English translations of Homer

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Translators and scholars have translated the main works attributed to Homer, the Iliad and Odyssey, from the Homeric Greek into English since the 16th and 17th centuries. Translations are ordered chronologically by date of first publication, with first lines provided to illustrate the style of the translation.

Not all translators translated both the Iliad and Odyssey; in addition to the complete translations listed here, numerous partial translations, ranging from several lines to complete books, have appeared in a variety of publications.

The "original" text cited below is that of "the Oxford Homer."[1]


Iliad[edit]

Reference text[edit]

Poet Provenance Proemic verse
Homer c. 8th century BC
Greek rhapsode
Aeolis

Ancient Greek:
μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε,
πολλὰς δ᾽ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ᾽ ἐτελείετο βουλή,
ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.


τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι;
Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός: ὃ γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθεὶς
νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὄρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,
οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα
Ἀτρεΐδης: ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν
λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ᾽ ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,
στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος
χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς,
Ἀτρεΐδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν:
Ἀτρεΐδαι τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί,
ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ᾽ ἔχοντες
ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ᾽ οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι:
παῖδα δ᾽ ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ᾽ ἄποινα δέχεσθαι,
ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα.

Romanization:

mēnin aeide thea Pēlēiadeō Achilēos
oulomenēn, hē myri' Achaiois alge' ethēke,
pollas d' iphthimous psychas Aidi proiapsen
hērōōn, autous de helōria teuche kynessin
oiōnoisi te pasi, Dios d' eteleieto boulē,
ex hou dē ta prōta diastētēn erisante
Atreidēs te anax andrōn kai dios Achilleus.


tis t' ar sphōe theōn eridi xyneēke machesthai?
Lētous kai Dios huios: ho gar basilēi cholōtheis
nouson ana straton orse kakēn, olekonto de laoi,
houneka ton Chrysēn ētimasen arētēra
Atreidēs: ho gar ēlthe thoas epi nēas Achaiōn
lysomenos te thygatra pherōn t' apereisi' apoina,
stemmat' echōn en chersin hekēbolou Apollōnos
chryseō ana skēptrō, kai lisseto pantas Achaious,
Atreida de malista dyō, kosmētore laōn:
Atreidai te kai alloi euknēmides Achaioi,
hymin men theoi doien Olympia dōmat' echontes
ekpersai Priamoio polin, eu d' oikad' hikesthai:
paida d' emoi lysaite philēn, ta d' apoina dechesthai,
hazomenoi Dios huion hekēbolon Apollōna.

[2]

16th and 17th centuries (1581–1700)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Hall, Arthur
of Grantham
1539–1605,
M. P., courtier, translator
1581 London, for Ralph Newberie

I Thee beseech, O Goddesse milde, the hatefull hate to plaine,
Whereby Achilles was so wroong, and grewe in suche disdaine,

[3]
Rawlyns,
Roger
1587 London, Orwin   [4]
Colse,
Peter
  1596 London, H. Jackson   [5]
Chapman,
George
1559–1634,
dramatist, poet, classicist
1611–15 London, Rich. Field for Nathaniell Butter[6]

Achilles' banefull wrath resound, O Goddesse, that imposd
Infinite sorrowes on the Greekes, and many brave soules losd

[7]
Grantham,
Thomas
c. 1610–1664
1659 London, T. Lock

Achilles son of Peleus Goddes sing,
His baneful wrath which to the Greeks did bring
Unnumbred greifs, brave souls to hel did send

[8]
Ogilby,
John
1600–1676,
cartographer, publisher, translator
1660 London, Roycroft

Achilles Peleus Son's destructive Rage,
Great Goddess, sing, which did the Greeks engage

[9]
Hobbes,
Thomas
1588–1679,
acclaimed philosopher, etc.
1676 London, W. Crook

O Goddess sing what woe the discontent
Of Thetis' son brought to the Greeks; what souls
Of heroes down to Erebus it sent,

[10]
Dryden,
John
1631–1700,
dramatist,
Poet Laureate
1700 London, J. Tonson

The Wrath of Peleus Son, O Muse, resound;
Whose dire Effects the Grecian Army found:

[11]

Early 18th century (1701–1750)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Ozell, John d. 1743,
translator, accountant
1712 London, Bernard Lintott    
Broome, William 1689–1745,
poet, translator
Oldisworth, William 1680–1734[12]
Pope,
Alexander
1688–1744,
poet
1715 London, Bernard Lintot

Achilles' wrath, to Greece the direful spring
Of woes unnumber'd, heavenly goddess, sing!

[13]
Tickell,
Thomas
1685–1740,
poet
1715 London, Tickell

Achilles' fatal wrath, whence discord rose,
That brought the sons of Greece unnumber'd woes,

[14]
Fenton,
Elijah
1683–1730,
poet, biographer, translator
1717 London, printed for Bernard Lintot    
Cooke,
T.
  1729      
Fitz-Cotton,
H.
  1749 Dublin, George Faulkner    
Ashwick,
Samuel
  1750 London, printed for Brindley, Sheepey and Keith    

Late 18th century (1751–1800)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Scott,
J. N.
  1755 London, Osborne and Shipton    
Langley,
Samuel
,
1720–
1791
Rector of Checkley[15]
1767 London, Dodsley    
Macpherson,
James
1736–1796,
poet, compiler of Scots Gaelic poems, politician
1773 London, T. Becket

The wrath of the son of Peleus,—O goddess of song, unfold! The deadly wrath of Achilles : To Greece the source of many woes!

