List of dialects of English

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Dialects are linguistic varieties that may differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar. For the classification of varieties of English only in terms of pronunciation, see regional accents of English.

Overview[edit]

Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible."[1] English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation) as well as various localized words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors. Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localised sub-dialects can be identified, and so on. The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions without any prior exposure.

The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into three general categories: the British Isles dialects, those of North America, and those of Australasia.[2] Dialects can be associated not only with place but also with particular social groups. Within a given English-speaking country, there is a form of the language considered to be Standard English: the Standard Englishes of different countries differ and can themselves be considered dialects. Standard English is often associated with the more educated layers of society as well as more formal registers.

British and American English are the reference norms for English as spoken, written, and taught in the rest of the world, excluding countries in which English is spoken natively such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand. In many former British Empire countries in which English is not spoken natively, British English forms are closely followed, alongside numerous American English usages that have become widespread throughout the English-speaking world.[citation needed] Conversely, in many countries historically influenced by the United States in which English is not spoken natively, American English forms are closely followed. Many of these countries, while retaining strong British English or American English influences, have developed their own unique dialects, which include Indian English and Philippine English.

Chief among other native English dialects are Canadian English and Australian English, which rank third and fourth in the number of native speakers. For the most part, Canadian English, while featuring numerous British forms, alongside indigenous Canadianisms, shares vocabulary, phonology and syntax with American English, which leads many to recognise North American English as an organic grouping of dialects.[3] Australian English, likewise, shares many American and British English usages, alongside plentiful features unique to Australia and retains a significantly higher degree of distinctiveness from both larger varieties than does Canadian English. South African English, New Zealand English and Irish English are also distinctive and rank fifth, sixth, and seventh in the number of native speakers.

Europe[edit]

English language in Europe

Dialects and accents of English spoken in the British Isles.

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

English language in England:

Scotland[edit]

Wales[edit]

Isle of Man[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

Gibraltar[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Extinct[edit]

Continental Europe[edit]

English language in Europe:

Malta[edit]

The Netherlands[edit]

Germany[edit]

Scandinavia[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Norway[edit]

Finland[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Mainland Denmark[edit]
Greenland[edit]

North America[edit]

Dialects of English spoken in Canada and the United States. 1. Standard Canadian English
2. Western American English
3. North-Central American ("Upper Midwest") English
4. Inland Northern American ("Great Lakes") English
5. Midland American English
6. Southern American English
6a. Texan English
6b. Inland Southern American ("Appalachian") English
7. Western Pennsylvania ("Pittsburgh") English
8. Mid-Atlantic American ("Baltimore" and "Philadelphia") English
9. New York City English
10. Southwestern New England English
11. Southeastern New England ("Rhode Island") English
12. Northwestern New England ("Vermont") English
13. Northeastern New England ("Boston" and "Maine") English
14. Atlantic Canadian English

North American English

United States[edit]

American English:

Canada[edit]

Canadian English:

Caribbean, Central, and South America[edit]

Caribbean[edit]

The Bahamas[edit]

Barbados[edit]

Belize[edit]

Bermuda[edit]

Cayman Islands[edit]

Falkland Islands[edit]

Guyana[edit]

Honduras[edit]

Jamaica[edit]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]

  • Vincentian English

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Brunei[edit]

Burma[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

China[edit]

India[edit]

Indian English:

Japan[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Middle East[edit]

Nepal[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Africa[edit]

Cameroon[edit]

The Gambia[edit]

Ghana[edit]

Kenya[edit]

Liberia[edit]

Malawi[edit]

Namibia[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Sierra Leone[edit]

South Africa[edit]

South Atlantic[edit]

South Sudan[edit]

Uganda[edit]

Zambia[edit]

Zimbabwe[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Australian English (AusE, AusEng):

Fiji[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ)

Other[edit]

Antarctica[edit]

Tristan da Cunha[edit]

World Global English[edit]

These dialects are used in everyday conversation almost all over the world, and are used as lingua francas and to determine grammar rules and guidelines.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wakelin, Martyn Francis (2008). Discovering English Dialects. Oxford: Shire Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7478-0176-4.
  2. ^ Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2003
  3. ^ Trudgill and Hannah, 2002
  4. ^ a b Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 196–198. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
  5. ^ Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English (PDF). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 90-272-3753-0. ISBN 1-58811-209-8 (US)
  6. ^ "Chicago Daily Tribune". 1903-06-02. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2020-01-22.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ Daniel Schreier, Peter Trudgill. The Lesser-Known Varieties of English: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Mar 4, 2010 pg. 10
  8. ^ Harrington, Jonathan; Gubian, Michele; Stevens, Mary; Schiel, Florian (13 November 2019). "Phonetic change in an Antarctic winter". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 146 (5): 3327–3332. doi:10.1121/1.5130709. PMID 31795649. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  9. ^ Bard, Susanne. "Linguists Hear an Accent Begin". Scientific American. Retrieved 2020-04-28.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]