Enhanced geothermal system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Enhanced geothermal system: 1 Reservoir, 2 Pump house, 3 Heat exchanger, 4 Turbine hall, 5 Production well, 6 Injection well, 7 Hot water to district heating, 8 Porous sediments, 9 Observation well, 10 Crystalline bedrock

An enhanced geothermal system (EGS) generates geothermal electricity without the need for natural convective hydrothermal resources. Until recently, geothermal power systems have exploited only resources where naturally occurring heat, water, and rock permeability are sufficient to allow energy extraction.[1] However, by far most of geothermal energy within reach of conventional techniques is in dry and impermeable rock.[2] EGS technologies enhance and/or create geothermal resources in this hot dry rock (HDR) through a variety of stimulation methods, including 'hydraulic stimulation'.


When natural cracks and pores do not allow economic flow rates, the permeability can be enhanced by pumping high-pressure cold water down an injection well into the rock. The injection increases the fluid pressure in the naturally fractured rock, triggering shear events that enhance the system's permeability. As long as the injection pressure is maintained, a high matrix permeability is not required, nor are hydraulic fracturing proppants required to maintain the fractures in an open state. This process is termed hydro-shearing,[3] perhaps to differentiate it from hydraulic tensile fracturing, used in the oil and gas industry, which can create new fractures through the rock in addition to expanding the existing fractures.[4]

Water travels through fractures in the rock, capturing the rock's heat until forced out of a second borehole as very hot water. The water's heat is converted into electricity using either a steam turbine or a binary power plant system.[5] All of the water, now cooled, is injected back into the ground to heat up again in a closed loop.

EGS technologies can function as baseload resources that produce power 24 hours a day. Unlike hydrothermal, EGS may be feasible anywhere in the world, depending on the economic limits of drill depth. Good locations are over deep granite covered by a 3–5 kilometres (1.9–3.1 mi) layer of insulating sediments that slow heat loss.[6] An EGS plant is expected to have an economical lifetime of 20–30 years using current technology.[7]

EGS systems are currently being developed and tested in Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. The largest EGS project in the world is a 25-megawatt demonstration plant currently being developed in Cooper Basin, Australia. Cooper Basin has the potential to generate 5,000–10,000 MW.

Research and development[edit]


The Australian government has provided research funding for the development of Hot Dry Rock technology.[8]

On 30 May 2007, then Australian opposition environmental spokesperson and former Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts Peter Garrett announced that if elected at the 2007 Australian Federal Election, the Australian Labor Party would use taxpayer money to subsidise putting the necessary drilling rigs in place. In an interview, he promised:

"There are some technical difficulties and challenges there, but those people who are keen on getting Australia into geothermal say we've got this great access to resource and one of the things, interestingly, that's held them back is not having the capacity to put the drilling plants in place. And so what we intend this $50 million to go towards is to provide one-for-one dollars. Match $1 from us, $1 from the industry so that they can get these drilling rigs on to site and really get the best sites identified and get the industry going."[9]

European Union[edit]

The EU's EGS R&D project at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, has recently connected its 1.5 MW demonstration plant to the grid. The Soultz project has explored the connection of multiple stimulated zones and the performance of triplet well configurations (1 injector/2 producers).[10]

Induced seismicity in Basel led to the cancellation of the EGS project there.

The Portuguese government awarded, in December 2008, an exclusive license to Geovita Ltd to prospect and explore geothermal energy in one of the best areas in continental Portugal. An area of about 500 square kilometers is being studied by Geovita together with the Earth Sciences department of the University of Coimbra's Science and Technology faculty, and the installation of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is foreseen.

South Korea[edit]

The Pohang EGS project was started in December 2010, with the goal of producing 1 MW.[11]

Deep drilling experience gained under the drilling of the first of two wells from the project, was shared at a conference in 2015.[12]

The 2017 Pohang earthquake may have been linked to the activity of the Pohang EGS project. All research activities on the site was stopped in 2018.

United Kingdom[edit]

Cornwall is set to host a 3MW demonstration project, based at the Eden Project, that could pave the way for a series of 50-MW commercial-scale geothermal power stations in suitable areas across the country.[13]

A commercial-scale project near Redruth is also planned. The plant, which has been granted planning permission,[14] would generate 10 MW of electricity and 55 MW of thermal energy and is scheduled to become operational in 2013–2014.[15]

United States[edit]

Early days — Fenton Hill[edit]

The first EGS effort — then termed Hot Dry Rock — took place at Fenton Hill, New Mexico with a project run by the federal Los Alamos Laboratory.[16] It was the first attempt to make a deep, full-scale EGS reservoir.

