 – 5.0||40–59||Preliminary||PET||n/a||Entry 3||MET, MELAB|
|A2||Level 1||Entry 2||Level 1||Grades 3,4||ISE 0||1.0||n/a||20–39||n/a||KET||Flyers||Entry 2||MET, YLTE|
|A1||Breakthrough||Entry 1||Level A1||Grade 2||n/a||<1.0||n/a||0-19||n/a||n/a||Movers||Entry 1||YLTE|
Qualifications for teachers
Most people who teach English are in fact not native speakers. They are state school teachers in countries around the world, and as such they hold the relevant teaching qualification of their country, usually with a specialization in teaching English. For example, teachers in Hong Kong hold the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers. Those who work in private language schools may, from commercial pressures, have the same qualifications as native speakers (see below). Widespread problems exist of minimal qualifications and poor quality providers of training, and as the industry becomes more professional, it is trying to self-regulate to eliminate these.
Common, respected qualifications for teachers within the United Kingdom's sphere of influence include certificates and diplomas issued by Trinity College London ESOL and Cambridge English Language Assessment (henceforth Trinity and Cambridge).
A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. This is sufficient for most EFL jobs (see TEFL for an extended discussion of travel-teaching) and for some ESOL ones. CertTESOL (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages), issued by Trinity, and CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults), issued by Cambridge, are the most widely taken and accepted qualifications for new teacher trainees. Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world. It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period up to a year.
Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects (including school management and teacher training) can take a diploma course. Trinity offers the Trinity Licentiate Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (DipTESOL) and Cambridge offers the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults (DELTA). These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework. Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT. Many UK master's degrees require considerable experience in the field before a candidate is accepted onto the course.
The above qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision. However, in England and Wales, in order to meet the government's criteria for being a qualified teacher of ESOL in the Learning and Skills Sector (i.e. post-compulsory or further education), teachers need to have the Certificate in Further Education Teaching Stage 3 at level 5 (of the revised NQF) and the Certificate for ESOL Subject Specialists at level 4. Recognised qualifications which confer one or both of these include a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) in ESOL, the CELTA module 2 and City & Guilds 9488. Teachers of any subject within the British state sector are normally expected to hold a PGCE, and may choose to specialise in ELT.
Teachers teaching adult ESL in Canada in the federally funded Language Instruction to Newcomers (LINC) program must be TESL certified. Most employers in Ontario encourage certification by TESL Ontario. Often this requires completing an eight-month graduate certificate program at an accredited university or college. See the TESL Ontario or TESL Canada websites for more information.
United States qualifications
Most U.S. instructors at community colleges private language schools and universities qualify to teach English to adult non-native speakers by completing a Master of Arts (MA) in TESOL. Other degrees may be a Master in Adult Education and Training or Applied Linguistics. This degree also qualifies them to teach in most EFL contexts. There are also a growing number of online programs offering TESOL degrees. In fact, "the growth of Online Language Teacher Education (OLTE) programs from the mid-1990s to 2009 was from 20 to more than 120".
In many areas of the United States, a growing number of K-12 public school teachers are involved in teaching ELLs (English Language Learners, that is, children who come to school speaking a home language other than English). The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction. This state licensing requires substantial practical experience as well as course work. In some states, an additional specialization in ESL/ELL is required. This may be called an "endorsement". Endorsement programs may be part of a graduate program or may be completed independently to add the endorsement to the initial teaching certificate
An MA in TESOL may or may not meet individual state requirements for K-12 public school teachers. It is important to determine if a graduate program is designed to prepare teachers for adult education or K-12 education.
The MA in TESOL typically includes second language acquisition theory, linguistics, pedagogy, and an internship. A program will also likely have specific classes on skills such as reading, writing, pronunciation, and grammar. Admission requirements vary and may or may not require a background in education and/or language. Many graduate students also participate in teaching practica or clinicals, which provide the opportunity to gain experience in classrooms.
In addition to traditional classroom teaching methods, speech pathologists, linguists, actors, and voice professionals are actively involved in teaching pronunciation of American English—called accent improvement, accent modification, and accent reduction—and serve as resources for other aspects of spoken English, such as word choice.
