English translations of Homer

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This is a list of English translations of the main works attributed to Homer, the Iliad and Odyssey. Translations are ordered chronologically by date of first publication, with first lines often provided to illustrate the style of the translation.

Not all translators translated both the Iliad and Odyssey; in addition to the complete translations listed here are numerous partial translations, ranging from several lines to complete books, which have appeared in a variety of publications.

The "original" text cited below is that of "the Oxford Homer."[1]


Homeric epic translated into English
Click alphabet above to be redirected to translator surnames in index.   Translator nationalities are English unless stated otherwise. To see entire verse, click "Show."

Iliad[edit]

Reference text[edit]

Poet Provenance Proemic verse R
Homer c. 8th century BC
Greek rhapsode
Aeolis
Ancient Greek:

μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε,

πολλὰς δ᾽ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ᾽ ἐτελείετο βουλή,
ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.


τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι;
Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός: ὃ γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθεὶς
νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὄρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,
οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα
Ἀτρεΐδης: ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν
λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ᾽ ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,
στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος
χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς,
Ἀτρεΐδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν:
Ἀτρεΐδαι τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί,
ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ᾽ ἔχοντες
ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ᾽ οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι:
παῖδα δ᾽ ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ᾽ ἄποινα δέχεσθαι,
ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα.

Romanization:

mēnin aeide thea Pēlēiadeō Achilēos
oulomenēn, hē myri' Achaiois alge' ethēke,
pollas d' iphthimous psychas Aidi proiapsen
hērōōn, autous de helōria teuche kynessin
oiōnoisi te pasi, Dios d' eteleieto boulē,
ex ohy dē ta prōta diastētēn erisante
Atreidēs te anax andrōn kai dios Achilleus.


tis t' ar sphōe theōn eridi xyneēke machesthai?
Lētous kai Dios yhios: ho gar basilēi cholōtheis
nouson ana straton orse kakēn, olekonto de laoi,
ohyneka ton Chrysēn ētimasen arētēra
Atreidēs: ho gar ēlthe thoas epi nēas Achaiōn
lysomenos te thygatra pherōn t' apereisi' apoina,
stemmat' echōn en chersin hekēbolou Apollōnos
chryseō ana skēptrō, kai lisseto pantas Achaious,
Atreida de malista dyō, kosmētore laōn:
Atreidai te kai alloi euknēmides Achaioi,
hymin men theoi doien Olympia dōmat' echontes
ekpersai Priamoio polin, eu d' oikad' hikesthai:
paida d' emoi lysaite philēn, ta d' apoina dechesthai,
hazomenoi Dios yhion hekēbolon Apollōna.

[2]

16th and 17th centuries (1581–1700)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Hall, Arthur
of Grantham
1539–1605,
M. P., courtier, translator
1581 London, for Ralph Newberie

I Thee beseech, O Goddesse milde, the hatefull hate to plaine,
Whereby Achilles was so wroong, and grewe in suche disdaine,

That thousandes of the Greekish Dukes, in hard and heauie plight,
To Plutoes Courte did yeelde their soules, and gaping lay vpright,
Those senceless trunckes of buriall voide, by them erst gaily borne,
By rauening curres, and carreine foules, in peeces to be torne.
Gainst Agamemn of Ioue his wrath, so kindled was the fire,
That he Achil to deere, and crosse so deepely did conspire.

[3]
Rawlyns,
Roger
1587 London, Orwin   [4]
Colse,
Peter
  1596 London, H. Jackson   [5]
Chapman,
George
1559–1634,
dramatist, poet, classicist
1611–15 London, Rich. Field for Nathaniell Butter[6]

Achilles' banefull wrath resound, O Goddesse, that imposd
Infinite sorrowes on the Greekes, and many brave soules losd

From breasts Heroique—sent them farre, to that invisible cave.
That no light comforts; and their lims to dogs and vultures gave.
To all which Jove's will gave effect; from whom first strife begunne
Betwixt Atrides, king of men, and Thetis' godlike Sonne.

[7]
Grantham,
Thomas
c. 1610–1664
1659 London, T. Lock [8]
Ogilby,
John
1600–1676,
cartographer, publisher, translator
1660 London, Roycroft

Achilles Peleus Son's destructive Rage,
Great Goddess, sing, which did the Greeks engage

In many Woes, and mighty Hero's Ghosts
Sent down untimely to the Stygian Coasts:
Devouring Vultures on their Bodies prey'd,
And greedy Dogs (so was Jove's Will obey'd;)
Because Great Agamemnon fell at odds
With stern Achilles, Off-spring of the Gods.

[9]
Hobbes,
Thomas
1588–1679,
acclaimed philosopher, etc.
1676 London, W. Crook

O Goddess sing what woe the discontent
Of Thetis' son brought to the Greeks; what souls
Of heroes down to Erebus it sent,

Leaving their bodies unto dogs and fowls;
Whilst the two princes of the army strove,

King Agamemnon and Achilles stout.
That so it should be was the will of Jove,

[10]
Dryden,
John
1631–1700,
dramatist,
Poet Laureate
1700 London, J. Tonson

The Wrath of Peleus Son, O Muse, resound;
Whose dire Effects the Grecian Army found:

And many a Heroe, King, and hardy Knight,
Were sent, in early Youth, to Shades of Night:
Their Limbs a Prey to Dogs and Vultures made;
So was the Sov'reign Will of Jove obey'd:
From that ill-omen'd Hour when Strife begun,
Betwixt Atrides Great, and Thetis God-like Son.

[11]

Early 18th century (1701–1750)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Ozell, John d. 1743,
translator, accountant
1712 London, Bernard Lintott    
Broome, William 1689–1745,
poet, translator
Oldisworth, William 1680–1734[12]
Pope,
Alexander
1688–1744,
poet
1715 London, Bernard Lintot

Achilles' wrath, to Greece the direful spring
Of woes unnumber'd, heavenly goddess, sing!

That wrath which hurl'd to Pluto's gloomy reign
The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain;
Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore,
Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore.
Since great Achilles and Atrides strove,
Such was the sovereign doom, and such the will of Jove!

[13]
Tickell,
Thomas
1685–1740,
poet
1715 London, Tickell

Achilles' fatal wrath, whence discord rose,
That brought the sons of Greece unnumber'd woes,

O goddess, sing. Full many a hero's ghost
Was driven untimely to th' infernal coast,
While in promiscuous heaps their bodies lay,
A feast for dogs, and every bird of prey.
So did the sire of gods and men fulfil
His steadfast purpose, and almighty will;
What time the haughty chiefs their jars begun,
Atrides, king of men, and Peleus' godlike son.

[14]
Fenton,
Elijah
1683–1730,
poet, biographer, translator
1717 London, printed for Bernard Lintot    
Cooke,
T.
  1729      
Fitz-Cotton,
H.
  1749 Dublin, George Faulkner    
Ashwick,
Samuel
  1750 London, printed for Brindley, Sheepey and Keith    

Late 18th century (1751–1800)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Scott,
J. N.
  1755 London, Osborne and Shipton    
Langley,
Samuel
, Rector of Checkley
1720–
1791
[15]
1767 London, Dodsley    
Macpherson,
James
1736–1796,
poet, compiler of Scots Gaelic poems, politician
1773 London, T. Becket

The wrath of the ſon of Peleus,—O goddeſs of ſong, unfold! The deadly wrath of Achilles : To Greece the ſource of many woes!

Which peopled the regions of death,—with ſhades of heroes untimely ſlain : While pale they lay along the ſhore : Torn by beaſts and birds of prey : But ſuch was the will of Jove! Begin the verſe, from the ſource of rage,—between Achilles and the ſovereign of men.

[16]
Cowper,
William
1731–1800,
poet and hymnodist
1791 London, J. Johnson

Achilles sing, O Goddess! Peleus' son;
His wrath pernicious, who ten thousand woes

Caused to Achaia's host, sent many a soul
Illustrious into Ades premature,
And Heroes gave (so stood the will of Jove)
To dogs and to all ravening fowls a prey,
When fierce dispute had separated once
The noble Chief Achilles from the son
of Atreus, Agamemnon, King of men.

[17]
Tremenheere, William, Chaplain to the Royal Navy 1757–
1838
[18]
1792 London, Faulder?    
Geddes,
Alexander
1737–1802,
Scots Roman Catholic theologian; scholar, poet
1792 London: printed for J. Debrett    
Bak,
Joshua

(T. Bridges?)
  1797 London    

Early 19th century (1801–1850)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Williams, Peter?    
Bulmer, William
[improper synthesis?]
1757–1830,
printer
1807  

The stern resentment of Achilles, son
Of Peleus, Muse record,—dire source of woe;

Which caus'd unnumber'd ills to Greece, and sent
Many brave souls of heroes to the shades
Untimely, and their bodies gave a prey
To dogs and every ravenous bird: so will'd
The all-ruling providence of Jove, when first
In fierce dissension strove the king of men,
Atrides, and Achilles Goddess-born.

[19]
Cowper,
William
(3rd edition)
1731–1800,
poet and hymnodist
1809  

Sing Muse the deadly wrath of Peleus' son
Achilles, source of many thousand woes

To the Achaian host, which num'rous souls
Of heroes sent to Ades premature,
And left their bodies to devouring dogs
And birds of Heav'n (so Jove his will perform'd)
From that dread hour when discord first embroil'd
Achilles and Atrides king of men.

[20]
Morrice,
Rev. James
  1809  

Sing, Muse, the fatal wrath of Peleus' son,
Which to the Greeks unnumb'red evils brought,

And many heroes to the realms of night
Sent premature; and gave their limbs a prey
To dogs and birds: for such the will of Jove,
When fierce contention rose between the chiefs,
Achilles, and Atrides king of men.

[21]
Cary,
Henry
1772–1844,
author, translator
1821 London, Munday and Slatter

Sing, Goddess, the destructive wrath of Achilles, son of Peleus, which brought many disasters upon the Greeks,

and sent before their time many gallant souls of heroes to the infernal regions, and made them a prey to the dogs and to all the fowls of the air (for so the counsel of Jove was fulfilled) from the period at which Atrides, king of men, and the godlike Achilles first stood apart, contended (contending).

