Jump to content

Enrique Peña Nieto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Enrique Peña Nieto
Official portrait, 2012
64th President of Mexico
In office
1 December 2012 – 30 November 2018
Preceded byFelipe Calderón
Succeeded byAndrés Manuel López Obrador
President pro tempore
of the Pacific Alliance
In office
20 June 2014 – 3 July 2015
Preceded byJuan Manuel Santos
Succeeded byOllanta Humala
Governor of the State of Mexico
In office
16 September 2005 – 15 September 2011
Preceded byArturo Montiel Rojas
Succeeded byEruviel Ávila Villegas
Member of the
Congress of the State of Mexico
from the 13th district
In office
5 September 2003 – 14 January 2005
Preceded byArturo Osornio Sánchez
Succeeded byJesús Alcántara Núñez
Secretary of Administration of the State of Mexico
In office
11 May 2000 – 4 December 2002
GovernorArturo Montiel Rojas
Preceded byErnesto Nemer Álvarez
Succeeded byLuis Miranda Nava
Personal details
Born (1966-07-20) 20 July 1966 (age 57)
Atlacomulco, State of Mexico, Mexico
Political partyInstitutional Revolutionary Party
Mónica Pretelini
(m. 1993; died 2007)
(m. 2010; div. 2019)
Parent(s)Gilberto Enrique Peña del Mazo
María Socorro Nieto Sánchez
EducationPanamerican University (LLB)
Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (MBA)

Enrique Peña Nieto OMRI CYC GCB (Spanish pronunciation: [enˈrike ˈpeɲa ˈnjeto] ; born 20 July 1966), commonly referred to by his initials EPN, is a Mexican former politician who served as the 64th president of Mexico from 2012 to 2018. A member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), he previously served as Governor of the State of Mexico from 2005 to 2011, local deputy from 2003 to 2004, and Secretary of Administration from 2000 to 2002.

Born in Atlacomulco and raised in Toluca, Peña Nieto attended Panamerican University, graduating with a B.A. in legal studies. After attaining an MBA from ITESM, he began his political career by joining the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1984. After serving as a public notary in Mexico City, he began an ascent through local political ranks in the late 1990s, culminating in his 2005 campaign for Governor of the State of Mexico. As governor, he pledged to deliver 608 compromisos (commitments) to his constituency to varying levels of success. His tenure was marked by low-to-moderate approval of his handling of a rising murder rate, the San Salvador Atenco civil unrest, and various public health issues. He launched his 2012 presidential campaign on a platform of economic competitiveness and open government. After performing well in polls and a series of high-profile candidate withdrawals, Peña Nieto was elected president with 38.14% of the vote.

As president, he instated the multilateral Pact for Mexico, which soothed inter-party fighting and led to increased legislation across the political spectrum. During his first four years, Peña Nieto led an expansive breakup of monopolies, liberalized Mexico's energy sector, reformed public education, and modernized the country's financial regulation.[1] However, political gridlock and allegations of media bias gradually worsened corruption, crime, and drug trade in Mexico. Global drops in oil prices limited the success of his economic reforms, which lowered political support for Peña Nieto. His handling of the Iguala mass kidnapping in 2014 and the escape of drug lord Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán from Altiplano prison in 2015 sparked international criticism. Guzmán himself claims to have bribed Peña Nieto during his trial.[2] As of 2022, he is additionally part of the Odebrecht controversy, with former Pemex CEO Emilio Lozoya Austin declaring that Peña Nieto's presidential campaign benefited from illegal campaign funds provided by Odebrecht in exchange for future favors.[3][4][5]

Historical evaluations and approval rates of his presidency have been mostly negative. Detractors highlight a series of failed policies and a strained public presence while supporters note increased economic competitiveness and loosening of gridlock. He began his term with an approval rate of 50%, hovered around 35% during his inter-years, and finally bottomed out at 12% in January 2017. He left office with an approval rating of only 18% and 77% of disapproval.[6][7] Peña Nieto is seen as one of the most controversial and least popular presidents in the history of Mexico.[8][9]

Early life and education[edit]

Enrique Peña Nieto was born on 20 July 1966 in Atlacomulco, State of Mexico, a city 55 miles (89 km) northwest of Mexico City.[10] He is the oldest of four siblings; his father, Gilberto Enrique Peña del Mazo, was an electrical engineer; his mother, María del Perpetuo Socorro Ofelia Nieto Sánchez, was a schoolteacher.[10] He is the nephew of two former governors of the State of México: on his mother's side, Arturo Montiel; on his father's, Alfredo del Mazo González.[11][12] He attended Denis Hall School in Alfred, Maine, during one year of junior high school in 1979 to learn English.[10] After living in Atlacomulco for the first 11 years of his life, Peña Nieto's family moved to the city of Toluca.[13]

In 1975, his father would often take him to the campaign rallies of the State of Mexico's governor, Jorge Jiménez Cantú, a close friend of Peña del Mazo. The successor of the governor was Alfredo del Mazo González, a cousin of Peña Nieto's father. During Del Mazo González's campaign in 1982, the fifteen-year-old Peña Nieto had his first direct contact with Mexican politics: he began delivering campaign literature in favor of his relative, a memory Peña Nieto recalls as the turning point and start of his deep interest in politics.

In 1985 at the age of 18, Peña Nieto traveled to Mexico City and enrolled in the Panamerican University, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in legal studies.[14] Peña Nieto's academic thesis was found to contain some improper citations and plagiarism, which stirred controversy in May 2016.[15][16] Peña Nieto sought a master's degree in Business Administration (MBA) at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM),[17][18] based in the State of Mexico.