It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license for K-12 teachers is not automatic following completion of degree requirements. All teachers must complete a battery of exams (typically the Praxis test or a specific state test subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams) as well as supervised instruction as student teachers. Often, ESL certification can be obtained through extra college coursework. ESL certifications are usually only valid when paired with an already existing teaching certificate. Certification requirements for ESL teachers vary greatly from state to state; out-of-state teaching certificates are recognized if the two states have a reciprocity agreement.
Native speakers will often be able to find work as an English teacher in Chile without an ESL teaching certificate. However, many private institutes give preference to teachers with a TEFL, CELTA or TESOL certificate. The Chilean Ministry of Education also sponsors the English Opens Doors program, which recruits native English speakers to come work as teaching assistants in Chilean public schools. English Opens Doors requires only a bachelor's degree in order to be considered for acceptance.
Professional associations and unions
- TESOL International Association (TESOL) is a professional organization based in the United States. In addition, TESOL International Association has more than 100 statewide and regional affiliates in the United States and around the world, see below.
- The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL) is a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
- Professional organizations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), TESOL Greece in Greece, or the Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers (SPELT). Some of these organizations may be bigger in structure (supra-national, such as TESOL Arabia in the Gulf states), or smaller (limited to one city, state, or province, such as CATESOL in California). Some are affiliated to TESOL or IATEFL.
- The National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.
- National Union of General Workers is a Japanese union which includes English teachers.
- University and College Union is a British trade union which includes lecturers of ELT.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK. See further discussion is Terminology and types above.
Types of English
- BE – Business English
- EAL – English as an additional language
- EAP – English for academic purposes
- EFL – English as a foreign language
- EIL – English as an international language (see main article at International English)
- ELF – English as a lingua franca, a common language that is not the mother tongue of any of the participants in a discussion
- ELL – English language learner
- ELT – English language teaching
- ESL – English as a second language
- ESOL – English for speakers of other languages
- ESP – English for specific purposes, or English for special purposes (e.g. technical English, scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters)
- EST – English for science and technology (e.g. technical English, scientific English)
- TEFL – Teaching English as a foreign language. This link is to a page about a subset of TEFL, namely travel-teaching. More generally, see the discussion in Terminology and types.
- TESL – Teaching English as a second language
- TESOL – Teaching English to speakers of other languages, or Teaching English as a second or other language. Also the short name for TESOL International Association.
- TYLE – Teaching Young Learners English. Note that "Young Learners" can mean under 18, or much younger.
- BULATS – Business Language Testing Services, a computer-based test of business English, produced by CambridgeEsol. The test also exists for French, German, and Spanish.
- CELT – Certificate in English Language Teaching, certified by the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (ACELS).
- CELTA – Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults
- CELTYL – Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners
- Delta – Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
- ECPE – Examination for the Certificate of Proficiency in English
- IELTS – International English Language Testing System
- LTE – London Tests of English by Pearson Language Tests
- OLTE- Online Language Teacher Education
- TOEFL – Test of English as a Foreign Language
- TOEIC – Test of English for International Communication
- UCLES – University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, an exam board
- Foreign language
- Glossary of language teaching terms and ideas
- Second language
- Standard Marine Communication Phrases
General language teaching and learning
English language teaching and learning
- Assistant Language Teacher
- Non-native pronunciations of English
- Structured English Immersion, a framework for teaching English language learners in public schools
- Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL)
Dictionaries and resources
References and notes
- (Wright, W. E. (2010). Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners: Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing.).
- Bertrand Russell, Can Americans and Britons Be Friends?, Saturday Evening Post (3 June 1944)
- “The Christian Science Monitor” of Boston, Massachusetts in September 1942.
- . Chinese-efl-journal.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
- Second Language Acquisition Research Journal | Welcome |. The Iranian EFL Journal. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
- Cf. Ogden, Charles K. (1934), The System of Basic English, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., and Templer, Bill (2005), "Towards a People's English: Back to BASIC in EIL", Humanising Language Teaching September 2005.