[22]
Sotheby,
William
1757–1833,
poet, translator
1831 London, John Murray    
Anonymous
(“Graduate
of Dublin”)
  1833 Dublin, Gumming    
Munford,
William
1775–1825,
American lawyer
[23]
1846 Boston, Little Brown    
Brandreth,
Thomas Shaw
1788–1873,
mathematician, inventor, classicist
1846 London, W. Pickering

Achillies wrath accurst, O Goddess, sing,
Which caused ten thousand sorrows to the Greeks,

And many valiant souls of heroes sent
To Pluto, and their bodies made a prey
To dogs and birds;—but Jove's will was performed—
From that day, when at first contending strove
Atrides, king of men, and Peleus' son.

[24]

Late middle 19th century (1851–1875)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Buckley,
Theodore Alois
1825–1856,
translator
1851 London, H. G. Bohn

Sing, O goddess, the destructive wrath of Achilles, son of Peleus, which brought countless woes upon the Greeks,

and hurled many valiant souls of heroes down to Hades, and made themselves a prey to dogs and to all birds [but the will of Jove was being accomplished], from the time when Atrides, king of men, and noble Achilles, first contending, were disunited.

[25]
Hamilton,
Sidney G.
  1855–58 Philadelphia    
Clark, Thomas  
Newman,
Francis William
1807–1893,
classics professor[26]
1856 London, Walton & Maberly

Of Peleus' son, Achilles, sing, oh goddess, the resentment
Accursed, which with countless pangs Achaia's army wounded,

And forward flung to Aïdes full many a gallant spirit
Of heroes, and their very selves did toss to dogs that ravin,
And unto every fowl, (for so would Jove's device be compass'd);
From that first day when feud arose implacable, and parted
The son of Atreus, prince of men, and Achileus the godlike.

[27]
Wright,
Ichabod Charles
1795–1871,
translator, poet, accountant
1858–65 Cambridge, Macmillan    
Arnold,
Matthew
1822–1888,
critic, social commentator, poet
1861      
Giles,
Rev. Dr. J. A. [John Allen]
1808–1884,
headmaster, scholar, prolific author, clergyman[28]
1861–82  

Sing, O goddess, the destructive wrath of Achilles son of Peleus, which caused ten thousand thousand griefs to the Achæans

and sent before their time many valiant souls of heroes to Hades, and made themselves prey to dogs and to [all kinds of] birds; but the will of Jupiter was being accomplished; from the time when indeed, at first having quarrelled [those two] separated, both the son of Atreus king of men, and divine Achilles.

[29]
Dart,
J. [Joseph] Henry
1817–1887,
East India Company counsel[30]
1862 London, Longmans Green

Sing, divine Muse, sing the implacable wrath of Achilleus!
Heavy with death and with woe to the banded sons of Achaia!

Many the souls of the mighty, the souls of redoubtable heroes,
Hurried by it prematurely to Hades. The vultures and wild-dogs
Tore their tombless limbs. Yet thus did the will of the Highest
Work to an end—from the day when strife drove madly asunder,
Atreus' son, king of men; and the Godlike leader Achilleus.

[31]
Barter,
William G. T., Esq.
1808–1871,
barrister
[32][33]
1864 London, Longman, Brown, and Green

The wrath of Peleus' son Achilles sing,
O goddess, wrath destructive, that did on

Th' Achæans woes innumerable bring,
And many mighty souls of heroes down
To Hades hurl untimely, themselves thrown
To dogs a prey and all the birds obscene.
But so in sooth the will of Zeus was down,
Since parted first in strife those chieftains twain,
Divine Achilles, and Atrides lord of men.

[34]
Norgate,
T. S. [Thomas Starling, Jr.]
1807–1893,
clergyman[35]
1864 London, Williams and Norgate

Goddess! O sing the wrath of Pêleus' son,
Achillès' wrath,—baneful,—that on the Achaians

Brought countless woes; and sent untimely down
Full many a chieftain's mighty soul to Hadès;
And gave their bodies for a prey to dogs,
And to all manner of birds: (but Jove's high will
Was on achievement) from the time when first
Atreidès, chief of chiefs, and prince Achillès
Quarrelled and were at strife. And who of the gods,—

[36]
Derby,
14th Earl of
(Edward Smith-Stanley)
1799–1869,
Prime Minister
1864

Of Peleus' son, Achilles, sing, O Muse,
The vengeance, deep and deadly; whence to Greece

Unnumbered ills arose; which many a soul
Of mighty warriors to the viewless shades
Untimely sent; they on the battle plain
Unburied lay, a prey to rav'ning dogs,
And carrion birds; but so had Jove decreed,
From that sad day when first in wordy war,
The mighty Agamemnon, King of men,
Confronted stood by Peleus' godlike son.

[37]
Simcox,
Edwin W.
  1865 London, Jackson, Walford and Hodder    
Worsley, Philip Stanhope 1835–1866,
poet
1865 Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons

Wrath of Achilleus, son of Peleus, sing,
O heavenly Muse, which in its fatal sway

Thousands of griefs did on the Achaians bring,
And many a hero-spirit ere his day
To Hades hurled, and left their limbs a prey
To dogs and fowls of heaven: so the design
Of Zeus meanwhile was working forth its way:
Since to fell strife did at the first incline
Atrides, lord of men, and Peleus' son divine.

[38]
Conington, John 1825–1869,
classics professor
Blackie,
John Stuart
1809–1895,
Scots professor of classics
1866 Edinburgh, Edmonston and Douglas

The baneful wrath, O goddess, sing, of Peleus' son, the source
Of sorrows dire, and countless woes to all the Grecian force;

That wrath which many a stout heroic soul from joyful day
To gloomy Hades hurled, and left their mangled limbs a prey
To dogs and vultures: thus the will of mightiest Jove was done;
Since first contention keen arose, and slumbering strife begun
Between Atrides king of men, and Peleus' godlike son.

[39]
Calverley,
Charles Stuart
1831–1884,
poet, wit
1866  

The wrath of Peleus' son, that evil wrath
Which on Achaia piled a myriad woes,

Oh Goddess, sing: which down to darkness hurled
Brave souls of mighty men, and made their flesh
A prey to dogs and every ravening fowl.
Yet Zeus his will was working: since the day
When first 'twixt Atreus' son, the King of men,
And proud Achilles there arose up war.

[40]
Herschel,
Sir John
1792–1871,
scientist
1866 London & Cambridge, Macmillan

Sing, celestial Muse! the destroying wrath of Achilles,
Peleus' son: which myriad mischiefs heaped on the Grecians,

Many a valiant hero's soul dismissing to Hades;
Flinging their corses abroad for a prey to dogs and to vultures,
And to each bird of the air. Thus Jove's high will was accomplished.
Ev'n from that fatal hour when opposed in angry contention
Stood forth Atreides, King of men, and god-like Achilles.

[41]
Omega 1866 London: Hatchard and Co.

Sing, Muse, Achilles' scathing wrath, which bore
A thousand sorrows to Achaia's shore—

Which souls heroic prematurely gave
To dogs a prey—to vultures—and the grave!
This Jove's decree: since jarring strife arose
To make Atrides and Achilles foes.—

[42]
Cochrane,
James Inglis
  1867 Edinburgh

Sing, O heavenly goddess, the wrath of Peleides Achilles,
Ruinous wrath, whence numberless woes came down to Achaia,

Many a valiant soul of her sons untimely dismissing,
Sending to Hades; their mangled bodies a prey to vultures
Left, and the dogs: but the counsels of Jove were meanwhile evolving
E'en from the time, when contention arising 'tween King Agamemnon
Ruler of heroes, and godlike Achilles, they stood disunited.

[43]
Merivale,
Charles
,
Dean of Ely
1808–1893,
clergyman, historian
1868 London, Strahan

Peleïdes Achilles, his anger, Goddess, sing;
Fell anger, fated on the Greeks ten thousand woes to bring;

Which forth to Hades hurried full many valiant souls
Of heroes, but themselves she gave to dogs and carrion fowls
Of every wing for ravin: so wrought the rede of Jove,
Since first contentious disaccord the chiefs asunder rove.
Then when Atrides, king of men, with great Achilles strove.

[44]
Gilchrist,
James
  1869  

Sing, Goddess, the pernicious wrath of Achilles the son of Peleus, which caused innumerable woes to the Greeks,

and prematurely sent to Hades many brave souls of heroes, and made themselves to become a prey to dogs and all birds of prey: but the will of Jupiter was being accomplished: from the time indeed, that both the son of Atrus, King of men, and noble Achilles, contending, were first separated.

[29]
Bryant,
William Cullen
1794–1878,
American poet, Evening Post editor
1870 Boston, Houghton, Fields Osgood

O goddess! sing the wrath of Peleus' son,
Achilles; sing the deadly wrath that brought

Woes unnumbered upon the Greeks, and swept
To Hades many a valiant soul, and gave
Their limbs a prey to dogs and birds of air—
For so had Jove appointed—from the time
When the two chiefs Atrides, king of men,
And great Achilles, parted as foes.

[24]
Caldcleugh,
W. G.
1812–1872,
American lawyer[45][46]
1870 Philadelphia, Lippincott

Sing of Achilles' wrath, oh heavenly muse,
Which brought upon the Greeks unnumbered woes,

And sent so many heroes to their doom;
Whose bodies, strewed unburied o'er the plain,
Became the prey of vultures and of dogs;
So Jove decreed, when first a quarrel rose
Betwixt the godlike warrior Achilles
And Agamemnon, sovereign of men.

[24]
Rose,
John Benson
  1874 London, privately printed    

Late 19th century (1876–1900)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Barnard,
Mordaunt Roger
1828–1906,
clergyman, translator
1876 London, Williams and Margate    
Cayley,
C. B. [Charles Bagot]
1823–1883,
translator
1877 London, Longmans

Muse, of Pelidéan Achilles sing the resentment
Ruinous, who brought down many thousand griefs on Achaians,

And untimely banish'd many souls to the mansion of Hades
Of warriors puissant, them making a booty for hounds and
All manner of prey-birds, wherein Jove's will was accomplish'd
From that time forward, when first was in enmity parted
Atrides, king of hosts, from Jove-exampling Achilles.

