Enhanced Imaging System
Enhanced Imaging System (EIS), officially referred to as "Enhanced Imagery System", previously known as 8X, and sometimes unofficially known as Misty 2 and KH-13, is an American reconnaissance satellite program. A derivative of the Improved Crystal satellites, EIS replaced Misty, and was intended to provide more coverage and dwell time than previous reconnaissance satellites; like Misty, it has stealth capabilities. Only one EIS satellite has been launched; USA-144, which was placed into orbit by a Titan IVB rocket on 22 May 1999.
In 1995, a Los Angeles Times article reported that the 8X program was intended as "a major upgrade to the KH-12", with a mass of as much as 20 tons, which would be used for detailed imaging with a wide field of view. The cost of the program was a subject of disagreement from some within the military at the time. By 1998, the program had been renamed Enhanced Imaging System. The Future Imagery Architecture program, which was intended to replace the Lacrosse and Improved Crystal satellites, was developed alongside EIS.
- Corona series: KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4
- KH-5 ARGON, KH-6 LANYARD
- KH-7 and KH-8 GAMBIT
- KH-9 HEXAGON "Big Bird"
- Manned Orbital Laboratory (MOL) or KH-10
- "INTELLIGENCE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000: National Imagery and Mapping Agency (House Report 106-130)". U.S. Government Printing Office. 7 May 1999.
- "National Intelligence Program FY 2010 Congressional Budget Justification: Volume IV" (PDF). National Reconnaissance Program. May 2009. p. 21.
- David Darling and David J. Darling (2003). The complete book of spaceflight. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-05649-9.
Several launches with Key Hole designations, including KH-11, KH-12, and KH-13, have taken place since 1992. ... The ninth and final KH-11 satellite was launched in 1998, after which the KH-12 program, involving satellites about the ...
- Tae-Woo Lee (2008). Military Technologies of the World. ISBN 978-0-275-99537-9.
The advancement in the KH-series resulted in the KH-13, for which little information is yet available. ...
- Thomson, Allen (8 May 1998). "8X lives on as the Enhanced Imaging System". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Thompson, Allen. "A Stealth Satellite Sourcebook" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Wade, Mark. "Improved Crystal". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Wade, Mark. "Misty". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Risen, James; Vartabedian, Ralph (1995-09-28). "U.S. Launches Costly Overhaul of Spy Satellites". Los Angeles Times.
- Allen Thomson (1995-10-07). "8X: The monster that ate the budget".