English independence

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England (red) within the United Kingdom (pink) along with Republic of Ireland and Isle of Man

English independence is a political stance advocating secession of England, the largest and most populous country of the British Isles, from the United Kingdom. Support for secession of England has been influenced by the increasing devolution of political powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, where independence from the United Kingdom is a prominent subject of political debate.[1]

English independence is seen by its advocates as a way to resolve the West Lothian question in British politics: Scottish, Welsh's

and Northern Irish MPs in the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster can vote on matters affecting England, while English MPs do not have the same power over equivalent issues in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as these powers are devolved to the Scottish Parliament, Northern Ireland Assembly or the National Assembly for Wales.[2][3]

While some minor political parties have campaigned for English independence, all major UK-wide political parties adhere to the opposing view of British unionism, and oppose altering the constitutional status of England.[4] Scottish demands for independence, rather than English demands, are seen as the most pressing threat to British unity; Scotland voted against independence at the referendum on 18 September 2014.[5] and a second vote is proposed in late 2018 or early 2019.

History[edit]

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
England

The English national identity developed over a long period of time. The Kingdom of England came into being in the 10th century: it spanned much of the southern two-thirds of Great Britain and a number of smaller outlying islands. The Norman conquest of Wales from 1067–1283 (formalized by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284) placed Wales under English control, and Wales came under English law with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which disestablished the Principality of Wales.

In 1603, the Union of the Crowns took place when the death of Elizabeth I resulted in James VI, King of Scots, acceding to the English throne, placing England and Scotland under personal union. In 1707, the Acts of Union were passed by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, forming the Kingdom of Great Britain. The measure was deeply unpopular in both Scotland and England. The Scottish signatories to the Act were forced to sign the documents in secrecy because of mass rioting and unrest in the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. Scotland did however retain Scots law, a legal system distinct from that used in England and Wales.

In 1800, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland both passed new Acts of Union, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1921, the Anglo-Irish Treaty was agreed, allowing Southern Ireland under the Irish Free State to become a Dominion, resulting in only Northern Ireland remaining within the UK, which in 1927 was formally renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Arguments for English independence[edit]

Advocates of English sovereignty state that a sovereign England would enjoy one of the world's strongest economies, with an estimated GDP of US$2.865 trillion as of 2015, making it the world's 5th, 6th, or 7th largest economy depending on measurement. It is also claimed that England would be the 15th wealthiest nation in the world, with a GDP per capita of US$33,999.[6] Compare this with $30,783 for Scotland,[6] $23,397 for Wales,[6] and $24,154 for Northern Ireland,[6] or $37,659 for the UK minus England.[6]

Along with London, the leading major world city and the world's largest financial centre, as its capital,[7] England would continue to possess an enviable education system that includes some of the world's most prestigious universities, with the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge and colleges of the University of London regularly featuring among the top 10 of the QS World University Rankings.[8][irrelevant citation]

Supporters of English Independence[edit]

Political parties
People

Opinion polls[edit]

The English nationalist movement has its roots in a historical legacy which predates the United Kingdom. The rise in English identity in recent years, as evidenced by the increased display of the English flag (particularly during international sporting competitions and in relation to their football team), is sometimes attributed in the media to the increased devolution of political power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. One possible incentive for the establishment of self-governing English political institutions is the West Lothian question: the constitutional inconsistency whereby MPs from all four nations of the UK can vote on matters that solely affect England, while those same matters are reserved to the devolved assemblies of the other nations. (For example, the Scottish MP for West Lothian has a say on policing in the West Midlands.)

Contemporary English nationalist movements differ significantly from mainstream Scottish, Welsh and Cornish nationalist movements (whilst similar to some strands of Irish nationalism) insofar as they are often associated with support for right-of-centre economic and social policies. Nationalists elsewhere in the British Isles tend towards a social democratic political stance. English nationalism is also often associated with Euroscepticism: one reason for opposition to the EU is the view that England is being arbitrarily subdivided into regions at the behest of the European Union.

Polling data for English devolution and independence may be found in the table below.