[22]
Mongan,
Roscoe
  1879 London, James Cornish & Sons    
Hailstone,
Herbert
Cambridge classicist, poet 1882 London, Relfe Brothers

Sing, goddess, the deadly wrath of Achilles, Peleus' son, which caused for the Achæans countless woes,

and hurled to the house of Hades headlong many sturdy souls of warriors, and made men a prey to dogs and every fowl, while the plan of Zeus was being fulfilled, ever since the son of Atreus king of men and goodly Achilles were parted when they had quarreled.

[47]
Lang, Andrew 1844–1912,
Scots poet, historian, critic, folk tales collector, etc.
1883 London, Macmillan[48]

Sing, goddess, the wrath of Achilles Peleus' son, the ruinous wrath that brought on the Achaians woes innumerable,

and hurled down into Hades many strong souls of heroes, and gave their bodies to be a prey to dogs and all winged fowls; and so the counsel of Zeus was wrought out its accomplishments from the day when first strife parted Atreides king of men and noble Achilles.

[49]
Leaf, Walter 1852–1927,
banker, scholar
Myers, Ernest 1844–1921,
poet, classicist
Way,
Arthur Sanders
(Avia)
1847–1930,
Australian classicist, headmaster
1886–8 London, S. Low

The wrath of Achilles, the Peleus-begotten, O Song-queen, sing,
Fell wrath, that dealt the Achaians woes past numbering;

Yea, many a valiant spirit to Hades' halls did it send,
Spirits of heroes, and cast their bodies to dogs to rend,
And to fowls of ravin,—yet aye Zeus' will wrought on to its end
Even from the hour when first that feud of the mighty began,
Of Atreides, King of Men, and Achilles the godlike man.

[50]
Howland,
G. [George]
1824–1892,
American educator, author, translator[51]
1889

Sing for me, goddess, the wrath, the wrath of Peleian Achilles
Ruinous wrath, which laid unnumbered woes on the Grecians;

Many mighty souls of heroes he sent down to Hades,
Giving their bodies up to be but the prey of devouring
Dogs and all the ravenous birds,—but thsu Jove's will was accomplished,
Ever now since first with hot words were estranged from each other,
Atreus' son, the king of men and the noble Achilles.

[52]
Cordery,
John Graham
1833–1900,
civil servant, British Raj[53]
1890 London

The wrath, that rose accursèd, and that laid
Unnumbered sorrows on Achaia's host,

Sing, heavenly Muse—the wrath of Peleus' son!
Of many heroes in their flower of strength
It flung the souls to Hades, and themselves
Prey to the dogs and all the fowls of heaven:
Yet was the will of Zeus being wrought thereby;
Then first when Atreus' son, the king of men,
And great Achilles, sunder'd, stood at strife.

[54]
Garnett,
Richard
  1890  

Sing, Goddess, how Pelides' wrath arose,
Disastrous, working Greece unnumbered woes,

And many a hero's soul to Hades sped,
And glutted dogs and vultures with the dead.
So the design of Zeus was compassed, when
Achilles braved Atrides, king of men.

[55]
Purves,
John
  1891 London, Percival

Sing, O goddess, the fatal wrath of Peleus' son Achilles, which brought ten thousand troubles on the Achæans,

and sent to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made themselves a prey to dogs and every fowl—such was the will of Zeus—after that day when first Atrides, king of men, and divine Achilles, quarrelled and were parted.

[56]
Bateman,
C. W.
  c. 1895 London, J. Cornish

Goddess, sing the destroying wrath of Achilles, Peleus' son, which brought woes unnumbered on the Achæans,

and sent down to Hades many brave spirits of heroes, while it consigned their corses a prey to the dogs, and to all manner of birds—and thus the will of Zeus was being fulfilled—from what time Atreidês, Lord of men, and Godlike Achilles, having quarrelled, were first divided.

[39]
Mongan, R.   c. 1895      
Butler,
Samuel
1835–1902,
novelist, essayist, critic
1898 London, Longmans, Green[57]

Sing, O goddess, the anger of Achilles son of Peleus, that brought countless ills upon the Achaeans.

Many a brave soul did it send hurrying down to Hades, and many a hero did it yield a prey to dogs and vultures, for so were the counsels of Jove fulfilled from the day on which the son of Atreus, king of men, and great Achilles, first fell out with one another.

[58]

Early 20th century (1901–1925)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Tibbetts,
E. A.
  1907 Boston, R.G. Badges    
Blakeney,
E. H.
1869–1955,
educator, classicist, poet
1909–13 London, G. Bell and Sons    
Lewis,
Arthur Garner
  1911 New York, Baker & Taylor    
Murray,
Augustus Taber
1866–1940,
American professor of classics
1924–5 Cambridge & London, Harvard & Heinemann

The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought the countless woes upon the Achaeans,

and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, from the time when first they parted in strife Atreus' son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.

[59]

Early middle 20th century (1926–1950)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Murison,
A. F.
1847–1934,
Professor of Roman Law, translator, classicist
1933 London, Longmans Green    
Marris,
Sir William S.
1873–1945,
governor, British Raj
1934 Oxford    
Rouse,
William Henry Denham
1863–1950,
Pedagogist of classical studies
1938 London, T. Nelson & Sons

An angry man—there is my story: the bitter rancour of Achillês, prince of the house of Peleus, which brought a thousand troubles upon the Achaian host.

Many a strong soul it sent down to Hadês, and left the heroes themselves a prey to dogs and carrion birds, while the will of God moved on to fulfillment.

It began first of all with the quarrel between my lord King Agamemnon of Atreus' line and the Prince Achillês.

[60]
Smith,
R. [James Robinson]
1888–1964,
Classicist, translator, poet[61]
1938 London, Grafton    
Smith, William Benjamin 1850–1934,
American professor of mathematics
1944 New York, Macmillan    
Miller, Walter 1864–1949,
American professor of classics, archaeologist
Rieu,
Emile Victor
1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
1950 Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin

The Wrath of Achilles is my theme, that fatal wrath which, in fulfillment of the will of Zeus, brought the Achaeans so much suffering and sent the gallant souls of many noblemen to Hades

 
Chase, Alsten Hurd 1906–1994,
American chairman of preparatory school classics department[62]
1950 Boston, Little Brown

Sing, O Goddess, of the wrath of Peleus' son Achilles, the deadly wrath that brought upon the Achaeans countless woes

and sent many mighty souls of heroes down to the house of Death and made their bodies prey for dogs and all the birds, as the will of Zeus was done, from the day when first the son of Atreus, king of men, and godlike Achilles parted in strife.

Perry, William G. 1913–1998,
Psychologist, professor of education, classicist[63]

Late middle 20th century (1951–1975)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Lattimore,
Richmond
1906–1984,
poet, translator
1951 Chicago, University Chicago Press[64]

Sing, goddess, the anger of Peleus' son Achilleus
and its devastation, which put pains thousandfold upon the Achaians,

hurled in their multitudes to the house of Hades strong souls
of heroes, but gave their bodies to be the delicate feasting
of dogs, of all birds, and the will of Zeus was accomplished
since that time when first there stood in division of conflict
Atreus' son the lord of men and brilliant Achilleus.

[65]
Andrew, S. O. [Samuel Ogden] 1868–1952,
headmaster, classicist
[66][67]
1955 London, J. M. Dent & Sons
Oakley, Michael J.
Graves,
Robert
1895–1985,
Professor of Poetry, translator, novelist
1959 New York, Doubleday and London, Cassell

Sing, MOUNTAIN GODDESS, sing through me
That anger which most ruinously

Inflamed Achilles, Peleus' son
And which, before the tale was done
Had glutted Hell with champions—bold,
Stern spirits by the thousandfold;
Ravens and dogs their corpses ate
For thus did ZEUS, who watched their fate,
See his resolve, first taken when
Proud Agamemnon, king of men,
An insult on Achilles cast,
Achieve accomplishment at last.

[68]
Rees,
Ennis
1925–2009,
American Professor of English, poet, translator[69]
1963 New York, Random House

Sing, O goddess, the ruinous wrath of Achilles,
Son of Peleus, the terrible curse that brought

Unnumbered woes upon the Achaeans and hurled
To Hades so many heroic souls, leaving
Their bodies the prey of dogs and carrion birds
The will of Zeus was done from the moment they quarreled,
Agamemon, son Atreus, and godlike Achilles.

[68]
Fitzgerald,
Robert
1910–1985,
American Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, poet, critic, translator
1974 New York, Doubleday

Anger be now your song, immortal one,
Akhilleus' anger, doomed and ruinous,

that caused the Akhaians loss on bitter loss
and crowded brave souls into the undergloom,
leaving so many dead men—carrion
for dogs and birds; and the will of Zeus was done.
Begin it when the two men first contending
broke with one another—
                                                  the Lord Marshall
Agamémnon, Atreus' son, and Prince Akhilleus.

[70]

Late 20th century (1976–2000)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Hull,
Denison Bingham
1897–1988,
American classicist[71][72]
1982  
Hammond,
Martin
born 1944,
Headmaster, classicist
1987 Harmondsworth Middlesex, Penguin[73]

Sing, goddess, of the anger of Achilleus, son of Peleus, the accursed anger which brought uncounted anguish on the Achaians

and hurled down to Hades many mighty souls of heroes, making their bodies the prey to dogs and the birds' feasting: and this was the working of Zeus' will. Sing from the time of the first quarrel which divided Atreus' son, the lord of men, and godlike Achilleus.

[74]
Fagles,
Robert
1933–2008,
American professor of English, poet
1990 New York, Viking/Penguin

Rage—Goddess, sing the rage of Peleus' son Achilles,
murderous, doomed, that cost the Achaeans countless losses,

hurling down to the House of Death so many sturdy souls,
great fighters' souls, but made their bodies carrion,
feasts for the dogs and birds,
and the will of Zeus was moving toward its end.
Begin, Muse, when the two first broke and clashed,
Agamemnon lord of men and brilliant Achilles.

[75]
Reck,
Michael
1928–1993,
Poet, classicist, orientalist[76]
1990 New York, Harper Collins

Sing, Goddess, Achilles' maniac rage:
ruinous thing! it roused a thousand sorrows

and hurled many souls of mighty warriors
to Hades, made their bodies food to dogs
and carrion birds—as Zeus's will foredoomed—
from the time relentless strife came between
Atreus's son, king, and brave Achilles.