The EGS reservoir at Fenton Hill was first completed in 1977 at a depth of about 2.6 km, with rock temperatures of 185 °C. In 1979 the reservoir was enlarged with additional hydraulic stimulation and was operated for about 1 year. The results demonstrated that heat could be extracted at reasonable rates from a hydraulically stimulated region of low-permeability hot crystalline rock. In 1986, a second reservoir was prepared for initial hydraulic circulation and heat extraction testing. In a 30-day flow test with a constant reinjection temperature of 20 °C, the production temperature steadily increased to about 190 °C, corresponding to a thermal power level of about 10 MW. Due to budget cuts, further study at Fenton Hill was discontinued.

Working at the edges—using EGS technology to improve hydrothermal resources[edit]

EGS funding languished for the next few years, and by the next decade, US efforts focused on the less ambitious goal of improving the productivity of existing hydrothermal resources. According to the fiscal year 2004 Budget Request to Congress from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, [17]

EGS are engineered reservoirs that have been created to extract heat from economically unproductive geothermal resources. EGS technology includes those methods and equipment that enhance the removal of energy from a resource by increasing the productivity of the reservoir. Better productivity may result from improving the reservoir’s natural permeability and/or providing additional fluids to transport heat.[18]

In fiscal year 2002, preliminary designs for five projects employing EGS technology were completed and the Coso Hot Springs geothermal field at the US Naval Weapons Air Station in China Lake, California was selected for full-scale development. Two additional projects were selected for preliminary analysis at Desert Peak in Nevada and Glass Mountain in California. Funding for this effort totaled $1.5 million. The effort was continued in 2003 with an additional $3.5 million. [19]

In 2009, The US Department of Energy (USDOE) issued two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) related to enhanced geothermal systems. Together, the two FOAs offered up to $84 million over six years. [20]

The DOE followed up with another FOA in 2009, of stimulus funding from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act for $350 million, including $80 million aimed specifically at EGS projects,[21]


In February 2014, the Department of Energy announced the intent to establish "a dedicated subsurface laboratory called the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE)"[22] in order to investigate and develop enhanced geothermal technology. In August 2016, it was announced that the proposed sites had been narrowed to two (in Utah and Nevada), expected to be reduced to one the following year.[23] In June 2018 the Department of Energy announced that a location outside of Milford, Utah had been selected to host the FORGE laboratory. Over a five year period the University of Utah will receive up to $140 million for cutting edge geothermal research and development.[24]

Cornell University — Ithaca, NY[edit]

Developing EGS in conjunction with a district heating system is a part in Cornell University's Climate Action Plan for their Ithaca campus.[25] The project began in 2018 with the preparatory phase to determine feasibility, gain funding and monitor baseline seismicity.[26] The project received $7.2 million in funding from the USDOE.[27] A test well will be drilled in spring of 2021, at a depth of 2.5 -5 km targeting rock with a temperature > 85°C. The site is planned to supply 20% of the campus' annual heating load. Promising geological locations for reservoir have been proposed in the Trenton-Black River formation (2.2 km) or in basement crystalline rock (3.5km).[28]

Summary of EGS projects around the world[edit]

Map of 64 EGS projects around the world

EGS technologies use a variety of methods to create additional flow paths inside reservoir rocks. Past EGS projects around the world have used combinations of hydraulic, chemical, thermal, and explosive stimulation methods. EGS projects also include those at the edges of current hydrothermal geothermal sites where drilled wells intersected hot, yet impermeable, reservoir rocks and stimulation methods were used to enhance that permeability. The table below shows both large and small EGS projects around the world.[29][30]

