Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System
The Enhanced Spelling System (Indonesian: Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan, abbreviated EYD), also called the Perfected Spelling System (PSS), and later called the Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Indonesian: Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia Yang Disempurnakan), and latest update called simply Indonesian Spelling System (Indonesian: Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia) is the spelling system used for the Indonesian language. It is an orthography that is released in 1972 to replace the Republican Spelling System (RSS, also called the Soewandi Spelling System, SSS). The aim was greater harmonization of the Indonesian and Malay-language orthographies.
The adoption of the new EYD system, to begin on the 27th anniversary of Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1972, was announced by President Suharto on 16 August 1972. Government departments were instructed to begin using the EYD system on 1 January 1973. On 27 August 1975, the Minister of Education and Culture officially issued Minister Decree No. 0196/U/1975 of General Guideline of Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System, which provided a detailed explanation of the changes proposed in the new system and marked the official use of EYD system.
On 9 September 1987, the Minister of Education and Culture issued Minister Decree No. 0543a/U/1987 of General Guideline of Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System. This ministerial decree updated the previous spelling system and was used for 22 years until the next update was issued. On 31 July 2009, the Minister of National Education issued Minister Decree No. 46/2009 of General Guideline of Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System, which served as a new update, and the previous update was officially declared invalid.
The latest update of the Indonesian spelling system was issued on 26 November 2015 by Minister of Education and Culture decree No 50/2015. It was the first time the term of "Indonesian spelling system" was used; previously it was "Enhanced Indonesian spelling system". There were only minor changes compared to the previous update, including the addition of new diphthong of "ei", whereas previously there were only 3 diphthongs, "ai", "au" and "oi", and new rules on the usage of bold letters.
Republican-to-EYD letter changes
|/tʃ/: tj becomes c||tjuma, katjang||cuma, kacang||only, peanuts|
|/dʒ/: dj becomes j||djual, edjaan||jual, ejaan||sell, spelling|
|/j/: j becomes y||ajam, pajung||ayam, payung||chicken, umbrella|
|/ɲ/: nj becomes ny||njonja, banjak||nyonya, banyak||madam, many|
|/ʃ/: sj becomes sy||sjair, masjarakat||syair, masyarakat||poem, people|
|/x/: ch becomes kh||tarich, achir||tarikh, akhir||era, end|
Foreign loan letters
Letters that had previously been included in the Republican Spelling as foreign loan letters are officially used in the EYD Spelling.
|f||maaf, fakir||(I am) sorry, poor|
|v||valuta, universitas||currency, university|
|z||zeni, lezat||engineer, delicious|
Q and X
The letters "q" and "x" are still only used in scientific subjects.
- Sinar-X (X-ray)
Affixes and prepositions
The writing of di- and ke- (affixes) can be distinguished from di and ke (prepositions), where di- and ke- is written together with the words that follow it, for example diambil, kehendak (is being taken, desire), while di and ke is written separately with the words that follow it, for example di rumah, ke pasar (at home, to the market). This is different from the former Republican Spelling, where both di- and di are written together with the words following it.
Reduplication, mostly used in plural form of words, has to be fully written with letters, so the use of the number "2" as used in the Republican Spelling is no longer valid. (The practice remains common in informal usage such as in text messaging.)
|ber-main2||bermain-main||to play around|
- Presidential Decision No 57 of 1972, Jakarta, 1972.
- Minister of Education and Culture Decree No: 0543a/U/1987, Jakarta, 1987.
- Minister of National Education Decree No: 46/2009, Jakarta, 2009.
- Minister of Education and Culture Decree No: 50/2015, Jakarta, 2015.
- Tasai, S Amran and E. Zaenal Arifin (2000). Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia: Untuk Perguruan Tinggi.