Enrique Camarena Salazar
|Nickname(s)||"Kike" (also spelled Quique) (Spanish), "Kiki" (English)|
|Born||July 26, 1947|
|Died||February 9, 1985 (aged 37)|
Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
|Service/|| United States Marine Corps (1968–1970)|
Drug Enforcement Administration (1975–1985)
Calexico Police Department 1970–1975
|Rank||Senior Police Officer II (Calexico Police Dept.)
Special Agent (ICNTF)Special Agent (DEA)
Enrique S. "Kiki" Camarena Salazar (July 26, 1947 – February 9, 1985) was a Mexican-born American undercover agent for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) who was abducted on February 7, 1985, and then tortured and murdered, while on assignment in Mexico.
Early life and education
From 1968 to 1970, Camarena served in the United States Marine Corps. After his military service he became a police officer in his hometown. Camarena was also a Special Agent on the original Imperial County Narcotic Task Force (ICNTF) while working in Calexico, California.
Abduction and murder
In 1984, acting on information from Camarena, 450 Mexican soldiers backed by helicopters destroyed a 1,000-hectare (2,500-acre) marijuana plantation in Allende (Chihuahua) with an estimated annual production of $8 billion known as "Rancho Búfalo". Camarena, who had been identified as the source of the leak, was abducted in broad daylight on February 7, 1985, by corrupt police officers working for drug lord Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo. Camarena was tortured at Gallardo's ranch over a 30-hour period, then murdered. His skull, jaw, nose, cheekbones and windpipe were crushed, his ribs were broken, and a hole was drilled into his head with a power drill. He had been injected with amphetamines and other drugs, most likely to ensure that he remained conscious while being tortured. Camarena's body was found in a rural area outside the small town of La Angostura, in the state of Michoacán, on March 5, 1985.
Camarena's torture and murder prompted a swift reaction from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and launched Operation Leyenda, the largest DEA homicide investigation ever undertaken. A special unit was dispatched to coordinate the investigation in Mexico, where government officials were implicated—including Manuel Ibarra Herrera, past director of Mexican Federal Judicial Police, and Miguel Aldana Ibarra, the former director of Interpol in Mexico. Investigators soon identified Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo and his two close associates, Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo and Rafael Caro Quintero, as the primary suspects in the kidnapping. Under pressure from the U.S. government, Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid quickly apprehended Fonseca and Caro but Félix Gallardo still enjoyed political protection.
The United States government pursued a lengthy investigation of Camarena's murder. Due to the difficulty of extraditing Mexican citizens, the DEA went as far as to detain two suspects, Humberto Álvarez Machaín, the physician who allegedly prolonged Camarena's life so the torture could continue, and Javier Vásquez Velasco; both were taken by bounty hunters into the United States.
Despite vigorous protests from the Mexican government, Álvarez was brought to trial in Los Angeles in 1992. After presentation of the government's case, the judge ruled that there was insufficient evidence to support a guilty verdict, and charges were dropped. Álvarez subsequently initiated a civil suit against the U.S. government, charging that his arrest had breached the U.S.–Mexico extradition treaty. The case eventually reached the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled that Álvarez was not entitled to relief. The four other defendants, Vásquez Velasco, Juan Ramón Matta-Ballesteros, Juan José Bernabé Ramírez, and Rubén Zuno Arce (a brother-in-law of former President Luis Echeverría), were tried and found guilty of Camarena's kidnapping.
In October 2013, two former federal agents and a self-proclaimed ex-CIA contractor told an American television network that CIA operatives were involved in Camarena's kidnapping and murder, because he was a threat to the agency's drug operations in Mexico. According to the three men, the CIA was collaborating with drug traffickers moving cocaine and marijuana to the United States, and using its share of the profits to finance Nicaraguan Contra rebels attempting to overthrow Nicaragua's Sandinista government. A CIA spokesman responded that "it's ridiculous to suggest that the CIA had anything to do with the murder of a U.S. federal agent or the escape of his killer".
In November 1988, TIME magazine featured Camarena on the cover. Camarena received numerous awards while with the DEA, and he posthumously received the Administrator's Award of Honor, the highest award given by the organization. In Fresno, the DEA hosts a yearly golf tournament named after him. A school, a library and a street in his home town of Calexico, California, are named after him. The nationwide annual Red Ribbon Week, which teaches school children and youths to avoid drug use, was established in his memory.