Name Country State/region Year Start Stimulation method References
Mosfellssveit Iceland 1970 Thermal and hydraulic [31]
Fenton Hill USA New Mexico 1973 Hydraulic and chemical [32]
Bad Urach Germany 1977 Hydraulic [33]
Falkenberg Germany 1977 Hydraulic [34]
Rosemanowes UK 1977 Hydraulic and explosive [35]
Le Mayet France 1978 Hydraulic ,[36][37]
East Mesa USA California 1980 Hydraulic [38]
Krafla Iceland 1980 Thermal [39]
Baca USA New Mexico 1981 Hydraulic [38]
Geysers Unocal USA California 1981 Explosive [38]
Beowawe USA Nevada 1983 Hydraulic [38]
Bruchal Germany 1983 Hydraulic [40]
Fjällbacka Sweden 1984 Hydraulic and chemical [41]
Neustadt-Glewe [de] Germany 1984 [40]
Hijiori Japan 1985 Hydraulic [42]
Soultz France 1986 Hydraulic and chemical [43]
Altheim Austria 1989 Chemical [44]
Hachimantai Japan 1989 Hydraulic [45]
Ogachi Japan 1989 Hydraulic [46]
Sumikawa Japan 1989 Thermal [47]
Tyrnyauz USSR Kabardino-Balkaria 1991 Hydraulic ,[48][49]
Bacman Philippines 1993 Chemical [50]
Seltjarnarnes Iceland 1994 Hydraulic [51]
Mindanao Philippines 1995 Chemical [52]
Bouillante France 1996 Thermal [53]
Leyte Philippines 1996 Chemical [54]
Hunter Valley Australia 1999 [7]
Groß Schönebeck Germany 2000 Hydraulic and chemical [55]
Tiwi Philippines 2000 Chemical [56]
Berlin El Salvador 2001 Chemical [57]
Cooper Basin: Habanero Australia 2002 Hydraulic [58]
Cooper Basin: Jolokia 1 Australia 2002 Hydraulic [58]
Coso USA California 1993, 2005 Hydraulic and chemical [59]
Hellisheidi Iceland 1993 Thermal [60]
Genesys: Horstberg Germany 2003 Hydraulic [61]
Landau [de] Germany 2003 Hydraulic [62]
Unterhaching Germany 2004 Chemical [63]
Salak Indonesia 2004 Chemical, thermal, hydraulic and cyclic pressure loading [64]
Olympic Dam Australia 2005 Hydraulic [65]
Paralana Australia 2005 Hydraulic and chemical [66]
Los Azufres Mexico 2005 Chemical [67]
Basel [de] Switzerland 2006 Hydraulic [68]
Lardarello Italy 1983, 2006 Hydraulic and chemical [69]
Insheim Germany 2007 Hydraulic [70]
Desert Peak USA Nevada 2008 Hydraulic and chemical [71]
Brady Hot Springs USA Nevada 2008 Hydraulic [72]
Southeast Geysers USA California 2008 Hydraulic [73]
Genesys: Hannover Germany 2009 Hydraulic [74]
St. Gallen Switzerland 2009 Hydraulic and chemical [75]
New York Canyon USA Nevada 2009 Hydraulic [76]
Northwest Geysers USA California 2009 Thermal [77]
Newberry USA Oregon 2010 Hydraulic [78]
Mauerstetten Germany 2011 Hydraulic and chemical [79]
Soda Lake USA Nevada 2011 Explosive [80]
Raft River USA Idaho 1979, 2012 Hydraulic and thermal [81]
Blue Mountain USA Nevada 2012 Hydraulic [82]
Rittershoffen France 2013 Thermal, hydraulic and chemical [83]
Klaipėda Lithuania 2015 Jetting [84]
Otaniemi Finland 2016 Hydraulic [85]
South Hungary EGS Demo Hungary 2016 Hydraulic [86]
Pohang South Korea 2016 Hydraulic [87]
FORGE Utah USA Utah 2016 Hydraulic [88]
Reykjanes Iceland 2006, 2017 Thermal [89]
Roter Kamm (Schneeberg) Germany 2018 Hydraulic [90]
United Downs Deep Geothermal Power (Redruth) UK 2018 Hydraulic [91]
Eden (St Austell) UK 2018 Hydraulic [92]
Qiabuqia China 2018 Thermal and hydraulic [93]
Vendenheim France 2019 [94]

Induced seismicity[edit]

Some induced seismicity is inevitable and expected in EGS, which involves pumping fluids at pressure to enhance or create permeability through the use of hydro-shearing and hydraulic fracturing techniques. Hydro-shear stimulation methods seek to expand and extend the connectivity of the rock's existing fractures to create a better fluid network for the transfer of heat from the rock to the fluid.[95][96] Seismicity events at the Geysers geothermal field in California have been strongly correlated with injection data.[97]

The case of induced seismicity in Basel merits special mention; it led the city (which is a partner) to suspend the project and conduct a seismic hazard evaluation, which resulted in the cancellation of the project in December 2009.[98]

According to the Australian government, risks associated with "hydrofracturing induced seismicity are low compared to that of natural earthquakes, and can be reduced by careful management and monitoring" and "should not be regarded as an impediment to further development of the Hot Rock geothermal energy resource".[99] However, the risks of induced seismicity vary from site to site and should be considered before large scale fluid injection is begun.