[77]
Lombardo,
Stanley
born 1943,
American Professor of Classics
1997 Indianapolis, Hackett

Rage:
            Sing, Goddess, Achilles' rage,
Black and murderous, that cost the Greeks

Incalculable pain, pitched countless souls
Of heroes into Hades' dark,
And left their bodies to rot as feasts
For dogs and birds, as Zeus' will was done.
   Begin with the clash between Agamemnon—
The Greek warlord—and godlike Achilles.

[78]

21st century[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Johnston,
Ian
[79]
Canadian academic 2002[80]

Sing, Goddess, sing of the rage of Achilles, son of Peleus—
that murderous anger which condemned Achaeans

to countless agonies and threw many warrior souls
deep into Hades, leaving their dead bodies
carrion food for dogs and birds—
all in fulfillment of the will of Zeus.

Start at the point where Agamemnon, son of Atreus,
that king of men, quarrelled with noble Achilles.

[3]
Rieu,
Emile Victor
(posthumously revised by Rieu, D. C. H. and Jones, Peter V.)
1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
2003 Penguin Books

Anger—sing, goddess, the anger of Achilles son of Peleus, that accursed anger, which brought the Greeks endless sufferings

and sent the mighty souls of many warriors to Hades, leaving their bodies as carrion for the dogs and a feast for the birds; and Zeus' purpose was fulfilled. It all began when Agamemnon lord of men and godlike Achilles quarrelled and parted.

[81]
Merrill,
Rodney
American classicist[82] 2007 University of Michigan Press

Sing now, goddess, the wrath of Achilles the scion of Peleus,
ruinous rage which brought the Achaians uncounted afflictions;

many the powerful souls it sent to the dwelling of Hades,
those of the heroes, and spoil for the dogs it made of their bodies,
plunder for all of the birds, and the purpose of Zeus was accomplished—
sing from the time when first stood hostile, starting the conflict,
Atreus' scion, the lord of the people, and noble Achilles.

[83]
Jordan,
Herbert
born 1938,
American lawyer, translator[84]
2008 University of Oklahoma Press

Sing, goddess, of Peleus' son Achilles' anger,
ruinous, that caused the Greeks untold ordeals,

consigned to Hades countless valiant souls,
heroes, and left their bodies prey for dogs
or feasts for vulures. Zeus's will was done
from when those two first quarreled and split apart,
the king, Agememnon, and matchless Achilles.

[85]
Kline, Anthony S. born 1947,
translator
2009

Goddess, sing me the anger, of Achilles Peleus' son, that fatal anger that brought countless sorrows on the Greeks,

and sent many valiant souls of warriors down to Hades, leaving their bodies as spoil for dogs and carrion birds: for thus was the will of Zeus brought to fulfilment. Sing of it from the moment when Agamemnon, Atreus' son, that king of men, parted in wrath from noble Achilles.

[86]
Mitchell,
Stephen
born 1943,
American poet, translator
2011 Simon & Schuster

The rage of Achilles—sing it now, goddess, sing through me
the deadly rage that caused the Achaeans such grief

and hurled down to Hades the souls of so many fighters,
leaving their naked flesh to be eaten by dogs
and carrion birds, as the will of Zeus was accomplished.
Begin at the time when bitter words first divided
that king of men, Agamemnon, and godlike Achilles.

[87]
Verity,
Anthony
born 1939,
classical scholar
2011 Oxford University Press

Sing, goddess, the anger of Achilles, Peleus' son,
the accursed anger which brought the Achaeans countless

agonies and hurled many mighty shades of heroes into Hades,
causing them to become the prey of dogs and
all kinds of birds; and the plan of Zeus was fulfilled.
Sing from the time the two men were first divided in strife—
Atreus' son, lord of men, and glorious Achilles.

[88]
McCrorie, Edward born 1936, American poet and classicist 2012 The Johns Hopkins University Press

Sing of rage, Goddess, that bane of Akhilleus,
Peleus' son, which caused untold pain for Akhaians,

sent down throngs of powerful spirits to Aides,
war-chiefs rendered the prize of dogs and every
sort of bird. So the plan of Zeus was accomplished
right from the start when two men parted in anger—
Atreus' son, ruler of men, and godlike Akhilleus.

[89]
Oswald,
Alice
born 1966 British poet, won T. S. Eliot Prize in 2002[90] 2012 W. W. Norton & Company  
Powell,
Barry B.
born 1942,
American poet, classicist, translator
2013 Oxford University Press

The rage sing, O goddess, of Achilles the son of Peleus,
the destructive anger that brought ten-thousand pains to the

Achaeans and sent many brave souls of fighting men to the house
of Hades and made their bodies a feast for dogs
and all kinds of birds. For such was the will of Zeus.

Sing the story from the time when Agamemnon, the son
of Atreus, and godlike Achilles first stood apart in contention.

[91]
Alexander, Caroline born 1956, American classicist 2015 Ecco Press

Wrath—sing, goddess, of the ruinous wrath of Peleus' son Achilles,
that inflicted woes without number upon the Achaeans,

hurled forth to Hades many strong souls of warriors
and rendered their bodies prey for the dogs,
for all birds, and the will of Zeus was accomplished;
sing from when they two first stood in conflict—
Atreus' son, lord of men, and godlike Achilles.

[92]
Blakely, Ralph E. 2015 Forge Books

Sing, goddess, of the wrath of Achilles Peleusson, the ruinous wrath that brought immense pain to the Acheans

and propelled many valiant souls of heroes down to Hades, and made them pickings for dogs and birds of all kinds, that the plan of Zeus might be brought to completion. Tell why they were first separated in quarreling, the son of Atreus, the Supreme Commander—Agamemnon—and noble Achilles.

[93]
Green, Peter born 1924, British classicist 2015 University of California Press

Wrath, goddess, sing of Achilles Pēleus' son's
calamitous wrath, which hit the Achaians with countless ills—

many the valiant souls it saw off down to Hādēs,
souls of heroes, their selves left as carrion for dogs
and all birds of prey, and the plan of Zeus was fulfilled—
from the first moment those two men parted in fury,
Atreus' son, king of men, and the godlike Achilles.

[94]

Odyssey[edit]

Reference text[edit]

Poet Provenance Proemic verse R
Homer c. 8th century BC
Greek poet
Aeolis
Ancient Greek:

ἄνδρα μοι ἔννεπε, μοῦσα, πολύτροπον, ὃς μάλα πολλὰ
πλάγχθη, ἐπεὶ Τροίης ἱερὸν πτολίεθρον ἔπερσεν:

πολλῶν δ᾽ ἀνθρώπων ἴδεν ἄστεα καὶ νόον ἔγνω,
πολλὰ δ᾽ ὅ γ᾽ ἐν πόντῳ πάθεν ἄλγεα ὃν κατὰ θυμόν,
ἀρνύμενος ἥν τε ψυχὴν καὶ νόστον ἑταίρων.
ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ὣς ἑτάρους ἐρρύσατο, ἱέμενός περ:
αὐτῶν γὰρ σφετέρῃσιν ἀτασθαλίῃσιν ὄλοντο,
νήπιοι, οἳ κατὰ βοῦς Ὑπερίονος Ἠελίοιο
ἤσθιον: αὐτὰρ ὁ τοῖσιν ἀφείλετο νόστιμον ἦμαρ.
τῶν ἁμόθεν γε, θεά, θύγατερ Διός, εἰπὲ καὶ ἡμῖν.

Romanization:

andra moi ennepe, mousa, polytropon, hos mala polla
planchthē, epei troiēs hieron ptoliethron epersen:
pollōn d' anthrōpōn iden astea kai noon egnō,
polla d' ho g' en pontō pathen algea hon kata thymon,
arnymenos hēn te psychēn kai noston hetairōn.
all' oud' hōs hetarous errysato, hiemenos per:
autōn gar spheterēsin atasthaliēsin olonto,
nēpioi, ohi kata bous Hyperionos Ēelioio
ēsthion: autar ho toisin apheileto nostimon ēmar.
tōn hamothen ge, thea, thygater Dios, eipe kai hēmin.

[95]

17th century (1615–1700)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Chapman,
George
1559–1634,
dramatist, poet, classicist
1615 London, Rich. Field for Nathaniell Butter

The man, O Muse, inform, that many a way
Wound with his wisdom to his wished stay;

That wandered wondrous far, when he the town
Of sacred Troy had sack'd and shivered down;
The cities of a world of nations,
With all their manners, minds, and fashions,
He saw and knew; at sea felt many woes,
Much care sustained, to save from overthrows
Himself and friends in their retreat for home;
But so their fates he could not overcome,
Though much he thirsted it. O men unwise,
They perish'd by their own impieties,
That in their hunger's rapine would not shun
The oxen of the lofty-going Sun,
Who therefore from their eyes the day bereft
Of safe return. These acts, in some part left,
Tell us, as others, deified Seed of Jove.

[96]
Ogilby,
John
1600–1676,
cartographer, publisher, translator
1665 London, Roycroft

That prudent Hero's wandering, Muse, rehearse,
Who (Troy b'ing sack'd) coasting the Universe,

Saw many Cities, and their various Modes;
Much suffering, tost by Storms on raging Floods,
His Friends conducting to their Native Coast:
But all in vain, for he his Navy lost,
And they their Lives, prophanely feasting on
Herds consecrated to the glorious Sun;
Who much incens'd obstructed so their way,
They ne'er return'd : Jove's Daughter this display.

[97]
Hobbes,
Thomas
1588–1679,
acclaimed philosopher, etc.
1675 London, W. Crook

Tell me, O Muse, th’ adventures of the man
That having sack’d the sacred town of Troy,

Wander’d so long at sea; what course he ran
By winds and tempests driven from his way:
That saw the cities, and the fashions knew
Of many men, but suffer’d grievous pain
To save his own life, and bring home his crew;
Though for his crew, all he could do was vain,
They lost themselves by their own insolence,
Feeding, like fools, on the Sun’s sacred kine;
Which did the splendid deity incense
To their dire fate. Begin, O Muse divine.