Political beginnings[edit]

Peña Nieto in 2012

Peña Nieto joined the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1984, and with a law degree nearly completed, he began earning his own money.[19] During his final years in college, Peña Nieto worked for a public notary in Mexico City, around the same time his relative Alfredo del Mazo González was mentioned as a firm candidate for the 1988 presidential elections.[19] In his twenties, he worked at the San Luis Industrial Corporation, an auto parts manufacturer, and at the law firm Laffan, Muse, and Kaye. While still a student at the Universidad Panamericana, he roomed with Eustaquio de Nicolás, the current president of Homex, a leading Mexican construction and real estate company. He also befriended and roomed with Luis Miranda, who occupied several offices during the 1999–2000 administration in the State of Mexico.[19]

Peña Nieto formally started his political career under the mentorship of Montiel Rojas, becoming the Secretary of the Citizen Movement of Zone I of the State Directive Committee of the National Confederation of Popular Organizations (CNOP), one of the three sectors of the PRI. For three consecutive years, Peña Nieto participated as a delegate to the Organization and Citizen Front in different municipalities of the State of Mexico. Then, between 1993 and 1998, during Emilio Chuayfett's term as governor, Peña Nieto was chief of staff and personal secretary to Montiel Rojas, the Secretary of Economic Development of the State of Mexico.[19]

After 1999, Peña Nieto went from having low-level secretary positions to higher and more qualified offices.[20] He served from 1999 to 2000 as the sub-secretary of government,[21] and as financial sub-coordinator of the political campaign of Montiel Rojas.[19] In 2001, Montiel Rojas named Peña Nieto Sub-secretary of Interior in the State of Mexico, a position that granted him the opportunity to meet and forge relationships with top PRI politicians and business leaders. After his term concluded, he served as the administrative secretary, as president of the Directive Council of Social Security, as president of the Internal Council of Health, and as vice president of the National System for Integral Family Development – all in the State of Mexico.[20] Under the wing of Montiel Rojas, Peña Nieto formed a group known as the "Golden Boys of Atlacomulco" with other members of the PRI.[22]

Campaign for Governor[edit]

Peña Nieto was elected to a local deputy position in his hometown of Atlacomulco, State of Mexico, in 2003.[23][24] Two years later, the governorship of the State of Mexico was sought by Atlacomulco-natives Carlos Hank Rhon, Isidro Pastor, Héctor Luna de la Vega, Guillermo González Martínez, Óscar Gustavo Cárdenas Monroy, Eduardo Bernal Martínez, Cuauhtémoc García Ortega and Fernando Alberto García Cuevas.[24] Peña Nieto was among the crowd but was not poised as one of the favorites.[24] Nonetheless, in 2005, Peña Nieto was the last man standing, succeeding Montiel Rojas as governor of the State of Mexico.[25] On 12 February 2005, with 15,000 supporters in attendance, he was sworn in as a candidate for the PRI.[26]

Governor of the State of Mexico (2005–2011)[edit]

Peña Nieto at the World Economic Forum (2010)

On 15 September 2005, Peña Nieto was sworn in as governor of the State of Mexico at the Morelos Theater in Toluca. Among the attendees were the outgoing governor, Arturo Montiel; the president of the Superior Court of Justice, José Castillo Ambriz; former governors, members of Peña Nieto's cabinet and party, mayors, businessmen, and church figures.[27] The centerpiece of Peña Nieto's governorship was his claim that he was to deliver his compromisos – 608 promises he signed in front of a notary to convince voters that he would deliver results and be an effective leader.[28] According to El Universal, during Peña Nieto's first year as governor, his administration delivered 10 of the structural promises he had advocated in his campaign – marking the lowest figure in his six-year term.[29]

By 2006, his administration carried out 141 of the promised projects, making that year the most active in the governor's term. The 608 projects Peña Nieto proposed consisted of creating highways, building hospitals, and creating adequate water systems to provide fresh water throughout the state. The most important of these was highway infrastructure, which tripled under Peña's government. By mid-2011, the official page of the State of Mexico noted that only two projects were left.[29] The major projects in public transportation were the Suburban Railway of the Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area and the "Mexibús", both of which served commuters between Mexico City and the State of Mexico, providing service to more than 300,000 people every day and 100 million a year. Regarding public health services, 196 hospitals and medical centers were built throughout the state and the number of mobile units to attend remote and vulnerable areas doubled.[30] Deaths caused by respiratory diseases were reduced by 55%, while deaths caused by dysentery and cervical cancer were reduced by 68% and 25% respectively. In addition, between 2005 and 2011, the State of Mexico was able to fulfill the requirement of the World Health Organization of having one doctor for every 1,000 inhabitants. The funds for these and all the other commitments were obtained through restructuring the state's public debt, a strategy designed by his first Secretary of Finance, Luis Videgaray Caso. The restructuring also managed to keep the debt from increasing during Peña Nieto's term because the tax base was broadened to the point that it doubled in six years.[30]

Peña Nieto also claimed that he halved the murder rate in the State of Mexico during his time as governor,[31] but retracted this claim after The Economist showed that the murder rate did not diminish and was being measured differently.[32]

The Yo Soy 132 student movement criticized Peña Nieto for his stance on the San Salvador Atenco unrest, which occurred during his term as governor.[33] A report from the National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) stated protestors were subjected to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment, arbitrary arrests, and sexual assault, and remarked on the excessive use of force by state and federal police.[34][35] Peña Nieto stated in an interview that he does not justify the actions of the state and municipal forces, but also mentioned that they were not gladly received by the citizens of San Salvador Atenco upon their arrival.[33][36]

Presidential campaign[edit]

Peña Nieto campaigning in 2012

On 23 November 2011, Peña Nieto went to a book fair in Casa del Lago, Mexico City. There he presented his book México, la gran esperanza (Mexico, the great hope). He was accompanied by writer Héctor Aguilar Camín, the former governor of Mexico's Central Bank, Guillermo Ortiz Martínez, and the journalist Jaime Sánchez Susarrey. In the book, Peña Nieto argued that Mexico needed to expand its economy to create more jobs, insisting that in the past the country has only created jobs in the informal sector.[37] Additionally, he argued that promoting Pemex (Mexico's state-owned oil company) to compete in the private sector would create more jobs, elevate productivity, and balance wealth distribution across Mexico. Peña Nieto dedicated the book to his wife Angélica Rivera and to governor Eruviel Ávila Villegas and his family.[37] Peña Nieto said that the return of the PRI marks a new era in Mexico and that his book served as a starting point to take Mexico "to better horizons".[38]

On 27 November 2011, a few days after the book fair, Peña Nieto was the PRI's last standing nominee for the 2012 Mexican presidential elections. The former State of Mexico governor completed his nomination at an event that gathered sympathizers and politicians.[39] Six days earlier, the senator and preliminary candidate of the PRI, Manlio Fabio Beltrones, withdrew from the race and gave Peña Nieto a clear path toward the presidency.[40] During a book fair a month later, Peña Nieto's public image came into question after he struggled to answer a question that asked which three books had marked his life.[41] Later, Peña Nieto was interviewed by El País and admitted that he did not know the price of tortillas. When he was criticized as being out of touch, Peña Nieto insisted that he was not "the woman of the household" and thus would not know the price.[42]

His campaign was supported by the Commitment to Mexico alliance.[43]


Celebration of the electoral victory of Enrique Peña Nieto as president of the republic.