Date Independence (%) Status Quo (%) English parliament (%) English votes for English laws (%) Regional Assemblies (%) End Devolution (%) Don't know/None (%)
20/09/14 [17] N/A 19% N/A 65% N/A N/A 16%
20/09/14 [17] N/A 11% 59% N/A N/A N/A 20%
13/01/12 [18] N/A 16% 49% N/A N/A N/A 35%
06/12/11 [19] N/A 21% 52% N/A N/A 14% 13%
15/04/10 [20] N/A 20% 68% N/A N/A N/A 12%
30/04/09 [21] N/A 15% 41% N/A N/A N/A 44%
09/09/09 [22] N/A 20% 58% N/A N/A N/A 22%
06/12/07 [23] 15% 32% 20% 25% N/A N/A 8%
19/04/07 [24] N/A 24.25% 67.32% N/A N/A N/A 8.43%
05/04/07 [25] N/A 12% 21% 51% N/A N/A 16%
08/01/07 [26] N/A 32% 61% N/A N/A N/A 7%
07/01/07 [27] N/A 41.22% 51.42% N/A N/A N/A 7.36%
23/11/06 [28] N/A 25.35% 68.43% N/A N/A N/A 6.22%
08/07/06 [29] N/A 32% 41% N/A 14% N/A 13%
23/02/04 [30] N/A 23.76% 11.88% 46.53% 10.89% N/A 6.93%
07/04/02 [31] N/A N/A 47% N/A 28% N/A 25%

Organisations[edit]

A political party campaigning for English Independence was formed in February 2008, the Free England Party, it achieving some minor electoral success before disbanding in December 2009. The main contemporary political party advocating English independence is the English Democrats.[32] An English Independence party was registered in 2016;[33] its leader Neil Humphrey changed his name by deed-poll to 'Corbyn Anti' (in order to appear on the ballot paper as "ANTI, Corbyn") to stand in the Batley and Spen by-election, 2016.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nelson, Fraser (16 April 2008). "Alex Salmond is nudging the English towards independence without them realising it". The Spectator. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  2. ^ Luckhurst, Tim (8 May 2010). "The English question is still unanswered". The Independent. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  3. ^ Salmond, Alex (20 March 2007). "Only Scottish independence can solve the 'English Question'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  4. ^ Huq, Rupa (23 April 2010). "The chimera of an English parliament". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  5. ^ Macintyre, James (28 March 2010). "Would the UK break up under the Conservatives?". New Statesman. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Fenton, Trevor (15 December 2016). "The North West was the fastest growing NUTS1 region in the UK in 2015". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  7. ^ Quinn, James (8 October 2009). "Britain overtakes US as top financial centre". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "QS World University Rankings - 2012". Top Universities. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  9. ^ "10 Candidates Named in Batley and Spen By-Election". CapitalFM. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  10. ^ "View registration - The Electoral Commission". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  11. ^ Gordon, Tom (28 August 2016). "Party's anti-Indyref slogan rejected as "offensive"". The Herald. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  12. ^ "English Democrats seek independence for England". BBC. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  13. ^ McKinstry, Leo (21 September 2015). "Leo McKinstry on Nicola Sturgeon, Scottish National Party and English independence". The Daily Express. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  14. ^ "Ukip donor calls for English referendum". The Scotsman. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  15. ^ "A Point of View: Should the English have a say on Scottish independence?". BBC. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2017. I would vote for English independence, as a step towards strengthening the friendship between our countries. 
  16. ^ "English Democrats: Robin Tilbrook on new Parliament". BBC. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  17. ^ a b Walters, Simon (20 September 2014). "You say YES to English votes for English laws: MoS poll shows fury over handouts to Scots". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  18. ^ "Sunday Telegraph - Scottish Independence Survey" (PDF). 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  19. ^ Jolley, Rachael; Katwala, Sunder (January 2012). "Hopes and Fears: The British Future State of the Nation Report 2012" (PDF). British Future. p. 11. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  20. ^ "Political Poll: CATI Fieldwork: April 14th-15th 2010" (PDF). Toque. ICM Research. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  21. ^ "The Times Scotland Poll (GB) Survey" (PDF). Toque. Populus. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  22. ^ "Market Research Background" (PDF). Toque. January 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  23. ^ "ICM Union Poll for the Sunday Telegraph" (PDF). Toque. ICM Research. December 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  24. ^ "English Parliament Survey: Fieldwork: April 18th-19th 2007" (PDF). Toque. ICM Research. April 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  25. ^ "YouGov/Sunday Times Survey Results" (PDF). Toque. YouGov. April 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  26. ^ "Newsnight Act of Union Poll" (PDF). Toque. BBC. January 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  27. ^ "Act of Union Survey- England Fieldwork: January 5th-7th 2007" (PDF). Toque. ICM Research. January 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  28. ^ "Opinion Poll: Fieldwork: November 22nd-23rd 2006" (PDF). Toque. ICM Research. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  29. ^ "The demand for an English Parliament: Commissioned by the English Constitutional Convention" (PDF). Toque. 8 July 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  30. ^ "YouGov 2004" (PNG). Toque. YouGov. February 2004. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  31. ^ "Far more support for an English Parliament that Regional Assemblies" (PDF). Toque. 7 April 2002. Retrieved 18 May 2017. 
  32. ^ "English Democrats seek independence for England". BBC. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  33. ^ "Registration summary; English Independence". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 28 October 2016.