[98]

Early 18th century (1701–1750)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Pope,
Alexander
(with William Broome and Elijah Fenton)
1688–1744,
poet
1725

The man for wisdom’s various arts renown’d,
Long exercised in woes, O Muse! resound;

Who, when his arms had wrought the destined fall
Of sacred Troy, and razed her heaven-built wall,
Wandering from clime to clime, observant stray’d,
Their manners noted, and their states survey’d,
On stormy seas unnumber’d toils he bore,
Safe with his friends to gain his natal shore:
Vain toils! their impious folly dared to prey
On herds devoted to the god of day;
The god vindictive doom’d them never more
(Ah, men unbless’d!) to touch that natal shore.
Oh, snatch some portion of these acts from fate,
Celestial Muse! and to our world relate.

[100]

Late 18th century (1751–1800)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Cowper,
William
1731–1800,
poet and hymnodist
1791

Muse make the man thy theme, for shrewdness famed
And genius versatile, who far and wide

A Wand’rer, after Ilium overthrown,
Discover’d various cities, and the mind
And manners learn’d of men, in lands remote.
He num’rous woes on Ocean toss’d, endured,
Anxious to save himself, and to conduct
His followers to their home; yet all his care
Preserved them not; they perish’d self-destroy’d
By their own fault; infatuate! who devoured
The oxen of the all-o’erseeing Sun,
And, punish’d for that crime, return’d no more.
Daughter divine of Jove, these things record,
As it may please thee, even in our ears.

[101]

Early 19th century (1801–1850)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Cary,
H. F.
? (“Graduate of Oxford”)
1772–1844,
author, translator
1823 London, Whittaker

O Muse, inspire me to tell of the crafty
man, who wandered very much after he

had brought to destruction the sacred
city of Tioy, and saw the cities of many
men, and became acquainted with their
disposition. He suffered many griefs in
his mind on the sea, to preserve his own
life, and to obtain a return for his
companions; but not even thus, although
anxious, did he save his companions: for
they perished by their own wickedness,
fools who consumed the cattle of the
Sun who journeys above; but he
deprived them of their return. O
Goddess, daughter of Jove, relate even
to us some of these things at least.

[102]
Sotheby,
William
1757–1833,
poet, translator
1834 London, John Murray

Muse! sing the Man by long experience tried,
Who, fertile in resources, wander'd wide,

And when Troy's sacred walls in dust were laid,
Men's varying moods and many a realm survey'd.
He much endured on ocean's stormy wave,
Intent his followers, and himself to save,
In vain:—they perish'd by their guilt undone;
Fools! who devour'd the bullocks of the Sun—
The God, in vengeance for his cattle slain,
In their return destroy'd them on the main.
Daughter of Jove! deign thou to us disclose,
Celestial Muse, a portion of their woes.

[103]

Late middle 19th century (1851–1875)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Buckley,
Theodore Alois
1825–1856,
translator
1851 London, H. G. Bohn

O Muse, sing to me of the man full of
resources, who wandered very much

after he had destroyed the sacred city
of Troy, and saw the cities of many
men, and learned their manners. Many
griefs also in his mind did he suffer on
the sea, although seeking to preserve
his own life, and the return of his
companions; but not even thus,
although anxious, did he extricate his
companions : for they perished by
their own infatuation, fools! who
devoured the oxen of the Sun who
journeys on high; but he deprived
them of their return. O goddess,
daughter of Jove, relate to us also
some of these things.

[104]
Barter,
William G. T., Esq.
1808–1871,
barrister
[32][33]
1862,
in part
London, Bell and Daldy

Sing me, O Muse, that all-experienced Man,
Who, after he Troy's sacred town o'erthrew,

Did tossing wander much, and cities scan
Of men a many, and their genius knew;
Woes manifold by sea he suffer'd too
While life and friends' return he 'd fain have won.
Nathless he rescued not his comrades, who
By their own wilful folly were undone;
The fools! that ate the beeves of the o'ergoing Sun.
 
And from them verily he took away
The day of their return. These things to me,
Daughter of Zeus, O goddess, somewhat say.

[105]
Alford,
Henry
1810–1871,
theologian, textual critic, scholar, poet, hymnodist
1861 London, Longman, Green, Longman, and Robert

Tell of the man, thou Muse, much versed, who widely
Wandered, when he had sacked Troy’s sacred fortress;

Many men’s town he saw, and knew their manners;
Many the woes he suffered on the ocean,
To win his life, and safety for his comrades.
But them he might not rescue, though he loved them;
For they were slain amidst their impious daring,
Fools, who the cattle of the mighty Sun-god
Devoured,—and He cut short their homeward journey.
Of all this, Goddess, what thou wilt, inform us.

[106]
Worsley,
Philip Stanhope
1835–1866,
poet
1861–2 Edinburgh, W. Blackwood & Sons

Sing me. O Muse, that hero wandering,
Who of men's minds did much experience reap,

And knew the citied realms of many a king,
Even from the hour he smote the Trojan keep.
Also a weight of sorrows in the deep,
Brooding he bore, in earnest hope to save,
'Mid hard emprise and labour all to keep,
Himself and comrades from a watery grave —
Whom yet he rescued not with zeal nor yeareings brave;
For they were slain in their own foolishness.
 
Self-blinded, feasting on Hyperion's kine.
He, the great Sun, in vengeance merciless,
Wroth for the slaughter of his herds divine,
Did bend their fortunes to a stern decline.
And raze out wholly their returning day
With disadventure and destroying tyne —
These even to me, who hearken as I may,
Great goddess, child of Zeus, unfold in verse, I pray!

[107]
Giles,
Rev. Dr. J. A. [John Allen]
1808–1884,
headmaster, scholar, prolific author, clergyman[28]
1862–77  

Εννεπε declare μοιI to me, Мουσα Muse,
ανδρα the man πολυτροπον of many

fortunes, ός whoπλαγχθη wandered μαλα
πολλα very much, επει when επερσεν he
had destroyed ιερον πτολιεθρον the
sacred city Τροιης of Troy: ιδε δε and saw
αστεα towns και and εγνων learnt νοον
the mood πολλων ανθρωπων of many
men, πολλα δε αλγεα but many sorrows
όγε he indeed παθε suffered όν κατα
θυμον in his soul, αρνυμενος while
grasping ήν τε ψυχην both his own life και
and νοστον the return έταιρων of his
companions. Αλλα but ουδε not even ώς
thus ερρυσατο did he save έταρους his
companions ίεμενος περ though bent
upon it: ολοντο γαρ for they perished
σφετερησιν ατασσθαλιησι by their own
phrensies, νηπιοι fools, όι who κατα
ησθιον ate up βους the oxen Ήελιοιο of
the SunΎπερινος who rolls above us:
αυταρ but ό he αφειλετο took away τοισι
from them νοστιμον ημαρ the day of their
return: των of these things άμοθεν γε from
whatever source, θεα O goddess, θυγατερ
daughter Διος of Jupiter, ειπε tell και ημιν
to us also.

[108]
Norgate,
T. S. [Thomas Starling, Jr.]
1807–1893,
clergyman[35]
1862 London, Williams and Margate

The travelled Man of many a turn,—driven far,
Far wandering, when he had sacked Troy’s sacred Town;

Tell me, O Muse, his tale; how too he conned
The manners of mankind, and visited
Full many a City, and how on the deep he suffered
Many a heart-pang, striving to secure
His own and comrades’ lives and safe return,
Yet them he rescued not, howe’er desirous;
For by their own blind folly they all perished:
Fools that they were! to eat the Sun-god’s herds;
So, Hyperion, he who Walks above,
Bereft them of their day of home-return!
Whereof, from whatsoever source, O goddess,
Daughter of Zeus, vouchsafe to tell e’en Us!—

[109]
Musgrave,
George
1798–1883,
clergyman, scholar, writer[110]
1865 London, Bell & Daldy

Tell me, O Muse, declare to me that man
Tost to and fro by fate, who, when his arms

Had laid Troy’s holy city in the dust,
Far wand’ring roam’d on many a tribe of men
To bend his gaze, their minds and thoughts to learn.
Grief upon grief encounter’d he, when, borne
On ocean-waves, his life he carried off
A prize from perils rescued, and would fain
Have homeward led his brethren in arms;
But, not to him,—not to his anxious zeal
Was giv’n their rescue; destin’d as they were
In their mad arrogance to perish; fools!
That dared to seize, and to consume for food,
Hyperion’s herds, the oxen of the Sun
That walks on high, by whose behest the day
Of their return was evermore denied.
And thou, too, goddess daughter of great Jove,
The theme pursue, and thine own record bear!

[111]
Bigge-Wither,
Rev. Lovelace
  1869 London, James Parker and Co.

Tell me, oh Muse, of-the-many-sided man,
Who wandered far and wide full sore bestead,

When he had razed the mighty town of Troy:
And-of-many-a-race of human-kind he saw
The cities; and he learned their mind and ways :
And on the deep full many-a-woe he bore
In his own hosom, while he strove to save
His proper life, and-his-comrades’ home-return.
But them not so he saved with all his zeal;
For they in their own wilful folly perished:
Infatuates! to devour Hyperion’s kine!
So he bereft them of their home-return.
Of these things, Goddess, where thou wilt beginning,
Daughter of Zeus, the tale tell e’en to us!

[112]
Edginton,
G. W. [George William]
Physician[113] 1869 London, Longman, Green, Reader, and Dyer

Sing, Muse, of that deep man, who wander'd much,
 When he had raz'd the walls of sacred Troy,

And many towns saw, many customs learnt,
 And many griefs endur'd upon the sea;
 Anxious to save his comrades and himself:
 But them he sav'd not, though desiring it:
 But through their rash deeds perish'd of that band
Those foolish men, who ate Apollo's kine:
That god depriv'd them of return's glad day.
Of these men, goddess, tell us too in part!

[114]
Bryant,
William Cullen
1794–1878,
American poet, Evening Post editor
1871 Boston, Houghton, Fields Osgood

Tell me, 0 Muse, of that sagacious man
Who, having overthrown the sacred town

Of Ilium, wandered far and visited
The capitals of many notians, learned
The customs of their dwellers, and endured
Great suffering on the deep; his life was oft
In peril, as he labored to bring back
His comrades to their homes. He saved them not,
Though earnestly he strove; for they perished all
Through their own folly ; for they banqueted,
Madmen! upon the oxen of the Sun, —
The all-o'erlooking Sun, who cut them off,
From their return. O goddess, virgin child
Of Jove, relate some'part of this to me.