On 1 July 2012, Mexico's presidential election took place. In an initial, partial count issued that night, the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) announced that based on a fast vote counting, Peña Nieto was leading the election with 38% of the votes.[44] His nearest competitor, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was just 6 points behind him. The figures were meant to be a representative sample of the votes nationwide; but shortly after this announcement, Peña Nieto appeared on national television claiming victory. "This Sunday, Mexico won", he said. He then thanked his voters and promised to run a government "responsible and open to criticism." At the PRI headquarters in Mexico City, the victory party began.[44] With more than 97% of the votes counted on election day, the PRI had won with about 38% of the votes, 6.4 points above the leftist candidate López Obrador of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), who refused to concede to the results and had threatened to challenge the outcome, criticizing the PRI for allegedly engaging in vote buying and receiving illegal campaign contributions.[45][46]

Presidency (2012–2018)[edit]

Lunch with heads of State México, D.F. 1 December 2012.

Peña Nieto was sworn in as President of Mexico on 1 December 2012 at the federal congress and later flew to a military parade to formally take control of the armed forces. During his inauguration speech at the National Palace, Peña Nieto proposed his agendas and reforms for the new administration. Before and after the inauguration, in an event that has been labeled by the media as the 1DMX,[47][48][49][50] protesters rioted outside of the National Palace and clashed with Federal Police forces, vandalizing hotel structures and setting fires in downtown Mexico City. More than 90 protesters were arrested and several were injured. Mayor Marcelo Ebrard blamed "anarchist groups" for the violence.[51][52] However, there is evidence that agents of provocation worked with the police, and paid 300 Mexican pesos (about US$20) for their acts of vandalism, according to media reports.[53] Photos show protesters waiting in groups behind police lines before the violence.[54] Previous protests had been entirely peaceful, but on this occasion, in apparent response to violence, the police fired rubber bullets.[55] The day after his inauguration, Peña Nieto announced the Pact for Mexico, an agreement that he had struck with the leaders of the two other major parties at the time, Jesús Zambrano Grijalva of the Party of the Democratic Revolution and Gustavo Madero Muñoz of the National Action Party, about the government's goals for the next few years.[56] On 1 December 2018, Enrique Peña Nieto left office and was succeeded by Andrés Manuel López Obrador.

Economic policy[edit]

Peña Nieto and Takanobu Ito at the inauguration of the Honda plant in Celaya, Guanajuato on 21 February 2014.

The auto manufacturing industry expanded rapidly under Nieto's presidency. In 2014, more than US$10 billion was committed to investment in the sector. In conjunction with Kia Motors in August 2014, the president announced plans for Kia to build a US$1 billion factory in Nuevo León. At the time, Mercedes-Benz and Nissan were already building a US$1.4 billion plant near Puebla, while BMW was planning a US$1 billion assembly plant in San Luis Potosí. Audi began building a US$1.3 billion factory near Puebla in 2013.[57] As of December 2014, two years into Peña Nieto's term, total investment in the auto sector in Mexico had reached US$19 billion.[58] The Bajío Region has received the majority of this investment, and with its rapidly expanding aerospace industry has become the fastest-growing region in the country.[59] In February 2014, Time was met with controversy for the release of a cover featuring Enrique Peña Nieto with the caption "Saving Mexico" (written by Michael Crowley),[60] as the cover article's title inside the magazine.[61] The controversial article praised the president and his cabinet for reforms like opening oil fields for foreign investment for the first time in 75 years (a reform towards which Mexican citizens have shown mixed feelings), ending the Mexican drug wars (which was not completely accurate), and even going as far as saying "the opposition party blocked major reforms that were necessary", that "American leaders could learn a thing or two from their resurgent southern neighbor" and saying Mexicans citizens' "alarms were replaced with applause".[62]

According to the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), between December 2012 and June 2016, more than two million jobs were created in Mexico. Of those jobs, 41% were taken by women and 36% were taken by individuals between 20 and 34 years of age. IMSS also revealed that 86% were long-term jobs and 14% were temporary. These jobs have led to a 26% increase in revenue accumulation for IMSS, an additional MXN$50 billion. More than half a million jobs had salaries worth five minimum wages (about MXN$10,000 per month) and there was a 22% increase in jobs with salaries greater than 20 minimum wages.[63]

Special economic zones[edit]

President Enrique Peña Nieto, President Donald Trump, and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau sign the USMCA agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018.

At the end of May 2016, Peña Nieto signed a law that would create special economic zones in economically depressed southern states. The first three are Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán; Port Chiapas, Chiapas; and in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to better join the ports of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz and Salina Cruz, Oaxaca. Another zone in the petroleum region of Tabasco and Campeche, hit by the downturn in the oil industry, is planned for 2017.[64]

The special economic zones are meant to alleviate the lack of industry in the South. During the signing, Peña Nieto highlighted the difference between the South and the industrial North and Center of Mexico: two of every three people in extreme poverty in Mexico live in the southern states.[citation needed] While the three poorest states (Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Guerrero) have about 10% of the population, they only receive $1 of every $36 in foreign direct investment in the country. He went on to say that there are two Mexicos: one "that competes and wins in the global economy, with growing levels of income, development and well-being", while the other Mexico "has been left behind [and] hasn't been able to take advantage of its potential."[64]

The special economic zones will offer tax incentives (exemption from the 16% VAT),[65] trade and customs benefits, and the streamlining of regulatory processes.[64] There will also be an increase in infrastructure spending in these regions. Private administrators will run the zones on 40-year contracts (managing infrastructure and attracting tenants).[65][needs update] According to Peña Nieto, at the latest, each of these zones will have an anchor tenant that will attract suppliers and other industries in the supply chain by 2018. The World Bank advised Mexico during the formulation of the special economic zones plan.[64]

Domestic policy[edit]

Funeral of Luis Nishizawa, President Enrique Peña Nieto (right) attended to pay respects to the painter.