CO2 EGS[edit]

The Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence at the University of Queensland has been awarded AUD 18.3 million for EGS research, a large portion of which will be used to develop CO2 EGS technologies.

Research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratories and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories examined the use of supercritical CO2, instead of water, as the geothermal working fluid, with favorable results. CO2 has numerous advantages for EGS:

  1. Greater power output
  2. Minimized parasitic losses from pumping and cooling
  3. Carbon sequestration
  4. Minimized water use
  5. CO2 has a much lower tendency to dissolve minerals and other substances than water, which greatly reduces scaling and corrosion of system components

CO2 is, however, much more expensive and somewhat more difficult to work with than water.

EGS potential in the United States[edit]

Geothermal power technologies.

A 2006 report by MIT,[7] and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted the most comprehensive analysis to date on the potential and technical status of EGS. The 18-member panel, chaired by Professor Jefferson Tester of MIT, reached several significant conclusions:

  1. Resource size: The report calculated the United States total EGS resources from 3–10 km of depth to be over 13,000 zettajoules, of which over 200 ZJ would be extractable, with the potential to increase this to over 2,000 ZJ with technology improvements — sufficient to provide all the world's current energy needs for several millennia.[7] The report found that total geothermal resources, including hydrothermal and geo-pressured resources, to equal 14,000 ZJ — or roughly 140,000 times the total U.S. annual primary energy use in 2005.
  2. Development potential: With an R&D investment of $1 billion over 15 years, the report estimated that 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more could be installed by 2050 in the United States. The report further found that "recoverable" resources (accessible with today's technology) were between 1.2–12.2 TW for the conservative and moderate recovery scenarios respectively.
  3. Cost: The report found that EGS could be capable of producing electricity for as low as 3.9 cents/kWh. EGS costs were found to be sensitive to four main factors:
    1. Temperature of the resource
    2. Fluid flow through the system measured in liters/second
    3. Drilling costs
    4. Power conversion efficiency