- Cf. van Ek, J.A. / Alexander, L.G. (1980), Threshold Level English, Oxford: Pergamon.
- Cf. Grzega, Joachim (2005), "Reflection on Concepts of English for Europe: British English, American English, Euro-English, Global English", Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 44–64, and Grzega, Joachim (2005), "Towards Global English via Basic Global English (BGE): Socioeconomic and Pedagogic Ideas for a European and Global Language (with Didactic Examples for Native Speakers of German), Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 65–164, and the press releases accessible via the Basic Global English website.
- Cf. Quirk, Randolph (1981), "International Communication and the Concept of Nuclear English", in: Smith, Larry E. (ed.), English for Cross-Cultural Communication, 151–165, London: Macmillan, and Stein, Gabriele (1979), "Nuclear English: Reflections on the Structure of Its Vocabulary", Poetica (Tokyo) 10: 64–76.
- McKay, Sharon; Schaetzel, Kirsten, Facilitating Adult Learner Interactions to Build Listening and Speaking Skills, CAELA Network Briefs, CAELA and Center for Applied Linguistics, July 2008
- Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1998). "The culture the learner brings: A bridge or a barrier? In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective: Approaches through drama and ethnography. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
- "Lexical Bias in Cross-Dialect Word Recognition in Noise – Departments of Linguistics of the Northwestern and Ohio State Universities" (PDF).
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- Johansson, Li., Angst, K., Beer, B., Martin, S., Rebeck, W., Sibilleau, N. (2000) Canadian language benchmarks 2000: ESL for literacy learners. Ottawa: Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. p. ii
- Bigelow, M., & Schwarz, R. L. (2010). Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy. National Institute for Literacy. pp. 5, 13.
- Johansson, Li., Angst, K., Beer, B., Martin, S., Rebeck, W., Sibilleau, N. (2000) Canadian language benchmarks 2000: ESL for literacy learners. Ottawa: Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. p. ii.
- Ramírez‐Esparza, N., Harris, K., Hellermann, J., Richard, C., Kuhl, P. K., & Reder, S. (2012). Socio‐Interactive Practices and Personality in Adult Learners of English With Little Formal Education. Language Learning, 62(2), 541–570.
- Bigelow, M., & Schwarz, R. L. (2010). Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy. National Institute for Literacy. p. 12.
- Klassen, C.; Burnaby, B. (1993). "Those who know": Views on literacy among adult immigrants in Canada. TESOL Quarterly, 27(3), 377–397".
- Bigelow, M., & Schwarz, R. L. (2010). Adult English Language Learners with Limited Literacy. National Institute for Literacy. p. 13.
- Professionalism and Professionalization of Adults ESL Literacy. TESOL Quarterly. 27:3 pp479-515.
- Krashen, S. (1993). The power of reading. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. p. 23.
- Stotsky, S. (1983). "Research on reading/writing relationships: a synthesis and suggested directions". Language Arts. 60: 637.
- McGuinness, Diane. (2004). Early Reading Instruction Cambridge: MIT Press 41.
- Abbott, M. (2000). Identifying reliable generalizations for spelling words: The importance of multilevel analysis. The Elementary School Journal 101(2), 233–245.
- Technologies Use with Learners of ESL in New York State:. Albany.edu. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
- "Using computers in language teaching". esl.fis.edu. October 2001.
- "Computer Assisted Learning: A Helpful Approach in Learning English - IOLC Conference". academia.edu. January 1, 1970. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "The Phrasal Verbs Machine". thephrasalverbsmachine.org.
- O'Neill, M. (2005) Automated use of Wiki for collaborative lecture notes. ACM SIGSCE Bulletin, 37(1), 267-271.
- Using a dictionary. Esl.fis.edu. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
- McDorman, Richard E. (2012). "Understanding African-American English (AAE): A Course in Language Comprehension and Cross-Cultural Understanding for Advanced English Language Learners in the United States" (PDF).
- Troyna, Barry. "Providing Support or Denying Access? The experiences of students designated as 'ESL' and 'SN' in a multi‐ethnic secondary school". Educational Review. University of Warwick. 45: 3–11. doi:10.1080/0013191930450101.