[16]
Cowper,
William
1731–1800,
poet and hymnodist
1791 London, J. Johnson

Achilles sing, O Goddess! Peleus' son;
His wrath pernicious, who ten thousand woes

[17]
Tremenheere, William, 1757–
1838
Chaplain to the Royal Navy[18]
1792 London, Faulder?    
Geddes,
Alexander
1737–1802,
Scots Roman Catholic theologian; scholar, poet
1792 London: printed for J. Debrett    
Bak,
Joshua

(T. Bridges?)
  1797 London    

Early 19th century (1801–1850)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Williams, Peter?    
Bulmer, William
[improper synthesis?]
1757–1830,
printer
1807  

The stern resentment of Achilles, son
Of Peleus, Muse record,—dire source of woe;

[19]
Cowper,
William
(3rd edition)
1731–1800,
poet and hymnodist
1809  

Sing Muse the deadly wrath of Peleus' son
Achilles, source of many thousand woes

[20]
Morrice,
Rev. James
  1809  

Sing, Muse, the fatal wrath of Peleus' son,
Which to the Greeks unnumb'red evils brought,

[21]
Cary,
Henry
1772–1844,
author, translator
1821 London, Munday and Slatter

Sing, Goddess, the destructive wrath of Achilles, son of Peleus, which brought many disasters upon the Greeks,

[22]
Sotheby,
William
1757–1833,
poet, translator
1831 London, John Murray    
Anonymous
(“Graduate
of Dublin”)
  1833 Dublin, Gumming    
Munford,
William
1775–1825,
American lawyer
[23]
1846 Boston, Little Brown    
Brandreth,
Thomas Shaw
1788–1873,
mathematician, inventor, classicist
1846 London, W. Pickering

Achillies wrath accurst, O Goddess, sing,
Which caused ten thousand sorrows to the Greeks,

[24]

Late middle 19th century (1851–1875)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Buckley,
Theodore Alois
1825–1856,
translator
1851 London, H. G. Bohn

Sing, O goddess, the destructive wrath of Achilles, son of Peleus, which brought countless woes upon the Greeks,

[25]
Hamilton,
Sidney G.
  1855–58 Philadelphia    
Clark, Thomas  
Newman,
Francis William
1807–1893,
classics professor[26]
1856 London, Walton & Maberly

Of Peleus' son, Achilles, sing, oh goddess, the resentment
Accursed, which with countless pangs Achaia's army wounded,

[27]
Wright,
Ichabod Charles
1795–1871,
translator, poet, accountant
1858–65 Cambridge, Macmillan    
Arnold,
Matthew
1822–1888,
critic, social commentator, poet
1861      
Giles, Rev. Dr. J. A.
[John Allen]
1808–1884,
headmaster, scholar, prolific author, clergyman[28]
1861–82  

Sing, O goddess, the destructive wrath of Achilles son of Peleus, which caused ten thousand thousand griefs to the Achæans

[29]
Dart, J. Henry 1817–1887,
East India Company counsel[30]
1862 London, Longmans Green

Sing, divine Muse, sing the implacable wrath of Achilleus!
Heavy with death and with woe to the banded sons of Achaia!

[31]
Barter, William G. T 1808–1871,
barrister
[32][33]
1864 London, Longman, Brown, and Green

The wrath of Peleus' son Achilles sing,
O goddess, wrath destructive, that did on

[34]
Norgate, T. S.
[Thomas Starling, Jr.]
1807–1893,
clergyman[35]
1864 London, Williams and Norgate

Goddess! O sing the wrath of Pêleus' son,
Achillès' wrath,—baneful,—that on the Achaians

[36]
Derby,
14th Earl of
Smith-Stanley, Edward
14th Earl of derby
1799–1869,
Prime Minister
1864

Of Peleus' son, Achilles, sing, O Muse,
The vengeance, deep and deadly; whence to Greece

[37]
Simcox,
Edwin W.
  1865 London, Jackson, Walford and Hodder    
Worsley, Philip Stanhope 1835–1866,
poet
1865 Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons

Wrath of Achilleus, son of Peleus, sing,
O heavenly Muse, which in its fatal sway

[38]
Conington, John 1825–1869,
classics professor
Blackie,
John Stuart
1809–1895,
Scots professor of classics
1866 Edinburgh, Edmonston and Douglas

The baneful wrath, O goddess, sing, of Peleus' son, the source
Of sorrows dire, and countless woes to all the Grecian force;

[39]
Calverley,
Charles Stuart
1831–1884,
poet, wit
1866  

The wrath of Peleus' son, that evil wrath
Which on Achaia piled a myriad woes,

[40]
Herschel,
Sir John
1792–1871,
scientist
1866 London & Cambridge, Macmillan

Sing, celestial Muse! the destroying wrath of Achilles,
Peleus' son: which myriad mischiefs heaped on the Grecians,

[41]
Omega 1866 London: Hatchard and Co.

Sing, Muse, Achilles' scathing wrath, which bore
A thousand sorrows to Achaia's shore—

[42]
Cochrane,
James Inglis
  1867 Edinburgh

Sing, O heavenly goddess, the wrath of Peleides Achilles,
Ruinous wrath, whence numberless woes came down to Achaia,

[43]
Merivale,
Charles
,
Dean of Ely
1808–1893,
clergyman, historian
1868 London, Strahan

Peleïdes Achilles, his anger, Goddess, sing;
Fell anger, fated on the Greeks ten thousand woes to bring;

[44]
Gilchrist,
James
  1869  

Sing, Goddess, the pernicious wrath of Achilles the son of Peleus, which caused innumerable woes to the Greeks,

[29]
Bryant,
William Cullen
1794–1878,
American poet, Evening Post editor
1870 Boston, Houghton, Fields Osgood

O goddess! sing the wrath of Peleus' son,
Achilles; sing the deadly wrath that brought

[24]
Caldcleugh,
W. G.
1812–1872,
American lawyer[45][46]
1870 Philadelphia, Lippincott

Sing of Achilles' wrath, oh heavenly muse,
Which brought upon the Greeks unnumbered woes,

[24]
Rose,
John Benson
  1874 London, privately printed    

Late 19th century (1876–1900)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Barnard,
Mordaunt Roger
1828–1906,
clergyman, translator
1876 London, Williams and Margate    
Cayley, C. B.
[Charles Bagot]
1823–1883,
translator
1877 London, Longmans

Muse, of Pelidéan Achilles sing the resentment
Ruinous, who brought down many thousand griefs on Achaians,