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lund, John W. (June 2007), "Characteristics, Development and utilization of geothermal resources" (PDF), Geo-Heat Centre Quarterly Bulletin, Klamath Falls, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Technology, 28 (2), pp. 1–9, ISSN 0276-1084, retrieved 2009-04-16
  2. ^ Duchane, Dave; Brown, Don (December 2002), "Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Energy Research and Development at Fenton Hill, New Mexico" (PDF), Geo-Heat Centre Quarterly Bulletin, Klamath Falls, Oregon: Oregon Institute of Technology, 23 (4), pp. 13–19, ISSN 0276-1084, retrieved 2009-05-05
  3. ^ Pierce, Brenda (2010-02-16). "Geothermal Energy Resources" (PowerPoint). National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). Retrieved 2011-03-19.
  4. ^ Cichon, Meg (2013-07-16). "Is Fracking for Enhanced Geothermal Systems the Same as Fracking for Natural Gas?". RenewableEnergyWorld.com. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
  5. ^ US Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. "How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works". Archived from the original on 2013-05-20.
  6. ^ 20 slide presentation inc geothermal maps of Australia[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ a b c d Tester, Jefferson W. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); et al. (2006). The Future of Geothermal Energy – Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (PDF). Idaho Falls: Idaho National Laboratory. ISBN 0-615-13438-6. Archived from the original (14MB PDF) on 2011-03-10. Retrieved 2007-02-07.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2010-06-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Garrett discusses Labor's stance on climate change", Lateline, 30 May 2007
  10. ^ See French Wikipedia: Soultz-sous-Forêts — Soultz is in the Alsace région of France.
  11. ^ "DESTRESS - Pohang". DESTRESS H2020. DESTRESS. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  12. ^ YOON, Kern-Shin; JEON, Jae-Soo; HONG, Hoon-Ki; KIM, Ho-Geun; A., Hagan; Park, Jung-Hun; YOON, Woon-Sang (19–25 April 2015). Deep Drilling Experience for Pohang Enhanced Geothermal Project in Korea (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015 Melbourne. Melbourne, Australia.
  13. ^ "Tories pledge support for deep geothermal energy projects". New Energy Focus. www.newenergyfocus.com. May 15, 2009. Archived from the original on August 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  14. ^ "'Hot rocks' geothermal energy plant promises a UK first for Cornwall". Western Morning News. August 17, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2015.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Plans for geothermal plant at industrial estate are backed". This is Cornwall. www.thisiscornwall.co.uk. November 23, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-21.[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ Tester 2006, pp. 4–7 to 4–13
  17. ^ FY 2004 Congressional Budget Request – Energy Supply Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. U.S Department of Energy. 2003-02-03. p. 244.
  18. ^ FY2004DOE 2003, p. 131
  19. ^ FY2004DOE 2003, pp. 131–131
  20. ^ "EERE News: DOE to Invest up to $84 Million in Enhanced Geothermal Systems". 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
  21. ^ "Department of Energy – President Obama Announces Over $467 Million in Recovery Act Funding for Geothermal and Solar Energy Projects". 2009-05-27. Archived from the original on 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
  22. ^ Geothermal Technologies Office (February 21, 2014). "DOE Announces Notice of Intent for EGS Observatory". Department of Energy. Archived from the original on 2015-03-24.
  23. ^ "Energy Department Announces $29 Million Investment in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Efforts". Washington, DC: Department of Energy. Aug 31, 2016.
  24. ^ "Department of Energy Selects University of Utah Site for $140 Million Geothermal Research and Development". Department of Energy. Department of Energy. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  25. ^ Whang, Jyu et al. "2013 Climate Action Plan & roadmap 2014-2015" Cornell University 2013. https://sustainablecampus.cornell.edu/sites/default/files/2019-01/Cornell%20University%20CAP%20Roadmap%20-%202013_0.pdf Retrieved on 2020-12-07
  26. ^ "Cornell's Commitment to a Sustainable Campus – Earth Source Heat". earthsourceheat.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
  27. ^ "$7.2M grant funds exploratory research into Earth Source Heat". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
  28. ^ Tester, Jeffery et al. "District Geothermal Heating Using EGS Technology to Meet Carbon Neutrality Goals: A Case Study of Earth Source Heat for the Cornell University Campus". Proceedings World Geothermal Congress. https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/WGC/papers/WGC/2020/35011.pdf April 26- May 2, 2020. Retrieved on 2020-12-07
  29. ^ Pollack, Ahinoam (2020). "Gallery of 1D, 2D, and 3D maps from enhanced geothermal systems around the world".