[115]

Late 19th century (1876–1900)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Barnard,
Mordaunt Roger
1828–1906,
clergyman, translator
1876 London, Williams and Margate

Muse! tell me of the man with much resource,
Who wandered far, when sacred Troy he sacked;

Saw towns of many men, learned all they knew,
Winning his own life and his friends’ return.
Yet them he saved not, earnest though he was,
For by their own temerity they died.
Fools! who devoured the oxen of the sun,
Who from them took the day of their return.
[Muse, child of Jove! from some source tell us this.]

[116]
Merry, William Walter 1835–1918,
Oxford classicist and clergyman
1876 Oxford, Clarendon

  — Note: not a translation, per se, but the
Greek text with commentary

[117]
Riddell, James 1823–1866,
Oxford classicist[118]
Mongan,
Roscoe
  1879–80 London, James Cornish & Sons

O Muse! inspire me to tell of the man,
skilled in sxpedients, who wandered

very much after he had brought to
destruction the sacred city of Troy,
and saw the cities of many men, and
become acquainted with their
dispositions. And he, indeed, on the
deep, endured in bis mind many
sufferings, whilst endeavoring to
secure his own life and the return of
his companions; but not even thus,
although anxious, did he save his
companions : for they perished by
their own infatuation; foolish [men
that they were], who did eat up the
Sun who journeys above; but he
deprived them of their return [the
day of return]. Of these events,
arising from whatever cause, O
goddess! daughter of Jove, inform
us also.

[119]
Butcher,
Samuel Henry
1850–1910,
Anglo-Irish professor of classics
1879 London, Macmillan

Tell me, Muse, of that man, so ready at need,
who wandered far and wide, after he had sacked

the sacred citadel of Troy, and many were the
men whose towns he saw and whose mind he
learnt, yea, and many the woes he suffered in
his heart upon the deep, striving to win his own
life and the return of his company. Nay, but even
so he saved not his company, though he desired
it sore. For through the blindness of their own
hearts they perished, fools, who devoured the
oxen of Helios Hyperion: but the god took from
them their day of returning. Of these things,
goddess, daughter of Zeus, whencesoever thou
hast heard thereof, declare thou even unto us.

[120]
Lang, Andrew 1844–1912,
Scots poet, historian, critic, folk tales collector, etc.
Schomberg,
G. A.
1821–1907,
British Raj army general[121]
1879–82 London, J. Murray

Sing Muse the hero versatile, who roved
So far, so long, after he overthrew

Troy's holy citadel ; of many men
He saw the cities, and their manners learned;
And woes he suffered on the deep; he strove
To win his comrades' lives, and safe return.
But all his strivings failed to rescue them:
They perished for their witless sacrilege,
Who ate the oxen of Hyperion Sun;
Hence nevermore saw they their native land.
Daughter of Jove, help us to tell the tale.

[122]
Du Cane,
Sir Charles
1825–1889,
governor, M. P.
1880 Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons

Muse! of that hero versatile indite to me the song,
Doomed, when he sacred Troy had sacked, to wander far and long.

Who saw the towns of many men, much knowledge did obtain
Anent their ways, and with much woe was heart-wrung on the main,
Seeking his own life to preserve, his friends' return to gain.
E'en so he rescued not his friends, though eagerly he strove,
For them their own infatuate deeds to direful ending drove.
Fools, who the sun-god's sacred beeves dared madly to devour,
Doomed by his anger ne'er to see of glad return the hour.
Sing, goddess, child of mighty Jove, of these events, I pray,
And from what starting-point thou wilt begin with me the lay.

[123]
Way,
Arthur Sanders
(Avia)
1847–1930,
Australian classicist, headmaster
1880 London, Macmillan

The Hero of craft-renown, O Song-goddess, chant me his fame,
Who, when low he had laid Troy town, unto many a far land came,

And many a city beheld he, and knew the hearts of their folk,
And by woes of the sea was unquelled, o'er the rock of his spirit that broke,
When he fain would won for a prey his life, and his friends' return,
Yet never they saw that day, howsoever his heart might yearn,
But they perished every one, by their own mad deeds did they fall,
For they slaughtered the kine of the Sun, and devoured them — fools were they all.
So the God in his wrath took awav their day of return for their guilt.
[(1903 edition): So in anger their home-coming day did the God take away for their guilt.]
O Goddess, inspire my lay, with their tale; take it up as thou wilt.

[124][125]
Hayman,
Henry
1823–1904,
translator, clergyman[126]
1882 London

  — Note: not a translation, per se, but the
Greek text with "marginal references, various
readings, notes and appendices."

[127]
Hamilton,
Sidney G.
  1883 London, Macmillan

  — Note: Not a translation, per se,
but a commentary. Edition inclusive
of Books 11 – 24

[128]
Green,
W.C.
  1884  

Sing, goddess Muse, the wrath of Peleus' son,
The wrath of Achilleus with ruin fraught,

That to Achaians brought unnumbered woes,
And many mighty souls of heroes hurled
To Hades' home but gave themselves a prey
To dogs and every fowl. For thus its end
The will of Zeus worked out, since at the first
Parted in strife those twain, the king of men
Atrides and the godlike Achileus.

[29]
Palmer,
George Herbert
1842–1933,
American professor, philosopher, author
1884 Boston & New York, Houghton Mifflin

Speak to me, Muse, of the adventurous man who wandered long after he sacked the sacred

citadel of Troy. Many the men whose towns he

saw, whose ways he proved ; and many a pang he bore in his own breast at sea while struggling for his' life and his men's safe return. Yet even so, by all his zeal, he did not save his men; for through their own perversity they perished— fools! who devoured the kine of the exhalted Sun. Wherefore he took away the day of their return. Of this, O goddess, daughter of Zeus,

beginning where thou wilt, speak to us also.

[129]
Morris,
William
1834–1896,
poet, author, artist
1887 London, Reeves & Turner

Tell me, O Muse, of the Shifty, the man who wandered afar.
After the Holy Burg, Troy town, he had wasted with war;

He saw the towns of menfolk, and the mind of men did he learn;
As he warded his life in the world, and his fellow-farers' return,
Many a grief of heart on the deep-sea flood he bore,
Nor yet might he save his fellows, for all that he longed for it sore
They died of their own soul's folly, for witless as they were
They ate up the beasts of the Sun, the Rider of the air,
And he took away from them all their dear returning day;
O goddess, O daughter of Zeus, from whencesoever ye may,
Gather the tale, and tell it, yea even to us at the last!

[130]
Howland,
G. [George]
1824–1892,
American educator, author, translator[51]
1891 New York

Tell me, O Muse, of the man of many resources, who many
Ills was made to endure, when he Troy's sacred city had wasted;

Many the people whose cities he saw, and learned of their customs,
Many also the sorrows he suffered at sea in his spirit,
Striving to save his own life and secure the return of his comrades
But not thus his comrades he saved, however he wished it,
For by their own presumptuous deeds they foolishly perished:
Madmen they, who devoured the sun god, Hyperion's oxen,
And in revenge he took from them their day of returning.
Of these things, thou goddess, daughter of Jove, tell us also.

[131]
Cordery,
John Graham
1833–1900,
civil servant, British Raj[53]
1897 London, Methuen

Sing through my lips, O Goddess, sing the man
Resourceful, who, storm-buffeted far and wide,

>

After despoiling of Troy's sacred tower,
Beheld the cities of mankind, and knew
Their various temper! Many on the sea
The sorrows in his inmost heart he bore
For rescue of his comrades and his life;
Those not for all his effort might he save;
Fools, of their own perversities they fell,
Daring consume the cattle of the Sun
Hyperion, who bereft them of return!
That we too may have knowledge, sing these things,
Daughter of Zeus, beginning whence thou wilt!

[132]
Butler,
Samuel
1835–1902,
novelist, essayist, critic
1900 London, Longmans, Green[133]

Tell me, O muse, of that ingenious hero who
travelled far and wide after he had sacked the

famous town of Troy. Many cities did he visit,
and many were the nations with whose
manners and customs he was acquainted;
moreover he suffered much by sea while
trying to save his own life and bring his
men safely home; but do what he might
he could not save his men, for they
perished through their own sheer folly
in eating the cattle of the Sun-god
Hyperion; so the god prevented them
from ever reaching home. Tell me, too, about
all these things, O daughter of Jove, from
whatsoever source you may know them.

[134]

Early 20th century (1901–1925)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Monro,
David Binning
1836–1905,
Scots anatomy professor, Homerist
1901 Oxford, Clarendon

Note: translation inclusive of Books 13–24

[135]
Mackail,
John William
1859–1945,
Oxford Professor of Poetry
1903–10 London, John Murray

O Muse, instruct me of the man who drew
His changeful course through wanderings not a few

After he sacked the holy town of Troy,
And saw the cities and the counsel knew

Of many men, and many a time at sea
Within his heart he bore calamity,
While his own life he laboured to redeem
And bring his fellows back from jeopardy.

Yet not his fellows thus from death he won,
Fain as he was to save them: who undone
By their own hearts' infatuation died,
Fools, that devoured the oxen of the Sun,

Hyperion: and therefore he the day
Of their returning homeward reft away.
Goddess, God's daughter, grant that now thereof
We too may hear, such portion as we may.

[136]
Cotterill,
Henry Bernard
1846–1924,
essayist, translator[137][138]
1911 Boston, D. Estes/Harrap

Sing, O Muse, of the man so wary and wise, who in far lands
Wandered whenas he had wasted the sacred town of the Trojans.

Many a people he saw and beheld their cities and customs,
Many a woe he endured in his heart as he tossed on the ocean,
Striving to win him his life and to bring home safely his comrades.
Ah but he rescued them not, those comrades, much as he wished it.
Ruined by their own act of infatuate madness they perished,
Fools that they were—who the cows of the sun-god, lord Hyperion,
Slaughtered and ate; and he took from the men their day of returning.
Sing—whence-ever the lay—sing, Zeus-born goddess, for us too!