[22]
Mongan,
Roscoe
  1879 London, James Cornish & Sons    
Hailstone,
Herbert
Cambridge classicist, poet 1882 London, Relfe Brothers

Sing, goddess, the deadly wrath of Achilles, Peleus' son, which caused for the Achæans countless woes,

[47]
Lang, Andrew 1844–1912,
Scots poet, historian, critic, folk tales collector, etc.
1882[48] London, Macmillan

Sing, goddess, the wrath of Achilles Peleus' son, the ruinous wrath that brought on the Achaians woes innumerable,

[49]
Leaf, Walter 1852–1927,
banker, scholar
Myers, Ernest 1844–1921,
poet, classicist
Green,
W.C.
  1884  

Sing, goddess Muse, the wrath of Peleus' son,
The wrath of Achilleus with ruin fraught,

[29]
Way,
Arthur Sanders
(Avia)
1847–1930,
Australian classicist, headmaster
1886–8 London, S. Low

The wrath of Achilles, the Peleus-begotten, O Song-queen, sing,
Fell wrath, that dealt the Achaians woes past numbering;

[50]
Howland,
G. [George]
1824–1892,
American educator, author, translator[51]
1889

Sing for me, goddess, the wrath, the wrath of Peleian Achilles
Ruinous wrath, which laid unnumbered woes on the Grecians;

[52]
Cordery,
John Graham
1833–1900,
civil servant, British Raj[53]
1890 London

The wrath, that rose accursèd, and that laid
Unnumbered sorrows on Achaia's host,

[54]
Garnett,
Richard
  1890  

Sing, Goddess, how Pelides' wrath arose,
Disastrous, working Greece unnumbered woes,

[55]
Purves,
John
  1891 London, Percival

Sing, O goddess, the fatal wrath of Peleus' son Achilles, which brought ten thousand troubles on the Achæans,

[56]
Bateman,
C. W.
  c. 1895 London, J. Cornish

Goddess, sing the destroying wrath of Achilles, Peleus' son, which brought woes unnumbered on the Achæans,

[39]
Mongan, R.   c. 1895      
Butler,
Samuel
1835–1902,
novelist, essayist, critic
1898 London, Longmans, Green[57]

Sing, O goddess, the anger of Achilles son of Peleus, that brought countless ills upon the Achaeans.

[58]

Early 20th century (1901–1925)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Tibbetts,
E. A.
  1907 Boston, R.G. Badges    
Blakeney,
E. H.
1869–1955,
educator, classicist, poet
1909–13 London, G. Bell and Sons

Sing, O goddess, the accursèd wrath of Achilles, son of Peleus, the wrath which brought countless sorrows unto the Achaians

[59]
Lewis,
Arthur Garner
  1911 New York, Baker & Taylor    
Murray,
Augustus Taber
1866–1940,
American professor of classics
1924–5 Cambridge & London, Harvard & Heinemann

The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought the countless woes upon the Achaeans,

[60]

Early middle 20th century (1926–1950)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Murison,
A. F.
1847–1934,
Professor of Roman Law, translator, classicist
1933 London, Longmans Green

Sing, O goddess, the Wrath of Achilleus, son of king Peleus—
Wrath accursèd, the source of unnumbered woes to the Achaioi,

[61]
Marris,
Sir William S.
1873–1945,
governor, British Raj
1934 Oxford    
Rouse,
W. H. D.
1863–1950,
Pedagogist of classical studies
1938 London, T. Nelson & Sons

An angry man—there is my story: the bitter rancour of Achillês, prince of the house of Peleus, which brought a thousand troubles upon the Achaian host.

[62]
Smith, R.
[James Robinson]
1888–1964,
Classicist, translator, poet[63]
1938 London, Grafton    
Smith, William Benjamin 1850–1934,
American professor of mathematics
1944 New York, Macmillan    
Miller, Walter 1864–1949,
American professor of classics, archaeologist
Rieu, E. V. 1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
1950 Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin

The Wrath of Achilles is my theme, that fatal wrath which, in fulfillment of the will of Zeus, brought the Achaeans so much suffering and sent the gallant souls of many noblemen to Hades

 
Chase, Alsten Hurd 1906–1994,
American chairman of preparatory school classics department[64]
1950 Boston, Little Brown

Sing, O Goddess, of the wrath of Peleus' son Achilles, the deadly wrath that brought upon the Achaeans countless woes

Perry, William G. 1913–1998,
Psychologist, professor of education, classicist[65]

Late middle 20th century (1951–1975)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Lattimore,
Richmond
1906–1984,
poet, translator
1951 Chicago, University Chicago Press[66]

Sing, goddess, the anger of Peleus' son Achilleus
and its devastation, which put pains thousandfold upon the Achaians,

[67]
Andrew, S. O. [Samuel Ogden] 1868–1952,
headmaster, classicist
[68][69]
1955 London, J. M. Dent & Sons [70]
Oakley, Michael J.
Graves,
Robert
1895–1985,
Professor of Poetry, translator, novelist
1959 New York, Doubleday and London, Cassell

Sing, MOUNTAIN GODDESS, sing through me
That anger which most ruinously

[71]
Rees,
Ennis
1925–2009,
American Professor of English, poet, translator[72]
1963 New York, Random House

Sing, O goddess, the ruinous wrath of Achilles,
Son of Peleus, the terrible curse that brought

[71]
Fitzgerald,
Robert
1910–1985,
American Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, poet, critic, translator
1974 New York, Doubleday

Anger be now your song, immortal one,
Akhilleus' anger, doomed and ruinous,

[73]

Late 20th century (1976–2000)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Hull,
Denison Bingham
1897–1988,
American classicist[74][75]
1982  
Hammond,
Martin
born 1944,
Headmaster, classicist
1987 Harmondsworth Middlesex, Penguin[76]

Sing, goddess, of the anger of Achilleus, son of Peleus, the accursed anger which brought uncounted anguish on the Achaians

[77]
Fagles,
Robert
1933–2008,
American professor of English, poet
1990 New York, Viking/Penguin

Rage—Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus' son Achilles,
murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans countless losses,