Peña Nieto enacted a public education reform that aimed to curb the powerful teachers' union, Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la Educación (SNTE), improve standards, centralize the process for hiring, evaluating, promoting, and retaining teachers, and crack down on corruption – such as wages for non-existent "ghost teachers".[66][67] Five years after its signing, the plan has barely affected standards: Mexico still ranks last in education among the 35 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries and the Secretariat of Public Education spent more money on communications (2,700% more on communications in 2017 than was budgeted) than on teacher training.[67]

Security policy[edit]

President Enrique Peña Nieto and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Claudia Ruiz Massieu visit the monument to the 201st Fighter Squadron in Manila, November 2015.

While campaigning, Peña Nieto appointed a former general of the National Police of Colombia as his external advisor for public security and promised to reduce the murder rate in Mexico by 50% by the end of his six-year term.[68][69] Critics of Peña Nieto's security strategy, however, said that he offered "little sense" in exactly how he will reduce the violence.[70][68] During the three-month campaign, Peña Nieto was not explicit on his anti-crime strategy, and many analysts wondered whether he was holding back politically sensitive details or simply did not know how he would attempt to squelch the violence and carry out the next stage in Mexico's drug war.[68] United States officials were worried that the election of Peña Nieto's Institutional Revolutionary Party may mean a return to the old PRI tactics of "corruption [and] backroom deals" with the cartels in exchange for bribes and relative peace.[71][72]

President Enrique Peña Nieto, accompanied by Cabinet members, holds a press conference in the Palacio Nacional announcing the capture of Joaquín Guzmán.

In 2012, the president-elect emphasized that he did not support the involvement or presence of armed United States agents in Mexico but considered allowing the United States to instruct Mexico's military training in counterinsurgency tactics. Beyond that, Peña Nieto promised that no other measures would be taken by the States in Mexico.[73]

The security policy of Peña Nieto prioritized the reduction of violence rather than attacking Mexico's drug-trafficking organizations head-on, marking a departure from the strategy of the previous six years during Felipe Calderón's administration. One of the biggest contrasts is the focus on lowering murder rates, kidnappings, and extortions, as opposed to arresting or killing the country's most-wanted drug lords and intercepting their shipments.[70]

On 13 December 2012, a law was approved that included far-reaching security reforms. Mexico's Interior Ministry, greatly strengthened by the bill, was made solely responsible for public security. Part of Peña Nieto's strategy consists of the creation of a national police of 40,000 members, known as a "gendarmerie". The Economist reported that the gendarmerie would have an initial strength of 10,000, but the Washington Office on Latin America reported that it was reduced to 5,000 members and would not be operational until July 2014.[74] The Interior Ministry announced that 15 specialized police units were being formed to exclusively focus on major crimes that include kidnapping and extortion, along with a new task force dedicated to tracking missing persons.[75] Peña Nieto also proposed centralizing the sub-federal police forces under one command.[70]

In December 2017, the Law of Internal Security [es] was passed by legislation but was met with criticism, especially from the National Human Rights Commission, accusing it of giving the President a blank check.[76][77][78]

Energy policy[edit]

NAFTA leaders U.S. President Barack Obama, Mexican President Peña Nieto, and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, 2014.

During the presidential campaign, Peña Nieto promised to allow private investment in Pemex, Mexico's state-owned oil company. He also indicated interest in an economic agreement with Petrobras, Brazil's oil company.[79] By liberalizing Pemex, investors say Peña Nieto's proposal could allow joint ventures and private investment in the oil company.[80]

According to the Financial Times in 2012, Peña Nieto's PRI government, which held just over 38% of the votes in Congress, might have difficulty gaining a majority to pass such reforms, or the two-thirds majority needed to change the Mexican constitution.[80] Pemex was founded through the nationalization of foreign oil interests, and the Mexican constitution bans major outside investments.[81] Changing Pemex could transform the psychology of Mexico's business sector and involve cultural and political changes that cannot be rushed.[80][81] President Lázaro Cárdenas led the expropriation of foreign oil company assets in 1938 to form Pemex, which has served as a symbol of national identity.[82]

Eric Martin of Bloomberg News stated that if Peña Nieto wants to invite investment, he will have to face the challenges of union leaders and local officials who have benefited from the oil company's bonanza.[81] Productivity in Pemex has been declined in the 2000s.[82] Peña Nieto declared while campaigning that overhauling Pemex will be the PRI's and his "signature issue", and that he will encourage private companies to invest in exploration and development activities.[81] Following Peña Nieto's hike in the price of gasoline as a result of his privatization of the Mexican oil industry, protests erupted nationwide. Protestors blockaded major highways, forced the closing of foreign borders, and shut down gas stations.[83]

Foreign policy[edit]

2016 visit by Donald Trump[edit]

Peña Nieto with Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, February 2015
Peña Nieto meets with U.S. president Donald Trump at the G20 Hamburg summit, July 2017.
Peña Nieto at the Élysée Palace with French president Emmanuel Macron, 2017
Visit to Israel for the state funeral of former president Shimon Peres

Peña Nieto invited U.S. Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump to visit on 31 August 2016 and appeared with him in a press conference. Peña Nieto was criticized for extending the invitation to Trump,[84] and following the conference, journalist Jorge Ramos criticized Peña Nieto for not using the opportunity to publicly contradict Trump's campaign promise to make Mexico pay for his proposed Mexico–United States border wall, as well as what Ramos called, Trump's "attacks on Latin American immigrants, his rejection of free trade agreements and his scorn for global organizations."[85] Despite this, Peña Nieto stated on his Twitter that he made it clear to Trump that Mexico would not pay for the wall,[86] only to shortly after get a reply from Donald Trump saying: "Mexico will pay for the wall!"[87][88]

Trump's presidency and border wall[edit]

Peña Nieto and Trump were to meet on 26 January 2017, until Trump wrote on his Twitter account: "If Mexico is unwilling to pay for the badly needed wall, then it would be better to cancel the upcoming meeting". This directly led Peña Nieto to cancel his visit to the U.S. president.[89][90] In an interview with Aristegui Noticias, Washington-based freelance journalist Dolia Estévez said she obtained access to part of a one-hour phone conversation between the two presidents the day of the scheduled meeting. She stated, "Trump humiliated Peña Nieto", and said that the conversation only lasted 20 minutes. She also explained that the speech was prolonged to an hour due to translation efforts because Trump does not speak Spanish and likewise Peña Nieto does not understand English.[91][92][93] While many media outlets praised Peña Nieto for canceling the visit with Trump, Forbes Mexico stated that despite showing support toward Peña Nieto for canceling such an event, "that shouldn't translate in forgiveness to what happens within our country [Mexico]" adding that "a state incapable of bringing credibility and stability could not grow", and that more than Trump, the thing keeping Mexico from prosperity was the corruption within the Mexican government.[94]