[139]
Murray,
Augustus Taber
1866–1940,
American professor of classics
1919 Cambridge & London, Harvard & Heinemann

Tell me, O Muse, of the man of many devices,
who wandered full many ways after he had

sacked the sacred citadel of Troy. Many
were the men whose cities he saw and
whose mind he learned, aye, and many
the woes he suffered in his heart upon
the sea, seeking to win his own life and
the return of his comrades. Yet even so
he saved not his comrades, though he
desired it sore, for through their own
blind folly they perished—fools, who
devoured the kine of Helios Hyperion;
but he took from them the day of their
returning. Of these things, goddess,
daughter of Zeus, beginning where thou
wilt, tell thou even unto us.

[140]
Caulfeild,
Francis
  1921 London, G. Bell & Sons

Sing me the Restless Man, O Muse, who roamed the world over,
When, by his wondrous guile, he had sacked Troy's sacred fortress.

Cities of various men he saw: their thoughts he discernéd.
Many a time, in the deep, his heart was melted for trouble.
Striving to win his life, and eke return for his comrades:
Yet, though he strove full sore, he could not save his companions,
For, as was meet and just, through deeds of folly they perished:
Fools ! who devoured the oxen of Him who rides in the heavens,
Helios, who, in his course, missed out their day of returning.
Yet, how they fared and died, be gracious, O Goddess, to tell us.

On page viii, Caulfeild gives the scansion in Homer's "original metre" of the third line of his translation as:

Māny a | tĩme in the | deēp [– (pause or 'cæsura')] hĩs | heārt was | mēlted for | trōublē,[141]

[141]
Marris,
Sir William S.
1873–1945,
governor, British Raj
1925 London, England, and Mysore, India, Oxford University Press

Tell me, O Muse, of that Great Traveller
Who wandered far and wide when he had sacked

The sacred town of Troy. Of many men
He saw the cities and he learned the mind;
Ay, and at heart he suffered many woes
Upon the sea, intent to save his life
And bring his comrades home. Yet even so
His men he could not save for all his efforts,
For through their own blind wilfulness they perished;
The fools! who ate up Hyperion's kine;
And he bereft them of their homing day.
Touching these things, beginning where thou wilt,
Tell even us, O goddess, child of Zeus.

 
Hiller,
Robert H.
1864–1944,
American professor of Greek[142][143]
1925 Philadelphia and Chicago, etc., John C. Winston

Tell me, O Muse, of that clever hero
who wandered far after capturing the

sacred city of Troy. For he saw the
towns and learned the ways of many
peoples. Many hardships too he
suffered on the sea while struggling
for his own life and for the safe return
of his men. Yet all his zeal did not save
his companions. They perished through
their own rashness — the fools! — because
they ate the cattle of the Sun, and he
therefore kept them from reaching
home. Tell us also of this, 0 goddess,
daughter of Zeus, beginning where
you will.

[144]

Early middle 20th century (1926–1950)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Bates,
Herbert
1868–1929,
novelist, short-story writer
1929 New York, McGraw Hill

Tell me the tale, Muse, of that man
Of many changes, he who went

Wandering so far when he had plundered
Troy’s sacred citadel. And many
The men whose cities he beheld,
Whose minds he learned to know, and many
The sorrows that his soul endured
Upon the deep the while he strove
To save himself from death and bring
His comrades home.
                                    Of these things now,
Daughter of Zeus, O goddess, tell us,
Even as thou wilt, the tale.

[145]
Lawrence,
T. E.

(T. E. Shaw)
1888–1935,
archaeological scholar, military strategist, author
1932 London, Walker, Merton, Rogers; New York, Oxford University Press
O divine poesy
Goddess-daughter of Zeus
Sustain for me

This song of the various-minded man
Who after he had plundered
The innermost citadel of hallowed Troy
Was made to stray grievously
About the coasts of men
The sport of their customs good or bad
While his heart
Through all the sea-faring
Ached in an agony to redeem himself
And bring his company safe home

Vain hope—for them
For his fellows he strove in vain
Their own witlessness cast them away
The fools
To destroy for meat
The oxen of the most exalted sun
Wherefore the Sun-God blotted out
The day of their return

Make the tale live for us
In all its many bearings

O Muse
[146]
Rouse,
William Henry Denham
1863–1950,
pedogogist of classic studies
1937 London, T. Nelson & Sons[147]

This is the story of a man, one who
was never at a loss. He had travelled

far in the world, after the sack of Troy,
the virgin fortress; he saw many cities
of men, and learnt their mind; he endured
many troubles and hardships in the
struggle to save his own life and to bring
back his men safe to their homes. He did
his best, but he could not save his
companions. For they perished by their
own madness, because they killed and ate
the cattle of Hyperion the Sun-god, and
the god took care that they should never
see home again.

[148]
Rieu,
Emile Victor
1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
1945 London & Baltimore, Penguin

The hero of the tale which I beg the
Muse to help me tell is that resourceful

man who roamed the wide world after he
had sacked the holy citadel of Troy. He
saw the cities of many peoples and he
learnt their ways. He suffered many
hardships on the high seas in his
struggles to preserve his life and bring
his comrades home. But he failed to save
those comrades, in spite of all his efforts.
It was their own sin that brought them to
their doom, for in their folly they devoured
the oxen of Hyperion the Sun, and the god
saw to it that they should never return.
This is the tale I pray the divine Muse to
unfold to us. Begin it, goddess, at whatever
point you will.

[149]
Andrew,
S. O. [Samuel Ogden]
1868–1952,
headmaster
[66][67][A]
1948 London, J. M. Dent & Sons

Tell me, O muse, of the hero fated to roam
So long and so far when Ilion's keep he had sack'd,

And the city and mind of many a people he knew,
And many a woe he endur'd on the face of the deep
To win both life for himself and his comrades' return;
Yet for all his striving he brought not his company home,
For they by their own blindness at last were stroy'd,
Fools! who ate of the sacred beeves of the Sun
And he, Hyperion, ras'd out their day of return:
Sing, then, O daughter of Zeus, that Wanderer's tale.

[150]

Late middle 20th century (1951–1975)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Lattimore,
Richmond
1906–1984,
poet, translator
1965 New York, Harper & Row[151]

Tell me, Muse, of the man of many ways,
who was driven far journeys, after he had

sacked Troy's sacred citadel. Many were
they whose cities he saw, whose minds he
learned of, many the pains he suffered in
his spirit on the wide sea, struggling for
his own life and the homecoming of his
companions. Even so he could not save
his companions, hard though he strove
to; they were destroyed by their own
wild recklessness, fools, who devoured
the oxen of Helios, the Sun God, and
he took away the day of their
homecoming. From some point here,
goddess, daughter of Zeus, speak, and
begin our story.

[152]
Rees,
Ennis
1925–2009,
American Professor of English, poet, translator[69]
1960 New York, Random House

Of that versatile man, O Muse, tell me the story,
How he wandered both long and far after sacking

The city of holy Troy. May were the towns
He saw and many the men whose minds he knew,
And many were the woes his stout heart suffered at sea
As he fought to return alive with living comrades.
Them he could not save, though much he longed to,
For through their own thoughtless greed they died -- blind fools
Who slaughtered the Sun's own cattle, Hyperion's herd,
For food, and so by him were kept from returning.
Of all these things, O Goddess, daughter of Zeus,
Beginning wherever you swish, tell even us.

[153]
[154]
Fitzgerald,
Robert
1910–1985,
American Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, poet, critic, translator
1961 New York, Doubleday

Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story
of that man skilled in all ways of contending,

the wanderer, harried for years on end,
after he plundered the stronghold
on the proud height of Troy.
                                He saw the townlands
and learned the minds of many distant men,
and weathered many bitter nights and days
in his deep heart at sea, while he fought only
to save his life, to bring his shipmates home.
But not by will nor valor could he save them,
for their own recklessness destroyed them all--
children and fools, they killed and feasted on
the cattle of Lord Hêlios, the Sun,
and he who moves all day through heaven
took from their eyes the dawn of their return.
Of these adventures, Muse, daughter of Zeus,
tell us in our time, lift up great song again.

[155]
Epps,
Preston H.
1888–1982,
American professor[156][157][B]
1965 New York, Macmillan
Cook,
Albert
1925–1998,
professor[158][C]
1967 New York, W. W. Norton

Tell me, Muse, about the man of many turns, who many
Ways wandered when he had sacked Troy's holy citadel;

He saw the cities of many men, and he knew their thought;
On the ocean he suffered many pains within his heart,
Striving for his life and his companions' return.
But he did not save his companions, though he wanted to:
They lost their own lives because of their recklessness.
The fools, they devoured the cattle of Hyperion,
The Sun, and he took away the day of their return.
Begin the tale somewhere for us also, goddess, daughter of Zeus.

[159]

Late 20th century (1976–2000)[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Hull,
Denison Bingham
1897–1988,
American classicist[71][72]
1979 Ohio University Press    
Shewring,
Walter
1906–1990,
Professor of classics, poet[160]
1980 Oxford, Oxford University Press

Goddess of song, teach me the story of a hero.
      This was the man of wide-ranging spirit who had sacked the sacred town of Troy and who wandered afterwards long and far.

Many were those cities he viewed and whose minds he came to know, many the troubles that vexed his heart as he sailed the seas, labouring to save himself and to bring his comrades home. But his comrades he could not keep from ruin, strive as he might; they perished instead by their own presumptuousness. Fools, they devoured the cattle of Hyperion, and he, the sun-god, cut off from them the day of their homecoming.
      Goddess, daughter of Zeus, to me in turn impart some knowledge of all these things, beginning where you will.

[161]
Hammond,
Martin
born 1944,
Headmaster, classicist
2000 London, Duckworth[162]

  Muse, tell me of a man – a man of much resource, who was made

to wander far and long, after he had sacked the sacred city of Troy. Many were the men whose lands he saw and came to know their thinking, many too the miseries at sea which he suffered in his heart as he sought to win his own life and the safe return of his companions. They perished through their own arrant folly – the fools, they ate the cattle of Hyperion the Sun, and he took away the day of their return.   Start the story where you will, goddess, daughter of Zeus, and share it now with us.