[78]
Reck,
Michael
1928–1993,
Poet, classicist, orientalist[79]
1990 New York, Harper Collins

Sing, Goddess, Achilles' maniac rage:
ruinous thing! it roused a thousand sorrows

[80]
Lombardo,
Stanley
born 1943,
American Professor of Classics
1997 Indianapolis, Hackett

Rage:
            Sing, Goddess, Achilles' rage,
Black and murderous, that cost the Greeks

[81]

21st century[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Johnston,
Ian
[82]
Canadian academic 2002[83]

Sing, Goddess, sing of the rage of Achilles, son of Peleus—
that murderous anger which condemned Achaeans

[84]
Rieu, E. V.
(posthumously revised by Rieu, D. C. H. and Jones, Peter)
1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
2003 Penguin Books

Anger—sing, goddess, the anger of Achilles son of Peleus, that accursed anger, which brought the Greeks endless sufferings

[85]
Merrill,
Rodney
American classicist[86] 2007 University of Michigan Press

Sing now, goddess, the wrath of Achilles the scion of Peleus,
ruinous rage which brought the Achaians uncounted afflictions;

[87]
Jordan,
Herbert
born 1938,
American lawyer, translator[88]
2008 University of Oklahoma Press

Sing, goddess, of Peleus' son Achilles' anger,
ruinous, that caused the Greeks untold ordeals,

[89]
Kline, Anthony S. born 1947,
translator
2009

Goddess, sing me the anger, of Achilles Peleus' son, that fatal anger that brought countless sorrows on the Greeks,

[90]
Mitchell,
Stephen
born 1943,
American poet, translator
2011 Simon & Schuster

The rage of Achilles—sing it now, goddess, sing through me
the deadly rage that caused the Achaeans such grief

[91]
Verity,
Anthony
born 1939,
classical scholar
2011 Oxford University Press

Sing, goddess, the anger of Achilles, Peleus' son,
the accursed anger which brought the Achaeans countless

[92]
McCrorie, Edward born 1936, American poet and classicist 2012 The Johns Hopkins University Press

Sing of rage, Goddess, that bane of Akhilleus,
Peleus' son, which caused untold pain for Akhaians,

[93]
Oswald,
Alice
born 1966 British poet, won T. S. Eliot Prize in 2002[94] 2012 W. W. Norton & Company  
Whitaker, Richard 2012 New Voices

Muse, sing the rage of Peleus’ son Akhilleus,
deadly rage that brought the Akhaians endless pain,

[95]
Powell,
Barry B.
born 1942,
American poet, classicist, translator
2013 Oxford University Press

The rage sing, O goddess, of Achilles the son of Peleus,
the destructive anger that brought ten-thousand pains to the

[96]
Alexander, Caroline born 1956, American classicist 2015 Ecco Press

Wrath—sing, goddess, of the ruinous wrath of Peleus' son Achilles,
that inflicted woes without number upon the Achaeans,

[97]
Blakely, Ralph E. 2015 Forge Books

Sing, goddess, of the wrath of Achilles Peleusson, the ruinous wrath that brought immense pain to the Acheans

[98]
Green, Peter born 1924, British classicist 2015 University of California Press

Wrath, goddess, sing of Achilles Pēleus' son's
calamitous wrath, which hit the Achaians with countless ills—

[99]

Odyssey[edit]

Reference text[edit]

Poet Provenance Proemic verse
Homer c. 8th century BC
Greek poet
Aeolis

Ancient Greek:

ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰ
πλάγχθη, ἐπεὶ Τροίης ἱερὸν πτολίεθρον ἔπερσεν
πολλῶν δ᾽ ἀνθρώπων ἴδεν ἄστεα καὶ νόον ἔγνω,
πολλὰ δ᾽ ὅ γ᾽ ἐν πόντῳ πάθεν ἄλγεα ὃν κατὰ θυμόν,
ἀρνύμενος ἥν τε ψυχὴν καὶ νόστον ἑταίρων.
ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ὣς ἑτάρους ἐρρύσατο, ἱέμενός περ:
αὐτῶν γὰρ σφετέρῃσιν ἀτασθαλίῃσιν ὄλοντο,
νήπιοι, οἳ κατὰ βοῦς Ὑπερίονος Ἠελίοιο
ἤσθιον: αὐτὰρ ὁ τοῖσιν ἀφείλετο νόστιμον ἦμαρ.
τῶν ἁμόθεν γε, θεά, θύγατερ Διός, εἰπὲ καὶ ἡμῖν.

Romanization:

andra moi ennepe, mousa, polytropon, hos mala polla
planchthē, epei troiēs hieron ptoliethron epersen:
pollōn d' anthrōpōn iden astea kai noon egnō,
polla d' ho g' en pontō pathen algea hon kata thymon,
arnymenos hēn te psychēn kai noston hetairōn.
all' oud' hōs hetarous errysato, hiemenos per:
autōn gar spheterēsin atasthaliēsin olonto,
nēpioi, ohi kata bous Hyperionos Ēelioio
ēsthion: autar ho toisin apheileto nostimon ēmar.
tōn hamothen ge, thea, thygater Dios, eipe kai hēmin.

[100]

17th century (1615–1700)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Chapman,
George
1559–1634,
dramatist, poet, classicist
1615 London, Rich. Field for Nathaniell Butter

The man, O Muse, inform, that many a way
Wound with his wisdom to his wished stay;

[101]
Ogilby,
John
1600–1676,
cartographer, publisher, translator
1665 London, Roycroft

That prudent Hero's wandering, Muse, rehearse,
Who (Troy b'ing sack'd) coasting the Universe,

[102]
Hobbes,
Thomas
1588–1679,
acclaimed philosopher, etc.
1675 London, W. Crook

Tell me, O Muse, th’ adventures of the man
That having sack’d the sacred town of Troy,

[103]

Early 18th century (1701–1750)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Alexander Pope
(with William Broome and Elijah Fenton)
1688–1744,
poet
1725 London, Bernard Lintot[104]

The man for wisdom’s various arts renown’d,
Long exercised in woes, O Muse! resound;

[105]

Late 18th century (1751–1800)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Cowper,
William
1731–1800,
poet and hymnodist
1791

Muse make the man thy theme, for shrewdness famed
And genius versatile, who far and wide

A Wand’rer, after Ilium overthrown,
Discover’d various cities, and the mind
And manners learn’d of men, in lands remote.
He num’rous woes on Ocean toss’d, endured,
Anxious to save himself, and to conduct
His followers to their home; yet all his care
Preserved them not; they perish’d self-destroy’d
By their own fault; infatuate! who devoured
The oxen of the all-o’erseeing Sun,
And, punish’d for that crime, return’d no more.
Daughter divine of Jove, these things record,
As it may please thee, even in our ears.