  30. ^ Pollack, Ahinoam (2020). "What Are the Challenges in Developing Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)? Observations from 64EGS Sites" (PDF). World Geothermal Congress. S2CID 211051245. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-07-13.
  31. ^ Thorsteinsson, T.; Tomasson, J. (1979-01-01). "Drillhole stimulation in Iceland". Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., (Pap.); (United States). 78-PET-24. OSTI 6129079.
  32. ^ Brown, Donald W.; Duchane, David V.; Heiken, Grant; Hriscu, Vivi Thomas (2012), Brown, Donald W.; Duchane, David V.; Heiken, Grant; Hriscu, Vivi Thomas (eds.), "Serendipity—A Brief History of Events Leading to the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program at Los Alamos", Mining the Earth's Heat: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy, Springer Geography, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 3–16, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68910-2_1, ISBN 978-3-540-68910-2
  33. ^ Stober, Ingrid (2011-05-01). "Depth- and pressure-dependent permeability in the upper continental crust: data from the Urach 3 geothermal borehole, southwest Germany". Hydrogeology Journal. 19 (3): 685–699. doi:10.1007/s10040-011-0704-7. ISSN 1435-0157. S2CID 129285719.
  34. ^ Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O. (1983). "The Falkenberg Geothermal Frac-Project: Concepts and Experimental Results". Hydraulic Fracturing and Geothermal Energy. Mechanics of elastic and inelastic solids. Springer Netherlands. 5: 59–74. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-6884-4_4. ISBN 978-94-009-6886-8.
  35. ^ Batchelor, A. S. (1987-05-01). "Development of hot-dry-rock geothermal systems in the UK". IEE Proceedings A. 134 (5): 371–380. doi:10.1049/ip-a-1.1987.0058. ISSN 2053-7905.
  36. ^ Cornet, FH (1987-01-01). "Results from Le Mayet de Montagne project". Geothermics. 16 (4): 355–374. doi:10.1016/0375-6505(87)90016-2. ISSN 0375-6505.
  37. ^ Cornet, F. H.; Morin, R. H. (1997-04-01). "Evaluation of hydromechanical coupling in a granite rock mass from a high-volume, high-pressure injection experiment: Le Mayet de Montagne, France". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 34 (3): 207.e1–207.e14. doi:10.1016/S1365-1609(97)00185-8. ISSN 1365-1609.
  38. ^ a b c d Entingh, D. J. (2000). "Geothermal Well Stimulation Experiments in the United States" (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress.
  39. ^ Axelsson, G (2009). "Review of well stimulation operations in Iceland" (PDF). Transactions - Geothermal Resources Council.
  40. ^ a b Пашкевич, Р.И.; Павлов, К.А. (2015). "Современное состояние использования циркуляционных геотермальных систем в целях тепло- и электроснабжения". Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень: 388–399. ISSN 0236-1493.
  41. ^ Wallroth, Thomas; Eliasson, Thomas; Sundquist, Ulf (1999-08-01). "Hot dry rock research experiments at Fjällbacka, Sweden". Geothermics. 28 (4): 617–625. doi:10.1016/S0375-6505(99)00032-2. ISSN 0375-6505.
  42. ^ Matsunaga, I (2005). "Review of the HDR Development at Hijiori Site, Japan" (PDF). Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress.
  43. ^ Genter, Albert; Evans, Keith; Cuenot, Nicolas; Fritsch, Daniel; Sanjuan, Bernard (2010-07-01). "Contribution of the exploration of deep crystalline fractured reservoir of Soultz to the knowledge of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)". Comptes Rendus Geoscience. Vers l'exploitation des ressources géothermiques profondes des systèmes hydrothermaux convectifs en milieux naturellement fracturés. 342 (7): 502–516. doi:10.1016/j.crte.2010.01.006. ISSN 1631-0713.
  44. ^ Pernecker, G (1999). "Altheim geothermal plant for electricity production by ORC-turbogenerator" (PDF). Bulletin d'Hydrogéologie.
  45. ^ Niitsuma, H. (1989-07-01). "Fracture mechanics design and development of HDR reservoirs— Concept and results of the Γ-project, Tohoku University, Japan". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts. 26 (3): 169–175. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(89)91966-9. ISSN 0148-9062.
  46. ^ Ito, Hisatoshi (2003). "Inferred role of natural fractures, veins, and breccias in development of the artificial geothermal reservoir at the Ogachi Hot Dry Rock site, Japan". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 108 (B9). doi:10.1029/2001JB001671. ISSN 2156-2202.
  47. ^ Kitao, K (1990). "Geotherm. Resourc. Counc. Trans" (PDF). Cold-water Well Stimulation Experiments in the Sumikawa Geotheral Field, Japan.
  48. ^ Дядькин, Ю. Д. (2001). "Извлечение и использование тепла земли". Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень (научно-технический журнал).
  49. ^ Алхасов, А.Б. (2016). Возобновляемые источники энергии. М.: Издательский дом МЭИ. p. 108. ISBN 978-5-383-00960-4.
  50. ^ Buoing, Balbino C. (1995). "Recent Experiences in Acid Stimulation Technology by PNOC-Energy Development Corporation, Philippines" (PDF). World Geothermal Congress 1995.