Publicity and public image[edit]

As of July 2017, Oxford University's Computational Propaganda Research Project claimed Mexico's social media manipulation (Peñabots) to come directly from the Mexican government itself.[95][96]

A December 2017 article in The New York Times reported Enrique Peña Nieto spent about 2 billion dollars on publicity during his first five years as president, the largest publicity budget ever spent by a Mexican President.[97]

Iguala mass kidnapping[edit]

In September 2014, 43 male college students were forcibly taken and then disappeared in Guerrero. The forced mass disappearance of the students arguably became the biggest political and public security scandal Peña Nieto had faced during his administration. It led to nationwide protests, particularly in the state of Guerrero and Mexico City, and international condemnation.[98]

Freedom of the press[edit]

During his tenure as president, Peña Nieto has been accused of failing to protect journalists, whose deaths have been speculated to be politically triggered by officials attempting to prevent coverage of scandals. On 29 April 2017, The New York Times published a news report titled "In Mexico, 'It's Easy to Kill a Journalist'", which covered the high rate of deaths and disappearances of journalists in Mexico and declared Mexico had become "one of the worst countries in the world to be a journalist today."[99]

In November 2014, an article was published by journalist Carmen Aristegui, indicating that a $7 million "White House" owned by Enrique Peña Nieto and his wife Angelica Rivera, in Lomas de Chapultepec was registered under the name of a company affiliated with a business group that had received government contracts to build a bullet train.[100] The revelation of the potential conflict of interest in the acquisition of the house aggravated discontent about the government. Rivera released a video in which she detailed her income as a former soap opera actress, stating that she was selling the house and that the property was not under her name because she had not made the full payment yet. She later deleted the video.[101] Shortly after revealing the Mexican White House incident, Carmen Aristegui was controversially fired from her radio show at MVS Communications. As noted by The New York Times, Aristegui being fired was perceived as censorship toward news journalism and freedom of speech.[102] Aristegui took it to trial and by June 2018, three years after MVS fired her, the jury determined that it was indeed unconstitutional and against the law, to fire her and indeed was an act of censorship towards the freedom of speech.[103][104] Peña Nieto's successor in the presidency of Mexico, Andres Manuel López Obrador, promised Aristegui would be free to return to radio if she wanted and that there would be no more unfair censorship towards the freedom of speech.[105]

On 19 June 2017, The New York Times, in conjunction with Carmen Aristegui and Televisa news reporter Carlos Loret de Mola, reported that the Mexican government had used the Pegasus spyware to surveil targets such as reporters, human rights leaders, and anti-corruption activists using text messages as lures. From 2011 to 2017, the Mexican government spent $80 million on spyware. Pegasus infiltrates a person's cell phone and reports on their messages, e-mails, contacts, and calendars.[106][107]

In 2016, Aristegui revealed in a special report arguing that Enrique Peña Nieto had committed plagiarism in his law thesis, at least a third of it, with 197 out of 682 paragraphs being unsourced or wrongly sourced works.[108][109]

Allegations of corruption[edit]

The president of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, visit Juchitán, after the 2017 Chiapas earthquake.

In October 2017, Santiago Nieto Castillo, the head of the Office for Election-related Crimes (FEPADE), was controversially removed from office, shortly after opening an investigation into illicit campaign money during the 2012 presidential campaign, received by Peña Nieto and would be president of Pemex, Emilio Lozoya Austin from the Brazilian conglomerate Odebrecht.[110] In December 2017, The New York Times published accusations that Peña Nieto's government was blocking investigations against public corruption, with a commissioner saying the government was preventing the establishment of an impartial leader in FEPADE.[111] 22 ex-governors, all members of the PRI, were investigated for corruption with five jailed.

In March 2018, during the campaign period for the 2018 presidential election, the Prosecutor General's Office (PGR) opened an investigation into the PAN's candidate, Ricardo Anaya, for money laundering. Santiago Nieto said that the accusations toward Anaya were minor in comparison to the Odebrecht and Peña Nieto scandal, as well as the SEDESOL scandal (in which 435 million pesos were lost) or the corruption amongst governors from the PRI such as Javier Duarte and César Duarte Jáquez (both who were later arrested).[112][113] Santiago Nieto further charged that the PGR and FEPADE were not being neutral and were instead being used as tools by Peña Nieto's government to tamper with the upcoming election, by investigating Anaya, a political opponent, and not José Antonio Meade, a political ally.[114]

In an interview with The Wall Street Journal, Santiago Nieto would later reveal that Peña Nieto's government tried to bribe him to keep him silent, which he refused by saying "Sorry, but I can't receive any money from Peña Nieto." He subsequently received threatening calls with the words "Death follows you" and "Words of advice: stay out of Trouble."[115]

The Brazilian conglomerate Odebrecht, which is accused of corruption and bribes throughout Latin America,[116] is under investigation for allegedly overriding Peña Nieto's presidential campaign with illegal campaign funds. In exchange for campaign funds, the Peña Nieto administration allegedly granted contracts to Odebrecht through state-owned Pemex.[117] An Odebrecht employee told a Brazilian court that he had been asked to pay a bribe to Lozoya, then head of Pemex.[118] In March 2018, PRI legislators voted to stop the investigation into Odebrecht, which drew criticism.[119] The investigation against Emilio Loyoza, then-head of Pemex, was also controversially ceased after a judge ordered it days later.[120]

While in office, Peña Nieto invoked two constitutional rights related to prosecution: amparo and fuero. Amparo gives anyone accused of a crime the right to know which crimes they are being accused of; it is mostly used by people expecting to go to trial and is used to allow the prosecuted person to build a defense with the help of a lawyer.[121] Fuero protects political figures from prosecution committed during their time in office, in effect delaying any investigations against him until the end of their terms.[122] Peña Nieto is the first Mexican president to invoke either right.