In 2004, the Enrique S. Camarena Foundation was established in Camarena's memory. Camarena's wife Mika and son Enrique Jr. serve on the all-volunteer Board of Directors together with former DEA agents, law enforcement personnel, family and friends of Camarena's, and others who share their commitment to alcohol, tobacco and other drug and violence prevention. As part of their ongoing Drug Awareness program, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks awards an annual Enrique Camarena Award at local, state and national levels to a member of law enforcement who carries out anti-drugs work.
In 2004, the Calexico Police Department erected a memorial dedicated to Camarena. The memorial is located in the halls of the department, where Camarena served.
Several books have been written on the subject. Camarena is the subject of the book ¿O Plata o Plomo? The abduction and murder of DEA Agent Enrique Camarena (2005), by retired DEA Resident Agent in Charge James H. Kuykendall. Roberto Saviano's non-fiction book Zero Zero Zero (2015) deals in part with Camarena's undercover work and his eventual fate.
Camarena was married to Mika and they had three sons.
The History Channel documentary Heroes Under Fire: Righteous Vendetta (2005) chronicles the events and features interviews with family members, DEA agents, and others involved in the investigation.
In the Netflix drama Narcos, Camarena's death and its aftermath are recapped in news footage in the first season episode "The Men of Always". In the spin-off series Narcos: Mexico, Camarena is played by American actor Michael Peña.
- Jaime Zapata
- Javier Barba-Hernández
- Mexican Drug War
- United States v. Alvarez-Machain
- Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps
- Torture murder
- Michele Leonhart
- Sifuentes, Hervey. "Proclamarán Semana del Listón Rojo en honor a 'Kike' Camarena". Zócalo Saltillo. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "Kiki and the History of Red Ribbon Week". Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Gorman, Peter. "Big-time Smuggler's Blues" Archived 2012-04-05 at the Wayback Machine.. Cannabis Culture. Thursday June 15, 2006.
- Beith, Malcolm (2010). The Last Narco. New York, New York: Grove Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8021-1952-0.
- Seper, J. (May 5, 2010). Brutal DEA agent murder reminder of agency priority. Washington Times archive. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- Orme Jr., William A. (March 7, 1985). "Body of DEA Agent Is Found in Mexico". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
- "Camarena Investigation Leads to Operation Leyenda" (PDF). A Tradition of Excellence, History:1985–1990. DEA. January 15, 2009. p. 64. Archived from the original (PDF 1.73MB) on 2013-01-24. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Weinstein, Henry (1 February 1990). "2 Ex-Officials in Mexico Indicted in Camarena Murder : Narcotics: One-time high-ranking lawmen are alleged to have participated in the 1985 slaying. So far, 19 people have been charged in the drug agent's death". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, 542 U.S. 692 (2004)
- "Bodyguard Is Convicted in Case with Links to Drug Agent's Death". The New York Times. August 7, 1990.
- "Central Figure Is Convicted in '85 Killing of Drug Agent". The New York Times. August 1, 1990.
- "Thirty Years of America's Drug War". Frontline. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "Interviews - Jack Lawn - Drug Wars". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "'The CIA helped kill DEA agent Enrique "Kiki" Camarena', say witnesses". El País (Spain) (in Spanish). 15 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "TIME Magazine -- U.S. Edition -- November 7, 1988 Vol. 132 No. 19". Retrieved 2018-11-23.
- "Enrique S. Camarena Foundation". Camarenafoundation.org. February 7, 2010. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- ¿O Plata o Plomo? The abduction and murder of DEA Agent Enrique Camarena. silverorlead.com.
- Bell, Diane (2010-03-14). "Diane Bell talks to Geneva Camarena". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- Hes Under Fire: Righteous Vendetta Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine.. aetv.com
- Andreas Lowenfeld, "Mexico and the United States, an Undiplomatic Murder", in Economist, 30 March 1985.
- Andreas Lowenfeld, "Kidnapping by Government Order: A Follow-Up", in American Journal of International Law 84 (July 1990): 712–716.
- U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Drug Enforcement Administration Reauthorization for Fiscal Year 1986: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Crime. May 1, 1985 (1986).
- Desperados: Latin Drug Lords, Lawmen, and the War America Can't Win; Elaine Shannon, 1988.
- DEA biography of Camarena
- "Kiki Camarena". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Zaid, Mark S. "Military might versus sovereign right: the kidnapping of Dr. Humberto Alvarez-Machain and the resulting fallout". Houston Journal of International Law. Northern hemisphere Spring of 1997.