[106]

Early 19th century (1801–1850)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Cary,
H. F.
?
(“Graduate of Oxford”)
1772–1844,
author, translator
1823 London, Whittaker

O Muse, inspire me to tell of the crafty
man, who wandered very much after he

[107]
Sotheby,
William
1757–1833,
poet, translator
1834 London, John Murray

Muse! sing the Man by long experience tried,
Who, fertile in resources, wander'd wide,

[108]

Late middle 19th century (1851–1875)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Buckley,
Theodore Alois
1825–1856,
translator
1851 London, H. G. Bohn

O Muse, sing to me of the man full of
resources, who wandered very much

[109]
Barter,
William G. T., Esq.
1808–1871,
barrister
[32][33]
1862,
in part
London, Bell and Daldy

Sing me, O Muse, that all-experienced Man,
Who, after he Troy's sacred town o'erthrew,

[110]
Alford,
Henry
1810–1871,
theologian, textual critic, scholar, poet, hymnodist
1861 London, Longman, Green, Longman, and Robert

Tell of the man, thou Muse, much versed, who widely
Wandered, when he had sacked Troy’s sacred fortress;

[111]
Worsley,
Philip Stanhope
1835–1866,
poet
1861–2 Edinburgh, W. Blackwood & Sons

Sing me. O Muse, that hero wandering,
Who of men's minds did much experience reap,

[112]
Giles,
Rev. Dr. J. A. [John Allen]
1808–1884,
headmaster, scholar, prolific author, clergyman[28]
1862–77  

Εννεπε declare μοιI to me, Мουσα Muse,
ανδρα the man πολυτροπον of many

Norgate,
T. S. [Thomas Starling, Jr.]
1807–1893,
clergyman[35]
1862 London, Williams and Margate

The travelled Man of many a turn,—driven far,
Far wandering, when he had sacked Troy’s sacred Town;

Musgrave,
George
1798–1883,
clergyman, scholar, writer[113]
1865 London, Bell & Daldy

Tell me, O Muse, declare to me that man
Tost to and fro by fate, who, when his arms

[114]
Bigge-Wither, Rev. Lovelace   1869 London, James Parker and Co.

Tell me, oh Muse, of-the-many-sided man,
Who wandered far and wide full sore bestead,

[115]
Edginton,
G. W. [George William]
Physician[116] 1869 London, Longman, Green, Reader, and Dyer

Sing, Muse, of that deep man, who wander'd much,
 When he had raz'd the walls of sacred Troy,

[117]
Bryant,
William Cullen
1794–1878,
American poet, Evening Post editor
1871 Boston, Houghton, Fields Osgood

Tell me, O Muse, of that sagacious man
Who, having overthrown the sacred town

[118]

Late 19th century (1876–1900)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Barnard,
Mordaunt Roger
1828–1906,
clergyman, translator
1876 London, Williams and Margate

Muse! tell me of the man with much resource,
Who wandered far, when sacred Troy he sacked;

Saw towns of many men, learned all they knew,
Winning his own life and his friends’ return.
Yet them he saved not, earnest though he was,
For by their own temerity they died.
Fools! who devoured the oxen of the sun,
Who from them took the day of their return.
[Muse, child of Jove! from some source tell us this.]

[119]
Merry, William Walter 1835–1918,
Oxford classicist and clergyman
1876 Oxford, Clarendon

  — Note: not a translation, per se, but the
Greek text with commentary

[120]
Riddell, James 1823–1866,
Oxford classicist[121]
Mongan,
Roscoe
  1879–80 London, James Cornish & Sons

O Muse! inspire me to tell of the man,
skilled in sxpedients, who wandered

very much after he had brought to
destruction the sacred city of Troy,
and saw the cities of many men, and
become acquainted with their
dispositions. And he, indeed, on the
deep, endured in bis mind many
sufferings, whilst endeavoring to
secure his own life and the return of
his companions; but not even thus,
although anxious, did he save his
companions : for they perished by
their own infatuation; foolish [men
that they were], who did eat up the
Sun who journeys above; but he
deprived them of their return [the
day of return]. Of these events,
arising from whatever cause, O
goddess! daughter of Jove, inform
us also.

[122]
Butcher,
Samuel Henry
1850–1910,
Anglo-Irish professor of classics
1879 London, Macmillan

Tell me, Muse, of that man, so ready at need,
who wandered far and wide, after he had sacked

the sacred citadel of Troy, and many were the
men whose towns he saw and whose mind he
learnt, yea, and many the woes he suffered in
his heart upon the deep, striving to win his own
life and the return of his company. Nay, but even
so he saved not his company, though he desired
it sore. For through the blindness of their own
hearts they perished, fools, who devoured the
oxen of Helios Hyperion: but the god took from
them their day of returning. Of these things,
goddess, daughter of Zeus, whencesoever thou
hast heard thereof, declare thou even unto us.

[123]
Lang, Andrew 1844–1912,
Scots poet, historian, critic, folk tales collector, etc.
Schomberg,
G. A.
1821–1907,
British Raj army general[124]
1879–82 London, J. Murray

Sing Muse the hero versatile, who roved
So far, so long, after he overthrew

Troy's holy citadel ; of many men
He saw the cities, and their manners learned;
And woes he suffered on the deep; he strove
To win his comrades' lives, and safe return.
But all his strivings failed to rescue them:
They perished for their witless sacrilege,
Who ate the oxen of Hyperion Sun;
Hence nevermore saw they their native land.
Daughter of Jove, help us to tell the tale.