In 2020, Lozoya was detained by the Mexican government. In his trial statements, he testified against Peña Nieto and Luis Videgaray (the former Minister of Finance during Peña's government). He detailed that following Peña's orders, he acted as the middle-man between Peña Nieto and Odebrecht, stating that Peña Nieto's presidential campaign benefited from illegal campaign funds provided by Odebrecht, in exchange for future favors. According to the triangulation investigations that proved Lozoya guilty, he received $10 million from Odebrecht. During his trial, Lozoya described the payments for facilitating the exchange as a middle-man.[3][4][5] Lozoya and Videgaray are featured prominently in spots from the 2012 presidential campaign.[123] Mexican journalist Carlos Loret de Mola described being contacted by Peña Nieto's state, and being told the former president described himself as "unaware of Lozoya's corruption". Loret de Mola also said Peña Nieto was already in contact with his successor, Andres Manuel López Obrador, to declare his version of the events. Loret de Mola said that Peña Nieto was "going to get lost within his own lies", during the trial.[124]

On November 12, 2020, the Attorney General's Office (FGR) officially accused Peña Nieto of being a "traitor to the country and of electoral fraud due to the Odebrecht scandal" along with Lozoya and Videgaray.[125][126]

During United States of America v. Joaquín Guzmán Loera, Guzmán's lawyer alleged that the Sinaloa drug cartel had paid "hundreds of millions of dollars" in bribes to Peña Nieto and his predecessor, Felipe Calderón; both presidents denied the claims, with Peña Nieto's spokesman calling the claims "completely false and defamatory".[127] Alex Cifuentes, who described himself as Guzmán's "right-hand man", later testified that Peña Nieto originally asked for $250 million before settling on $100 million.[2]

Allegations of crimes against humanity[edit]

In 2016, a report by the Open Justice Society Initiative claimed that there are "reasonable grounds" to believe that both the Mexican army and drug cartels had committed crimes against humanity during the Mexican Drug War. The report accused both Peña Nieto and his predecessor Felipe Calderón of "almost completely failing" to ensure accountability for the actions of the Mexican army, and of denying or minimizing the scale of the atrocities.[128] In June 2018, human rights organizations presented documents alleging slayings, tortures, rapes, and forced disappearances to the International Criminal Court, and called on them to investigate.[129]

Public image[edit]

Media gaffes[edit]

Enrique Peña Nieto and Angélica Rivera in the 2012 Mexican Teleton

Peña Nieto has had occasional lapses in memory or gaffes during public events or interviews.[130] The most-noted incident occurred during the International Book Fair of Guadalajara on 3 December 2011.[131] On that day, during a question and answer session, he was asked by an audience member to name three books that had influenced him, being only able to correctly reference the Bible.[132][133] He then "rambled, tossing out confused title names, asking for help in recalling authors and sometimes mismatching" the two others.[134] Other incidents have involved him not being able to recall Benito Juárez's year of birth,[135] being unable to remember the acronym of the Federal Institute of Access to Information (IFAI),[136][137] changing the date of foundation of the state of Hidalgo,[138][139] mistaking the capital of the State of Veracruz,[140] mentioning the U.S. presidential candidate "La señora Hillary Trump" (Mrs. Hillary Trump),[141] among others,[142] of varying degree of substantiation or credibility. These have gone viral on social media, especially Twitter[143][144] and a website that counts the number of days since his last gaffe.[145]

Allegations of media bias[edit]

President Enrique Peña Nieto meets with former Cuban President Fidel Castro in La Habana
Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan in the gardens of Los Pinos during a visit in September 2014.


Televisa, the largest conglomerate broadcasting in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking countries was accused of tilting their coverage towards Peña Nieto ahead of the 1 July vote. Thousands of students protested of the perceived bias throughout Mexico City and other cities.[146][147][148]

On 7 June 2018, The Guardian's Jo Tuckman reported about dozens of computer files – forwarded to The Guardian by a source who worked with Televisa but has not been possible to confirm the authenticity of the documents – suggesting that Televisa sold favorable coverage to Peña Nieto when he was governor of the state of Mexico and developed a smear campaign against López Obrador ahead of his first bid for the presidency in 2006.[149] Televisa and the PRI suggested that the documents were false.[150]

Time magazine

On the 24 March 2014 issue of the newsweekly Time, Peña Nieto was on the front cover with the caption, "Saving Mexico".[60] The front cover was met with widespread disapproval from the Mexican public, prompting various spoofs on social media,[151][152] even prompting a petition to have him removed from the cover.

Evaluations as president and legacy[edit]

In August 2016, Peña Nieto's approval ratings dropped to 23 percent (74 percent said they disapproved of his performance), which newspaper Reforma revealed to be the lowest approval rating for a president since they began polling in 1995.[153] The approval decreased to 12% by 19 January 2017.[154]

The lack of popularity and credibility of Peña Nieto's government is perceived to have caused the PRI to suffer monumental defeat in the 2018 Mexican general election, where the party received the lowest vote percentage in its history. The party's presidential candidate, José Antonio Meade, did not win a majority in any of Mexico's 300 voting locations while the PRI was also defeated in each of the nine gubernatorial elections. The presidency of Mexico went to Andrés Manuel López Obrador (from MORENA), who won in a landslide.[155] The PRI also lost to MORENA in Atlacomulco, the hometown of Enrique Peña Nieto.[156][157]

In 2020, López Obrador asked Mexicans if they would like to see former presidents face trial for allegations of corruption. According to a survey conducted by El Universal, 78% of Mexicans wanted the former presidents to face trial, with Peña Nieto the one they wanted to be incarcerated the most.[158][159][160]

In popular culture[edit]

The 2014 Mexican comedy and political satire movie The Perfect Dictatorship had a plot based on the real-life perceived Televisa controversy, which consisted of Mexican citizens heavily perceiving the news media was unfairly favoring PRI candidate Enrique Peña Nieto during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico.[161]

Personal life[edit]

Family life[edit]

Peña Nieto with family in Atlacomulco on the 2012 election day.

In 1993, Peña Nieto married his first wife, Mónica Pretelini (1965–2007) and the couple had three children: Paulina, Alejandro, and Nicole.[162][163] Peña Nieto had two children outside his first marriage; a son with Maritza Díaz Hernández, and another child, with an undisclosed woman, who died as an infant.[164] Pretelini died on 11 January 2007 as the result of an epileptic episode.[162][165] Pretelini played a supporting role during the campaign of Peña Nieto's governorship.[162] In 2008, Peña Nieto began a relationship with Televisa soap opera actress Angélica Rivera, whom he had hired to help publicize his political campaign for the State of Mexico. The couple married in November 2010.[166][167] After his tenure as president ended, Rivera announced their divorce on 8 February 2019.[168]

Peña Nieto is the cousin of Alfredo del Mazo Maza, who served as the governor of the State of Mexico from 2017 to 2023, of which his grandfather, father, distant uncle Arturo Montiel, as well as Peña Nieto himself, have previously been governors.[169]



Pope Francis and President Enrique Peña Nieto, accompanied by First Lady Angélica Rivera, held a meeting in the premises of the Presidential hangar following the Pope's arrival in Mexico.

