Illustration showing cardiac external counterpulsation
|Synonyms||Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP)|
Some reviews did not find sufficient evidence that it was useful for either angina or heart failure. Other reviews found tentative benefit in those with angina that does not improve with medications.
While an individual is undergoing ECP, he/she has pneumatic cuffs on his or her legs and is connected to telemetry monitors that monitor heart rate and rhythm. The most common type in use involves three cuffs placed on each leg (on the calves, the lower thighs, and the upper thighs (or buttock)). The cuffs are timed to inflate and deflate based on the individual's electrocardiogram. The cuffs should ideally inflate at the beginning of diastole and deflate at the beginning of systole. During the inflation portion of the cycle, the calf cuffs inflate first, then the lower thigh cuffs and finally the upper thigh cuffs. Inflation is controlled by a pressure monitor, and the cuffs are inflated to about 200 mmHg.
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- Qin, X; Deng, Y; Wu, D; Yu, L; Huang, R (2016). "Does Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Significantly Affect Myocardial Perfusion?: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis". PLoS ONE. 11 (4): e0151822. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151822. PMC 4821484. PMID 27045935.
- Lin, S; Liu, M; Wu, B; Hao, Z; Yang, J; Tao, W (18 January 2012). "External counterpulsation for acute ischaemic stroke". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD009264. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009264.pub2. PMID 22259001.
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Manchanda A, Soran O (October 2007). "Enhanced external counterpulsation and future directions: step beyond medical management for patients with angina and heart failure". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 50 (16): 1523–31. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.07.024. PMID 17936150.