[163]
Mandelbaum,
Allen
born 1926,
American professor of Italian literature and of humanities, poet, translator
1990 Berkeley, University California Press

Muse, tell me of the man of many wiles,
the man who wandered many paths of exile

after he sacked Troy's sacred citadel.
He saw the cities—mapped the minds—of many;
and on the sea, his spirit suffered every
adversity—to keep his life intact,
to bring his comrades back. In that last task,
his will was firm and fast, and yet he failed:
he could not save his comrades. Fools, they foiled
themselves: they ate the oxen of the Sun,
the herd of Hélios Hypérion;
the lord of light requited their transgression—
he took away the day of their return.

Muse, tell us of these matters. Daughter of Zeus,
my starting point is any point you choose.

[164]
Rieu, Emile Victor 1887–1972,
classicist, publisher, poet
1991 London, Penguin

Tell me, Muse of that resourceful
man who was driven to wander far

and wide after he had sacked the
holy citadel of Troy. He saw the
cities of many people and he learnt
their ways. He suffered great
anguish on the high seas in his
struggles to preserve life and
bring his comrades home. But he
failed to save those comrades,
in spite of all his efforts. It
was their own transgression that
brought them to their doom, for in
their folly they devoured the oxen
of Hyperion the Sun-god and he
saw to it that they would never
return. Tell us this story,
goddess daughter of Zeus,
beginning at whatever point you
will.

[165]
posthumously revised by Rieu, D. C. H. 1916–2008,
Headmaster, classicist
posthumously revised by Jones, Peter V. Born 1942
Classicist, writer, journalist
Fagles,
Robert
1933–2008,
American professor of English, poet
1996 New York, Viking/Penguin

Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns
driven time and again off course, once he had plundered

the hallowed heights of Troy.
Many cities of men he saw and learned their minds,
many pains he suffered, heartsick on the open sea,
fighting to save his life and bring his comrades home.
But he could not save them from disaster, hard as he strove—
the recklessness of their own ways destroyed them all,
the blind fools, they devoured the cattle of the Sun
and the Sungod blotted out the day of their return.
Launch out on his story, Muse, daughter of Zeus,
start from where you will—sing for our time too.

[166]
Kemball-Cook,
Brian
1912–2002,
Headmaster, classicist[167]
1993 London, Calliope Press

Tell me, O Muse, of a man of resourceful spirit who wandered
Far, having taken by storm Troy's sacred city and sacked it.

Many the men whose cities he saw, whose thoughts he discovered;
Many the grievous troubles he suffered at sea in his spirit,
Striving to save his life and restore his friends to their homeland.
Yet he failed in the end to save his friends by his efforts.
By their folly they perished, by their own folly and blindness,
Fools, who elected to feed on great Hyperion's oxen;
So that God of the Sun denied their day of returning.
Tell us the tale, goddess, daughter of Zeus, and choose the beginning.

[168]
Dawe,
R. D.
Classicist, translator[169] 1993 Sussex, The Book Guild

Tell me, Muse, of the versatile man who was driven off course many times after he had sacked the holy citadel of Troy.

Many were the

peoples whose cities he saw, and whose minds he got to know; and at sea many were the pains he felt in his heart as he tried to secure his own life and his comrades’ return home. Even so he did not save them, much as he wanted to. Instead they perished through their own outrageous, foolish men who ate up the cattle of Hyperion the Sun; and he took from them the day of their homecoming. From some point or other, goddess, daughter of Zeus,

tell us too about these things.

[170]
Reading,
Peter
born 1946,
Poet
1994      
Lombardo,
Stanley
born 1943,
American Professor of Classics
2000 Indianapolis, Hackett

  Speak, Memory –
                                   Of the cunning hero

The wanderer, blown off course time and again
After he plundered Troy's sacred heights.
                                                           Speak
Of all the cities he saw, the minds he grasped,
The suffering deep in his heart at sea
As he struggled to survive and bring his men home
But could not save them, hard as he tried –
The fools – destroyed by their own recklessness
When they ate the oxen of Hyperion the Sun,
And that god snuffed out their day of return.
                               Of these things,
 Speak, Immortal One,
And tell the tale once more in our time.

[171]

21st century[edit]

Translator Publication Proemic verse R
Eickhoff,
R. L.
translator, poet, playwright, novelist, classicist[172] 2001 New York, T. Doherty  — Novel — [172]
Johnston,
Ian
[79]
Canadian academic 2006 Arlington, Richer Resources Publications

Muse, speak to me now of that resourceful man
who wandered far and wide after ravaging

the sacred citadel of Troy. He came to see
many people’s cities, where he learned their customs,
while on the sea his spirit suffered many torments,
as he fought to save his life and lead his comrades home.
But though he wanted to, he could not rescue them—
they all died from their own stupidity, the fools.
They feasted on the cattle of Hyperion,
god of the sun—that’s why he snatched away their chance
of getting home someday. So now, daughter of Zeus,
tell us his story, starting anywhere you wish.

[173]
Merrill,
Rodney
American classicist[82] 2002 University of Michigan Press

Tell me, Muse, of the man versatile and resourceful, who wandered
many a sea-mile after he ransacked Troy’s holy city.

Many the men whose towns he observed, whose minds he discovered,
many the pains in his heart he suffered, traversing the seaway,
fighting for his own life and a way back home for his comrades.
Not even so did he save his companions, as much as he wished to,
for by their own mad recklessness they were brought to destruction,
childish fools–they decided to eat up the cows of the High Lord,
Helios: he then took from the men their day of returning.
Even for us, holy daughter of Zeus, start there to recount this.

[82]
Kline, Anthony S. born 1947,
translator
2004

Tell me, Muse, of that man of many resources, who wandered far and wide, after sacking the holy citadel of Troy.

Many the men whose cities he saw, whose ways he learned. Many the sorrows he suffered at sea, while trying to bring himself and his friends back alive. Yet despite his wishes he failed to save them, because of their own un-wisdom, foolishly eating the cattle of Helios, the Sun, so the god denied them their return. Tell us of these things, beginning where you will, Goddess, Daughter of Zeus.

[174][175]
McCrorie,
Edward
American professor of English, classicist 2004 Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press

The man, my Muse, resourceful, driven a long way
after he sacked the holy city of Trojans:

tell me all the men’s cities he saw and the men’s minds,
how often he suffered heartfelt pain on the broad sea,
striving for life and a way back home for his war friends.
Yet he saved no friends, much as he longed to:
they lost their lives through their own reckless abandon,
fools who ate the cattle of Helios the Sun-God.
Huperion seized the day they might have arrived home.
 
Tell us, Goddess, daughter of Zeus, start in your own place.

[176]
Armitage,
Simon
born 1963,
Poet, playwright, novelist
2006 London, Faber and Faber Limited  — Verse-like radio dramatization[177] —  
Stein,
Charles
American poet, translator[178] 2008 Berkeley, North Atlantic Books

Speak through me, O Muse,
of that man of many devices

who wandered much
once he'd sacked the sacred citadel of Troy.
He saw the cities of many men
                    and knew their minds,
suffering many sorrows
in order to win back his life-soul
and the return of his companions.
In the end he failed to save them,
in spite of his longing to do so,
for through their own heedlessness they perished.
Fools--who ate the cows of Helios-Hyperion,
and the day of their return was taken from them.
Of these matters, goddess, daughter of Zeus, speak through us
beginning wherever you will.

[178]
Mitchell,
Stephen
born 1943,
American poet and anthologist
2013 Atria Paperback

Sing to me, Muse, of that endlessly cunning man
who was blown off course to the ends of the earth, in the years

after he plundered Troy. He passed through the cities
of many people and learned how they thought, and he suffered
many bitter hardships upon the high seas
as he tried to save his own life and bring his companions
back to their home. But however bravely he struggled,
he could not rescue them, fools that they were—their own
recklessness brought disaster upon them all;
they slaughtered and ate the cattle of Hélios,
so the sun god destroyed them and blotted out their homecoming.
Goddess, daughter of Zeus, begin now, wherever
you wish to, and tell the story again, for us.

[179]
Powell,
Barry B.
born 1942,
American poet, classicist, translator
2014 Oxford University Press

Sing to me of the resourceful man, O Muse, who wandered
far after he had sacked the sacred city of Troy. He saw

the cities of many men and learned their minds.
He suffered many pains on the sea in his spirit, seeking
to save his life and the homecoming of his companions.
But even so he could not save his companions, though he wanted to,
for they perished of their own folly—the fools! They ate
the cattle of Helios Hyperion, who took from them the day
of their return. Of these matters, beginning where you want,
O daughter of Zeus, tell to us.

[180]
Verity,
Anthony
born 1939
classical scholar
2017 Oxford University Press

Tell me, Muse, of the man of many turns, who was driven
far and wide after he had sacked the sacred city of Troy.

Many were the men whose cities he saw, and learnt their minds,
many the sufferings on the open sea he endured in his heart,
struggling for his own life and his companions' homecoming.
Even so he could not protect them, though he desired it,
since they perished by reason of their own recklessness,
the fools, because they ate the cattle of the Sun, Hyperion,
and he took away the day of their homecoming. Tell us, too,
goddess daughter of Zeus, starting from where you will.

[181]
Wilson,
Emily
born 1971,
British classicist, professor of classics
2017 W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Tell me about a complicated man.
Muse, tell me how he wandered and was lost

when he had wrecked the holy town of Troy,
and where he went, and who he met, the pain
he suffered in the storms at sea, and how
he worked to save his life and bring his men
back home. He failed to keep them safe; poor fools,
they ate the Sun God's cattle, and the god
kept them from home. Now goddess, child of Zeus,
tell the old story for our modern times.

[182]
Green, Peter born 1924, British classicist 2018 University of California Press

The man, Muse—tell me about that resourceful man, who wandered
far and wide, when he'd sacked Troy's sacred citadel:

many men's townships he saw, and learned their ways of thinking,
many the griefs he suffered at heart on the open sea,
battling for his own life and his comrades' homecoming. Yet
no way could he save his comrades, much though he longed to—
it was through their own blind recklessness that they perished,
the fools, for they slaughtered the cattle of Hēlios the sun god
and ate them: for that he took from them their day of returning.
Tell us this tale, goddess, child of Zeus; start anywhere in it!

[183]

Translators[edit]

P literature.svg This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Andrew was a classicist.
  2. ^ Epps taught classics and was a translator.
  3. ^ Cook's subjects were Comparative Literature, English and Classics.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]