[125]
Du Cane,
Sir Charles
1825–1889,
governor, M. P.
1880 Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons

Muse! of that hero versatile indite to me the song,
Doomed, when he sacred Troy had sacked, to wander far and long.

Who saw the towns of many men, much knowledge did obtain
Anent their ways, and with much woe was heart-wrung on the main,
Seeking his own life to preserve, his friends' return to gain.
E'en so he rescued not his friends, though eagerly he strove,
For them their own infatuate deeds to direful ending drove.
Fools, who the sun-god's sacred beeves dared madly to devour,
Doomed by his anger ne'er to see of glad return the hour.
Sing, goddess, child of mighty Jove, of these events, I pray,
And from what starting-point thou wilt begin with me the lay.

[126]
Way,
Arthur Sanders
(Avia)
1847–1930,
Australian classicist, headmaster
1880 London, Macmillan

The Hero of craft-renown, O Song-goddess, chant me his fame,
Who, when low he had laid Troy town, unto many a far land came,

And many a city beheld he, and knew the hearts of their folk,
And by woes of the sea was unquelled, o'er the rock of his spirit that broke,
When he fain would won for a prey his life, and his friends' return,
Yet never they saw that day, howsoever his heart might yearn,
But they perished every one, by their own mad deeds did they fall,
For they slaughtered the kine of the Sun, and devoured them — fools were they all.
So the God in his wrath took awav their day of return for their guilt.
[(1903 edition): So in anger their home-coming day did the God take away for their guilt.]
O Goddess, inspire my lay, with their tale; take it up as thou wilt.

[127][128]
Hayman,
Henry
1823–1904,
translator, clergyman[129]
1882 London

  — Note: not a translation, per se, but the
Greek text with "marginal references, various
readings, notes and appendices."

[130]
Hamilton,
Sidney G.
  1883 London, Macmillan

  — Note: Not a translation, per se,
but a commentary. Edition inclusive
of Books 11 – 24

[131]
Palmer,
George Herbert
1842–1933,
American professor, philosopher, author
1884 Boston & New York, Houghton Mifflin

Speak to me, Muse, of the adventurous man who wandered long after he sacked the sacred

citadel of Troy. Many the men whose towns he

saw, whose ways he proved ; and many a pang he bore in his own breast at sea while struggling for his' life and his men's safe return. Yet even so, by all his zeal, he did not save his men; for through their own perversity they perished— fools! who devoured the kine of the exhalted Sun. Wherefore he took away the day of their return. Of this, O goddess, daughter of Zeus,

beginning where thou wilt, speak to us also.

[132]
Morris,
William
1834–1896,
poet, author, artist
1887 London, Reeves & Turner

Tell me, O Muse, of the Shifty, the man who wandered afar.
After the Holy Burg, Troy town, he had wasted with war;

He saw the towns of menfolk, and the mind of men did he learn;
As he warded his life in the world, and his fellow-farers' return,
Many a grief of heart on the deep-sea flood he bore,
Nor yet might he save his fellows, for all that he longed for it sore
They died of their own soul's folly, for witless as they were
They ate up the beasts of the Sun, the Rider of the air,
And he took away from them all their dear returning day;
O goddess, O daughter of Zeus, from whencesoever ye may,
Gather the tale, and tell it, yea even to us at the last!

[133]
Howland,
G. [George]
1824–1892,
American educator, author, translator[51]
1891 New York

Tell me, O Muse, of the man of many resources, who many
Ills was made to endure, when he Troy's sacred city had wasted;

Many the people whose cities he saw, and learned of their customs,
Many also the sorrows he suffered at sea in his spirit,
Striving to save his own life and secure the return of his comrades
But not thus his comrades he saved, however he wished it,
For by their own presumptuous deeds they foolishly perished:
Madmen they, who devoured the sun god, Hyperion's oxen,
And in revenge he took from them their day of returning.
Of these things, thou goddess, daughter of Jove, tell us also.

[134]
Cordery,
John Graham
1833–1900,
civil servant, British Raj[53]
1897 London, Methuen

Sing through my lips, O Goddess, sing the man
Resourceful, who, storm-buffeted far and wide,

>

After despoiling of Troy's sacred tower,
Beheld the cities of mankind, and knew
Their various temper! Many on the sea
The sorrows in his inmost heart he bore
For rescue of his comrades and his life;
Those not for all his effort might he save;
Fools, of their own perversities they fell,
Daring consume the cattle of the Sun
Hyperion, who bereft them of return!
That we too may have knowledge, sing these things,
Daughter of Zeus, beginning whence thou wilt!

[135]
Butler,
Samuel
1835–1902,
novelist, essayist, critic
1900 London, Longmans, Green[136]

Tell me, O muse, of that ingenious hero who
travelled far and wide after he had sacked the

famous town of Troy. Many cities did he visit,
and many were the nations with whose
manners and customs he was acquainted;
moreover he suffered much by sea while
trying to save his own life and bring his
men safely home; but do what he might
he could not save his men, for they
perished through their own sheer folly
in eating the cattle of the Sun-god
Hyperion; so the god prevented them
from ever reaching home. Tell me, too, about
all these things, O daughter of Jove, from
whatsoever source you may know them.

[137]

Early 20th century (1901–1925)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Monro,
David Binning
1836–1905,
Scots anatomy professor, Homerist
1901 Oxford, Clarendon

Note: translation inclusive of Books 13–24

[138]
Mackail,
John William
1859–1945,
Oxford Professor of Poetry
1903–10 London, John Murray

O Muse, instruct me of the man who drew
His changeful course through wanderings not a few

After he sacked the holy town of Troy,
And saw the cities and the counsel knew

Of many men, and many a time at sea
Within his heart he bore calamity,
While his own life he laboured to redeem
And bring his fellows back from jeopardy.