National honors[edit]

Foreign honors[edit]

Emir of Qatar in the Mexican Palacio Nacional

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tepperman, Jonathan (14 October 2016). "How Mexico's president may have rescued his country". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b "El Chapo 'paid $100m bribe to former Mexican president Peña Nieto'". BBC News. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  3. ^ a b Montes, Juan (11 August 2020). "Ex-Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto Accused of Corruption by Former State-Oil Chief". Wall Street Journal – via www.wsj.com.
  4. ^ a b Krauze, León. "Opinion | A high-profile corruption case could be a major victory for Mexico. Politics must not derail it" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  5. ^ a b Graham, Dave (21 July 2020). "Trial of ex-Pemex boss threatens to lift lid on Mexico's 'cash box'". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
  6. ^ Ortega, Ariadna (24 November 2018). "#FinDeSexenio: Peña Nieto termina su gobierno reprobado por la mayoría". Expansión. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  7. ^ "3. Poor ratings for Peña Nieto, political parties". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. 14 September 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  8. ^ Argen, David (9 January 2016). "Donald Trump is no longer Mexico's most hated man. It's Enrique Peña Nieto". Macleans. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Archibold, Randal C.; Zabludovsky, Karla (3 July 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  10. ^ Estevez, Dolia (16 December 2013). "The 10 Most Corrupt Mexicans of 2013". Forbes. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  11. ^ "Lo que (quizá) no sabes de Enrique Peña Nieto".
  12. ^ Becerril, Andrés (30 April 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto, su hoja de vida: pulcro y protegido". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  13. ^ Becerril, Andrés (1 May 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto, su hoja de vida: despertar político". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  14. ^ "Mexican president Pena Nieto plagiarized law thesis, report says". Reuters. 22 August 2016.
  15. ^ Reyes, Juan Pablo (20 May 2012). "Por sus tesis los conoceréis". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  16. ^ "Enrique Peña Nieto: La cara joven del viejo PRI". Terra Networks (in Spanish). June 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  17. ^ Biography Enrique Peña Nieto Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine – website of the President of Mexico
  18. ^ a b c d e Becerril, Andrés (2 May 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto, su hoja de vida: echado pa'delante". Excélsior (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  19. ^ a b Becerril, Andrés (3 May 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto, su hoja de vida: un despegue firme" (in Spanish). Telenews. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  20. ^ Lantigua, Isabel F. "Enrique Peña Nieto". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  21. ^ Wilkinson, Tracy (9 July 2012). "Mexico's Enrique Peña Nieto, man of mystery". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  22. ^ "Enrique Peña Nieto: ¿Quién es? Se convierte en diputado" (in Spanish). MSN. 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  23. ^ a b c Balderas, Óscar (2 July 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto regresa al PRI a la Presidencia de México". ADN Político (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  24. ^ Graham, Dave (2 July 2012). "REFILE-PROFILE-Enrique Pena Nieto, the new face of Mexico's old rulers". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  25. ^ "Rinde protesta el candidato del PRI a la gubernatura del estado de México". El Universal (in Spanish). 3 February 2005. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  26. ^ "Seis años atrás: Peña Nieto asumió la gubernatura en el Teatro Morelos". Milenio (in Spanish). 12 September 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  27. ^ Lindsay, James M. (2 July 2012). "Hola, Enrique Peña Nieto: President-Elect of Mexico". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  28. ^ a b Islas, Laura (31 August 2011). "Los compromisos de Peña Nieto, año por año". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  29. ^ a b Islas, Laura (5 September 2011). "6to Informe. Peña Nieto, los 10 datos claves de su sexenio". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  30. ^ "Sexto Informe de Gobierno: Enrique Peña Nieto" (PDF) (in Spanish). State of Mexico. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  31. ^ "Crime in Mexico: The governor's miraculous achievement". The Economist. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  32. ^ a b Zapata, Belén (4 June 2012). "Atenco, el tema que 'encendió' a la Ibero y originó #YoSoy132" (in Spanish). CNNMéxico. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  33. ^ "CNDH Recommendation 28/2006: Violence in Texcoco and San Salvador Atenco". Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2006.
  34. ^ "CNDH pide reparar daño por operativos de Atenco", El Universal, 17 October 2006.
  35. ^ "Justifica Peña Nieto uso de la fuerza en Atenco". Esmas.com (in Spanish). 14 May 2006. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  36. ^ a b "Peña Nieto presenta su libro: México, la gran esperanza". Milenio (in Spanish). 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  37. ^ Cárdenas, Jesús (23 November 2011). "En la presentación de su libro, Enrique Peña Nieto dijo que México tiene ante sí la oportunidad de entrar a una nueva etapa de progreso" (in Spanish). Televisa. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  38. ^ Gallardo, Arturo (28 November 2011). "The PRI's unity candidate". San Antonio Express-News. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  39. ^ "Manlio Fabio Beltrones anuncia su declinación a la candidatura del PRI" (in Spanish). CNNMéxico. 21 November 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  40. ^ Stevenson, Mark (5 December 2011). "Mexico top presidential contender can't name books". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  41. ^ Navarrette Jr., Ruben (3 July 2012). "Is Peña Nieto good news for Mexico?". CNN. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  42. ^ "El Universal". archivo.eluniversal.com.mx. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  43. ^ a b Wilkinson, Tracy (2 July 2012). "Enrique Peña Nieto wins Mexico's presidency, early results show". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  44. ^ "Pena Nieto set to become Mexico's president". Al Jazeera. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  45. ^ "Jorge Ramos interviews Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador". 21 November 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  46. ^ "Indemnizan a víctimas del #1DMX". El Universal. 31 August 2016.
  47. ^ "Las huellas psicológicas de las detenciones arbitrarias del #1DMX - Proceso". Proceso. 1 December 2014. Archived from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  48. ^ C.V, DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, S. A. de (10 December 2012). "La Jornada: #1DMX no se olvida". Jornada.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ "¿Quiénes protestaron el 1Dmx y por qué? (primera parte)". 25 November 2013.