- Kanno, Yasuko. "Immigrant and Refugee ESL Students' Challenges to Accessing Four-Year College Education: From Language Policy to Educational Policy". Journal of Language, Identity and Education.
- Patkowski, Mark. "Basic Skills Tests and Academic Success of ESL College Students". 25. TESOL Quarterly: 735–738. JSTOR 3587096.
- DelliCarpini, Margo. "Teacher Collaboration for ESL/EFL Academic Success". The Internet TESL Journal.
- Watt, David. "The Dynamics of ESL Dropout" (PDF).
- Oleck, Joan. "NCLB's Accountability Requirement Feeds Drop-out Rates". School Library Journal.
- "A distinctive population". Education Week.
- Stern, Linda (October 27, 2011). "College Costs Outpace Inflation: College Board". Reuters.
- Harklau, Linda. "ESL Versus Mainstream Classes: Contrasting L2 Learning Environments". 28. TESOL Quarterly: 241–272. JSTOR 3587433.
- Houghton, S., & Bain, A. (1993). Peer Tutoring with ESL and Below-Average Readers. Journal of Behavior Education, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.125-142.
- Simmons, D., Fuchs, L. Fuchs, D., Mathes, P., & Hodge, J. (1995). Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of learning-disabled and low-performing students in regular classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 95(5), 387-408.
- Heron, T. E., Villareal, D. M., Yao, M., Christianson, R. J., & Heron, K. M. (2006). Peer Tutoring Systems: Applications in Classroom and Specialized Environments. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 27-45. doi:10.1080/10573560500203517
- Heron, T. E., Villareal, D. M., Yao, M., Christianson, R. J., & Heron, K. M. (2006). Peer Tutoring Systems: Applications in Classroom and Specialized Environments. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22(1), 27-45. doi:10.1080/10573560500203517
- Baker, D. L., Park, Y., Baker, S. K., Basaraba, D. L., Kame'enui, E. J., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Effects of a paired bilingual reading program and an English-only program on the reading performance of English learners in Grades 1–3. Journal of School Psychology, 50(6), 737-758. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2012.09.002
- Calderón, M., Slavin, R., & Sánchez, M. (2011). Effective Instruction for English Learners. The Future of Children, 21(1), 103-127. doi:10.1353/foc.2011.0007.
- Williams, A. (2011). A call for change: Narrowing the achievement gap between white and minority students. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 84(2), 65-71.
- Sources for this are found at the university websites. Given that there are thousands of tertiary institutions that accept one or more of these for entrance requirements, they simply can not be footnoted individually here
- "Check if you need a UK visa". gov.uk.
- "Applying for a UK visa: approved English language tests". gov.uk. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- "Exams". cambridgeenglish.org.
- "Scores". cambridgemichigan.org. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
- "TESOL Certificates. Teaching or Deceiving the EFL/ESL Teaching Profession" by Tom Davidson, March 2008 volume 2 TESOL Law Journal
- Egbert, J.; Thomas, M. (2001). "The new frontier: A case study in applying instructional design for distance teacher education". Journal of Technology and Teacher Education. 9 (3): 391–405.
- Murray, D. (2013). "A case for online English language teacher education" (PDF). The International Research Foundation for English Language Education.
- "Online Schools Offering ESL Degrees". Retrieved 21 July 2013.
|Library resources about
English as a second or foreign language
- La Perla, Joann, "Order, Chaos and Gentle Revolutions: A Brief and Personal History of ESL Instruction for Immigrants", 1986-10-25, paper presented at Union County College's conference, "Literature and the Immigrant Experience" (Cranford, NJ, October 25, 1986).
- Meunier, Fanny; Granger, Sylviane, "Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching", Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008
- Grace Hui Chin Lin & Paul Shih Chieh Chien (2009). An Introduction to English Teaching, Germany 
- International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
- NCELA – National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition
- BBC World Service – Learning English
- EAL Nexus – Free teaching resources
- English as a Second Language at DMOZ
- Limited English Proficiency - Interagency site of the Federal Government of the United States
- ESL Global Institute - Leading Bay Area English Language School
- 5 Million Voices—special series by National Public Radio