Yet not his fellows thus from death he won,
Fain as he was to save them: who undone
By their own hearts' infatuation died,
Fools, that devoured the oxen of the Sun,

Hyperion: and therefore he the day
Of their returning homeward reft away.
Goddess, God's daughter, grant that now thereof
We too may hear, such portion as we may.

[139]
Cotterill,
Henry Bernard
1846–1924,
essayist, translator[140][141]
1911 Boston, D. Estes/Harrap

Sing, O Muse, of the man so wary and wise, who in far lands
Wandered whenas he had wasted the sacred town of the Trojans.

Many a people he saw and beheld their cities and customs,
Many a woe he endured in his heart as he tossed on the ocean,
Striving to win him his life and to bring home safely his comrades.
Ah but he rescued them not, those comrades, much as he wished it.
Ruined by their own act of infatuate madness they perished,
Fools that they were—who the cows of the sun-god, lord Hyperion,
Slaughtered and ate; and he took from the men their day of returning.
Sing—whence-ever the lay—sing, Zeus-born goddess, for us too!

[142]
Murray,
Augustus Taber
1866–1940,
American professor of classics
1919 Cambridge & London, Harvard & Heinemann

Tell me, O Muse, of the man of many devices,
who wandered full many ways after he had

sacked the sacred citadel of Troy. Many
were the men whose cities he saw and
whose mind he learned, aye, and many
the woes he suffered in his heart upon
the sea, seeking to win his own life and
the return of his comrades. Yet even so
he saved not his comrades, though he
desired it sore, for through their own
blind folly they perished—fools, who
devoured the kine of Helios Hyperion;
but he took from them the day of their
returning. Of these things, goddess,
daughter of Zeus, beginning where thou
wilt, tell thou even unto us.

[143]
Caulfeild,
Francis
  1921 London, G. Bell & Sons

Sing me the Restless Man, O Muse, who roamed the world over,
When, by his wondrous guile, he had sacked Troy's sacred fortress.

Cities of various men he saw: their thoughts he discernéd.
Many a time, in the deep, his heart was melted for trouble.
Striving to win his life, and eke return for his comrades:
Yet, though he strove full sore, he could not save his companions,
For, as was meet and just, through deeds of folly they perished:
Fools ! who devoured the oxen of Him who rides in the heavens,
Helios, who, in his course, missed out their day of returning.
Yet, how they fared and died, be gracious, O Goddess, to tell us.

On page viii, Caulfeild gives the scansion in Homer's "original metre" of the third line of his translation as:

Māny a | tĩme in the | deēp [– (pause or 'cæsura')] hĩs | heārt was | mēlted for | trōublē,[144]

[144]
Marris,
Sir William S.
1873–1945,
governor, British Raj
1925 London, England, and Mysore, India, Oxford University Press

Tell me, O Muse, of that Great Traveller
Who wandered far and wide when he had sacked

The sacred town of Troy. Of many men
He saw the cities and he learned the mind;
Ay, and at heart he suffered many woes
Upon the sea, intent to save his life
And bring his comrades home. Yet even so
His men he could not save for all his efforts,
For through their own blind wilfulness they perished;
The fools! who ate up Hyperion's kine;
And he bereft them of their homing day.
Touching these things, beginning where thou wilt,
Tell even us, O goddess, child of Zeus.

 
Hiller,
Robert H.
1864–1944,
American professor of Greek[145][146]
1925 Philadelphia and Chicago, etc., John C. Winston

Tell me, O Muse, of that clever hero
who wandered far after capturing the

sacred city of Troy. For he saw the
towns and learned the ways of many
peoples. Many hardships too he
suffered on the sea while struggling
for his own life and for the safe return
of his men. Yet all his zeal did not save
his companions. They perished through
their own rashness — the fools! — because
they ate the cattle of the Sun, and he
therefore kept them from reaching
home. Tell us also of this, 0 goddess,
daughter of Zeus, beginning where
you will.

[147]

Early middle 20th century (1926–1950)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Bates,
Herbert
1868–1929,
novelist, short-story writer
1929 New York, McGraw Hill

Tell me the tale, Muse, of that man
Of many changes, he who went

[148]
Lawrence,
T. E.

(T. E. Shaw)
1888–1935,
archaeological scholar, military strategist, author
1932 London, Walker, Merton, Rogers; New York, Oxford University Press
O divine poesy
Goddess-daughter of Zeus
[149]
Rouse,
William Henry Denham
1863–1950,
pedogogist of classic studies
1937 London, T. Nelson & Sons[150]

This is the story of a man, one who
was never at a loss. He had travelled

[151]
Rieu,
E. V.
1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
1945 London & Baltimore, Penguin

The hero of the tale which I beg the
Muse to help me tell is that resourceful

[152]
Andrew, S. O.
[Samuel Ogden]
1868–1952,
headmaster
[68][69][A]
1948 London, J. M. Dent & Sons

Tell me, O muse, of the hero fated to roam
So long and so far when Ilion's keep he had sack'd,

[153]

Late middle 20th century (1951–1975)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Lattimore,
Richmond
1906–1984,
poet, translator
1965 New York, Harper & Row[154]

Tell me, Muse, of the man of many ways,
who was driven far journeys, after he had

sacked Troy's sacred citadel. Many were
they whose cities he saw, whose minds he
learned of, many the pains he suffered in
his spirit on the wide sea, struggling for
his own life and the homecoming of his
companions. Even so he could not save
his companions, hard though he strove
to; they were destroyed by their own
wild recklessness, fools, who devoured
the oxen of Helios, the Sun God, and
he took away the day of their
homecoming. From some point here,
goddess, daughter of Zeus, speak, and
begin our story.

[155]
Rees,
Ennis
1925–2009,
American Professor of English, poet, translator[72]
1960 New York, Random House

Of that versatile man, O Muse, tell me the story,
How he wandered both long and far after sacking

The city of holy Troy. May were the towns
He saw and many the men whose minds he knew,
And many were the woes his stout heart suffered at sea
As he fought to return alive with living comrades.
Them he could not save, though much he longed to,
For through their own thoughtless greed they died -- blind fools
Who slaughtered the Sun's own cattle, Hyperion's herd,
For food, and so by him were kept from returning.
Of all these things, O Goddess, daughter of Zeus,
Beginning wherever you swish, tell even us.