  51. ^ Tulinius, Helga; Axelsson, Gudni; Tomasson, Jens; Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna; Guðmundsson, Ásgrímur (1996-01-01). "Stimulation of well SN12 in the Seltjarnarnes low-temperature field in SW-Iceland". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  52. ^ Malate, Ramonchito Cedric M. (2000). "SK-2D: A CASE HISTORY ON GEOTHERMAL WELLBORE ENHANCEMENT, MINDANAO GEOTHERMAL PRODUCTION FIELD, PHILIPPINES" (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000.
  53. ^ Sanjuan, Bernard; Jousset, Philippe; Pajot, Gwendoline; Debeglia, Nicole; Michele, Marcello de; Brach, Michel; Dupont, François; Braibant, Gilles; Lasne, Eric; Duré, Frédéric (2010-04-25). "Monitoring of the Bouillante Geothermal Exploitation (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) and the Impact on Its Immediate Environment": 11 p. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. ^ Malate (2003). "ACID STIMULATION OF INJECTION WELLS IN THE LEYTE GEOTHERMAL POWER PROJECT, PHILIPPINES". Twenty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University. S2CID 51736784.
  55. ^ Zimmermann, Günter; Moeck, Inga; Blöcher, Guido (2010-03-01). "Cyclic waterfrac stimulation to develop an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS)—Conceptual design and experimental results". Geothermics. The European I-GET Project: Integrated Geophysical Exploration Technologies for Deep Geothermal Reservoirs. 39 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2009.10.003. ISSN 0375-6505.
  56. ^ Xu, Tianfu. "Scaling of hot brine injection wells: supplementing field studies with reactive transport modeling". TOUGH Symposium 2003.
  57. ^ Barrios, L. A. (2002). "Enhanced Permeability by Chemical Stimulation at the Berlín Geothermal field" (PDF). Geothermal Resources Council Transactions. 26.
  58. ^ a b Holl, Heinz-Gerd (2015). "What did we learn about EGS in the Cooper Basin?". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.33547.49443. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  59. ^ Evanoff, Jerry (2004). "STIMULATION AND DAMAGE REMOVAL OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SCALING IN GEOTHERMAL WELLS: A CASE STUDY" (PDF). Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress. S2CID 199385006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-02-27.
  61. ^ Tischner, Torsten (2010). "New Concepts for Extracting Geothermal Energy from One Well: The GeneSys-Project" (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress.
  62. ^ Schindler, Marion (2010). "Successful Hydraulic Stimulation Techniques for Electric Power Production in the Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe" (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress.
  63. ^ Sigfússon, B. (1 March 2016). "2014 JRC geothermal energy status report : technology, market and economic aspects of geothermal energy in Europe". Op.europa.eu. doi:10.2790/959587.
  64. ^ Pasikki, Riza (2006). "COILED TUBING ACID STIMULATION: THE CASE OF AWI 8-7 PRODUCTION WELL IN SALAK GEOTHERMAL FIELD, INDONESIA". Thirty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  65. ^ Bendall, Betina. "Australian Experiences in EGS Permeability Enhancement –A Review of 3 Case Studies" (PDF). Thirty-Ninth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  66. ^ Albaric, J.; Oye, V.; Langet, N.; Hasting, M.; Lecomte, I.; Iranpour, K.; Messeiller, M.; Reid, P. (1 October 2014). "Monitoring of induced seismicity during the first geothermal reservoir stimulation at Paralana, Australia". Geothermics. 52: 120–131. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2013.10.013. ISSN 0375-6505.
  67. ^ Armenta, Magaly Flores (2006). "Productivity Analysis and Acid Treatment of Well AZ-9ADat the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico" (PDF). GRC Transactions. 30.
  68. ^ Häring, Markus O.; Schanz, Ulrich; Ladner, Florentin; Dyer, Ben C. (1 October 2008). "Characterisation of the Basel 1 enhanced geothermal system". Geothermics. 37 (5): 469–495. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2008.06.002. ISSN 0375-6505.
  69. ^ Carella, R.; Verdiani, G.; Palmerini, C. G.; Stefani, G. C. (1 January 1985). "Geothermal activity in Italy: Present status and future prospects". Geothermics. 14 (2): 247–254. doi:10.1016/0375-6505(85)90065-3. ISSN 0375-6505.
  70. ^ Küperkoch, L.; Olbert, K.; Meier, T. (1 December 2018). "Long‐Term Monitoring of Induced Seismicity at the Insheim Geothermal Site, GermanyLong‐Term Monitoring of Induced Seismicity at the Insheim Geothermal Site, Germany". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 108 (6): 3668–3683. doi:10.1785/0120170365. ISSN 0037-1106.
  71. ^ Chabora, Ethan (2012). "HYDRAULIC STIMULATION OF WELL 27-15, DESERT PEAK GEOTHERMAL FIELD, NEVADA, USA" (PDF). Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  72. ^ Drakos, Peter (2017). "Feasibility of EGS Development at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada" (PDF). US DOE Geothermal Office.