[156]
[157]
Fitzgerald,
Robert
1910–1985,
American Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, poet, critic, translator
1961 New York, Doubleday

Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story
of that man skilled in all ways of contending,

the wanderer, harried for years on end,
after he plundered the stronghold
on the proud height of Troy.
                                He saw the townlands
and learned the minds of many distant men,
and weathered many bitter nights and days
in his deep heart at sea, while he fought only
to save his life, to bring his shipmates home.
But not by will nor valor could he save them,
for their own recklessness destroyed them all--
children and fools, they killed and feasted on
the cattle of Lord Hêlios, the Sun,
and he who moves all day through heaven
took from their eyes the dawn of their return.
Of these adventures, Muse, daughter of Zeus,
tell us in our time, lift up great song again.

[158]
Epps,
Preston H.
1888–1982,
American professor[159][160][B]
1965 New York, Macmillan
Cook,
Albert
1925–1998,
professor[161][C]
1967 New York, W. W. Norton

Tell me, Muse, about the man of many turns, who many
Ways wandered when he had sacked Troy's holy citadel;

He saw the cities of many men, and he knew their thought;
On the ocean he suffered many pains within his heart,
Striving for his life and his companions' return.
But he did not save his companions, though he wanted to:
They lost their own lives because of their recklessness.
The fools, they devoured the cattle of Hyperion,
The Sun, and he took away the day of their return.
Begin the tale somewhere for us also, goddess, daughter of Zeus.

[162]

Late 20th century (1976–2000)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Hull,
Denison Bingham
1897–1988,
American classicist[74][75]
1979 Ohio University Press    
Shewring,
Walter
1906–1990,
Professor of classics, poet[163]
1980 Oxford, Oxford University Press

Goddess of song, teach me the story of a hero.
      This was the man of wide-ranging spirit who had sacked the sacred town of Troy and who wandered afterwards long and far.

[164]
Hammond,
Martin
born 1944,
Headmaster, classicist
2000 London, Duckworth[165]

  Muse, tell me of a man – a man of much resource, who was made

[166]
Mandelbaum,
Allen
born 1926,
American professor of Italian literature and of humanities, poet, translator
1990 Berkeley, University California Press

Muse, tell me of the man of many wiles,
the man who wandered many paths of exile

[167]
Rieu, Emile Victor 1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
1991 London, Penguin

Tell me, Muse of that resourceful
man who was driven to wander far

[168]
posthumously revised by Rieu, D. C. H. 1916–2008,
Headmaster, classicist
posthumously revised by Jones, Peter V. Born 1942
Classicist, writer, journalist
Fagles,
Robert
1933–2008,
American professor of English, poet
1996 New York, Viking/Penguin

Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns
driven time and again off course, once he had plundered

[169]
Kemball-Cook,
Brian
1912–2002,
Headmaster, classicist[170]
1993 London, Calliope Press

Tell me, O Muse, of a man of resourceful spirit who wandered
Far, having taken by storm Troy's sacred city and sacked it.

[171]
Dawe,
R. D.
Classicist, translator[172] 1993 Sussex, The Book Guild

Tell me, Muse, of the versatile man who was driven off course many times after he had sacked the holy citadel of Troy.

[173]
Reading,
Peter
born 1946,
Poet
1994      
Lombardo,
Stanley
born 1943,
American Professor of Classics
2000 Indianapolis, Hackett

  Speak, Memory –
                                   Of the cunning hero

[174]

21st century[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Eickhoff,
R. L.
translator, poet, playwright, novelist, classicist[175] 2001 New York, T. Doherty  — Novel — [175]
Johnston,
Ian
[82]
Canadian academic 2006 Arlington, Richer Resources Publications

Muse, speak to me now of that resourceful man
who wandered far and wide after ravaging

[176]
Merrill,
Rodney
American classicist[86] 2002 University of Michigan Press

Tell me, Muse, of the man versatile and resourceful, who wandered
many a sea-mile after he ransacked Troy’s holy city.

[86]
Kline, Anthony S. born 1947,
translator
2004

Tell me, Muse, of that man of many resources, who wandered far and wide, after sacking the holy citadel of Troy.

[177][178]
McCrorie,
Edward
American professor of English, classicist 2004 Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press

The man, my Muse, resourceful, driven a long way
after he sacked the holy city of Trojans:

[179]
Armitage,
Simon
born 1963,
Poet, playwright, novelist
2006 London, Faber and Faber Limited  — Verse-like radio dramatization[180] —  
Stein,
Charles
American poet, translator[181] 2008 Berkeley, North Atlantic Books

Speak through me, O Muse,
of that man of many devices

[181]
Mitchell,
Stephen
born 1943,
American poet and anthologist
2013 Atria Paperback

Sing to me, Muse, of that endlessly cunning man
who was blown off course to the ends of the earth, in the years

[182]
Powell,
Barry B.
born 1942,
American poet, classicist, translator
2014 Oxford University Press

Sing to me of the resourceful man, O Muse, who wandered
far after he had sacked the sacred city of Troy. He saw

[183]
Verity,
Anthony
born 1939
classical scholar
2017 Oxford University Press

Tell me, Muse, of the man of many turns, who was driven
far and wide after he had sacked the sacred city of Troy.

[184]
Wilson,
Emily
born 1971,
British classicist, professor of classics
2017 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Tell me about a complicated man.
Muse, tell me how he wandered and was lost

[185]
Green, Peter born 1924, British classicist 2018 University of California Press

The man, Muse—tell me about that resourceful man, who wandered
far and wide, when he'd sacked Troy's sacred citadel:

[186]


P literature.svg This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Andrew was a classicist.
  2. ^ Epps taught classics and was a translator.
  3. ^ Cook's subjects were Comparative Literature, English and Classics.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]