  73. ^ Alta Rock Energy (2013). "Engineered Geothermal SystemDemonstration ProjectNorthern California Power Agency, The Geysers, CA". doi:10.2172/1134470. OSTI 1134470. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  74. ^ Tischner, T. (2013). "MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING IN LOW PERMEABLESEDIMENTARY ROCK IN THE GENESYS PROJECT" (PDF). Thirty-EighthWorkshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  75. ^ Moeck, I.; Bloch, T.; Graf, R.; Heuberger, S.; Kuhn, P.; Naef, H.; Sonderegger, Michael; Uhlig, S.; Wolfgramm, M. (2015). "The St. Gallen Project: Development of Fault Controlled Geothermal Systems in Urban Areas". S2CID 55741874. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  76. ^ Moeck, Inga (2015). "The St. Gallen Project: Development of Fault Controlled Geothermal Systems in Urban Areas" (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015.
  77. ^ Garcia, Julio; Hartline, Craig; Walters, Mark; Wright, Melinda; Rutqvist, Jonny; Dobson, Patrick F.; Jeanne, Pierre (1 September 2016). "The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project, California: Part 1: Characterization and reservoir response to injection". Geothermics. 63: 97–119. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2015.08.003. ISSN 0375-6505.
  78. ^ Cladouhos, Trenton T.; Petty, Susan; Swyer, Michael W.; Uddenberg, Matthew E.; Grasso, Kyla; Nordin, Yini (2016-09-01). "Results from Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration, 2010–2014". Geothermics. Enhanced Geothermal Systems: State of the Art. 63: 44–61. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2015.08.009. ISSN 0375-6505.
  79. ^ Mraz, Elena; Moeck, Inga; Bissmann, Silke; Hild, Stephan (31 October 2018). "Multiphase fossil normal faults as geothermal exploration targets in the Western Bavarian Molasse Basin: Case study Mauerstetten". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften. 169 (3): 389–411. doi:10.1127/zdgg/2018/0166.
  80. ^ Ohren, Mary (2011). "Permeability Recovery and Enhancements in the Soda Lake Geothermal Field, Fallon, Nevada" (PDF). GRC Transactions. 35.
  81. ^ Bradford, Jacob (2015). "Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation Program at Raft River Idaho, A DOE EGS" (PDF). GRC Transactions.
  82. ^ Petty, Susan (2016). "Current Status of Geothermal Stimulation Technology" (PDF). 2016 GRC Annual Meeting Presentations.
  83. ^ Baujard, C (1 January 2017). "Hydrothermal characterization of wells GRT-1 and GRT-2 in Rittershoffen, France: Implications on the understanding of natural flow systems in the rhine graben". Geothermics. 65: 255–268. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.11.001. ISSN 0375-6505.
  84. ^ Nair, R. (2017). "A case study of radial jetting technology for enhancing geothermal energy systems at Klaipėda geothermal demonstration plant" (PDF). 42nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  85. ^ Ader, Thomas; Chendorain, Michael; Free, Matthew; Saarno, Tero; Heikkinen, Pekka; Malin, Peter Eric; Leary, Peter; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Bluemle, Felix; Vuorinen, Tommi (29 August 2019). "Design and implementation of a traffic light system for deep geothermal well stimulation in Finland". Journal of Seismology. 24 (5): 991–1014. doi:10.1007/s10950-019-09853-y. ISSN 1573-157X. S2CID 201661087.
  86. ^ Garrison, Geoffrey (2016). "The South Hungary Enhanced Geothermal System (SHEGS) Demonstration Project" (PDF). GRC Transactions.
  87. ^ Kim, Kwang-Hee; Ree, Jin-Han; Kim, YoungHee; Kim, Sungshil; Kang, Su Young; Seo, Wooseok (1 June 2018). "Assessing whether the 2017 Mw 5.4 Pohang earthquake in South Korea was an induced event". Science. 360 (6392): 1007–1009. doi:10.1126/science.aat6081. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29700224. S2CID 13876371.
  88. ^ Moore, Joseph (2019). "The Utah Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE): An International Laboratory for Enhanced Geothermal System Technology Development" (PDF). 44th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  89. ^ Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar (2019). "TheReykjanes DEEPEGS Demonstration Well –IDDP-2" (PDF). European Geothermal Congress 2019.
  90. ^ Wagner, Steffen (2015). "PetrothermalEnergyGenerationin Crystalline Rocks (Germany)" (PDF). Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015.
  91. ^ Ledingham, Peter (2019). "The United Downs Deep Geothermal Power Project" (PDF). 44th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering.
  92. ^ "Understanding geothermal power". Eden Project. 15 February 2014.
  93. ^ Lei, Zhihong; Zhang, Yanjun; Yu, Ziwang; Hu, Zhongjun; Li, Liangzhen; Zhang, Senqi; Fu, Lei; Zhou, Ling; Xie, Yangyang (1 August 2019). "Exploratory research into the enhanced geothermal system power generation project: The Qiabuqia geothermal field, Northwest China". Renewable Energy. 139: 52–70. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2019.01.088. ISSN 0960-1481.
  94. ^ Bogason, Sigurdur G. (2019). "DEEPEGS project management -Lessons learned". European Geothermal Congress 2019.
  95. ^ Tester 2006, pp. 4–5 to 4–6
  96. ^ Tester 2006, pp. 8–9 to 8–10
  97. ^ The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geysers Geothermal Field
  98. ^ Glanz, James (2009-12-10), "Quake Threat Leads Swiss to Close Geothermal Project", The New York Times
  99. ^ Geoscience Australia. "Induced Seismicity and Geothermal Power Development in Australia" (PDF). Australian Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-11.

External links[edit]