  50. ^ Archibold, Richard C. (1 December 2012). "New President of Mexico Vows to Focus on Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  51. ^ Booth, William (1 December 2012). "Pena Nieto sworn in as Mexico's president, vows big change". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  52. ^ "Pagan 300 pesos por generar violencia en toma de Peña Nieto". Animal Político (in Spanish). 3 December 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  53. ^ "Fotos: ¿Quién está detrás de los disturbios del 1 de diciembre?". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). 2 December 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  54. ^ "Provocadores cobraron $300 por actos vandálicos" (in Spanish). 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  55. ^ "With a little help from my friends". The Economist. Mexico City. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  56. ^ "Automaker Kia plans US$1 bn assembly plant in Mexico". Mexico News.Net. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  57. ^ "Volkswagen to announce US$1 billion investment in Mexico: source". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  58. ^ "Crecen estados en México a dos velocidades". El Financiero. Retrieved 17 October 2015. La zona del Bajío ha mostrado un gran dinamismo en los últimos diez años, principalmente impulsada por la llegada de la industria automotriz y aeronáutica, que la ha posicionado como la zona con mayor crecimiento, por encima de la media nacional...
  59. ^ a b Crowley, Michael (24 February 2014). "Saving Mexico: How Enrique Peña Nieto's Sweeping Reforms Have Changed the Narrative in His Narco-Stained Nation". Time. cover.
  60. ^ Crowley, Michael (13 February 2014). "The Committee to Save Mexico". Time.
  61. ^ Crowley, Michael (24 February 2014). "Mexico's New Mission". Time.
  62. ^ "México crea dos millones de empleos en tresose jobs, años". El País. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  63. ^ a b c d Harrup, Anthony. "Mexican President Signs Law for Special Economic Zones". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  64. ^ a b "Mexico's special economic zones: How the bottom half lives". The Economist. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  65. ^ "Mexico's Pena Nieto enacts major education reform". BBC News. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  66. ^ a b Agren, David (15 May 2018). "Mexico's education reforms flounder as more spent on PR than teacher training". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  67. ^ a b c Gomez Licon, Adriana (5 July 2012). "New Mexican president could target small gangs". Fox News. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  68. ^ Hernandez, Daniel (19 June 2012). "Mexico candidate Peña Nieto seeks Colombia drug fighter as advisor". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  69. ^ a b c Corcoran, Patrick (25 June 2012). "What Mexico's Elections Mean for Crime Policy: Part I". InSight Crime. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  70. ^ Sanchez, Raf (29 June 2012). "Mexican election raises fears in Washington". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  71. ^ Sanchez, Raf (30 June 2012). "Presidential favorite worries U.S. officials as Mexicans head to polls". The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  72. ^ "Mexico's Pena Nieto Will Use US Help in Drug War". Fox News. 6 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  73. ^ Meyer, Maureen & Clay Boggs. "One Year into Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto's Administration". Washington Office on Latin America. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  74. ^ "Mexico's new government coming out swinging". The Economist. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  75. ^ "Más poder al Presidente y a las Fuerzas Armadas: las entrañas de la Ley de Seguridad Interior". Aristegui Noticias.
  76. ^ "Mexican National Human Rights Commission Likely to Take Legal Action Against Security Law". The Wire. Reuters. 18 December 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  77. ^ "Mexico's president signs controversial internal-security law but says the supreme court will make the final decision". Business Insider. Reuters. 22 December 2017. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  78. ^ O'Neil, Shannon K. (12 July 2012). "Peña Nieto and Energy Reform". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  79. ^ a b c Wheatley, Jonathan (2 July 2012). "Thinking of investing in Pemex? Don't hold your breath". Financial Times. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  80. ^ a b c d Martin, Eric (12 July 2012). "Pena Nieto Push to Open Mexico Oil Fields Sparks Exxon Interest". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  81. ^ a b Steffy, Loren (18 July 2012). "Peña dangling reforms in front of U.S. oil companies". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  82. ^ Okeowo, Alexis (24 January 2017). "The Gas-Price Protests Gripping Mexico". The New Yorker. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  83. ^ Fernandez de Castro, Rafa (31 August 2016). "We Want to Know – Why Would Peña Nieto Invite Trump to Mexico?". Splinter.
  84. ^ Ramos, Jorge (6 September 2016). "Jorge Ramos: Mexico's Shrinking President". Splinter.
  85. ^ Enrique Peña Nieto [@EPN] (31 August 2016). "Al inicio de la conversación con Donald Trump dejé claro que México no pagará por el muro" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  86. ^ Donald J. Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (1 September 2016). "Mexico will pay for the wall!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  87. ^ Immigration, Elise Foley; Reporter, Politics; Post, The Huffington (1 September 2016). "Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto And Donald Trump Are Now in a Twitter Fight". HuffPost.
  88. ^ "Mexico stunned by Trump tweet on cancelling trip". Fox News. 26 January 2017.
  89. ^ Daniella Diaz. "Mexican president cancels meeting with Trump". CNN. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  90. ^ "Trump humilló a Peña vía telefónica: reporte de Dolia Estévez". Aristegui Noticias. 1 February 2017.
  91. ^ "Trump humilló a Peña y lo amagó con enviar sus tropas a México, revela Dolia Estévez - Proceso". Proceso. 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  92. ^ "Trump, Mexican president opt for phone call instead of visit". The New York Daily News.
  93. ^ Godoy, Daniela García Santibáñez (31 January 2017). "Es la corrupción lo que frena nuestra prosperidad, no Trump". Forbes.
  94. ^ Timberg, Craig (17 July 2017). "Spreading fake news becomes standard practice for governments across the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  95. ^ "Gobierno de México manipula con "bots" las redes sociales: Universidad de Oxford". Proceso (in Spanish). 17 July 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  96. ^ Ahmed, Azam (25 December 2017). Villegas, Paulina (ed.). "Con su enorme presupuesto de publicidad, el gobierno mexicano controla los medios de comunicación". The New York Times (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  97. ^ Garcia-Navarro, Lulu. "What Happened To Mexico's Missing 43 Students In 'A Massacre In Mexico'". NPR. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  98. ^ Ahmed, Azam (29 April 2017). "In Mexico, 'It's Easy to Kill a Journalist'". The New York Times.
  99. ^ Partlow, Joshua (9 November 2014). "Luxurious presidential house draws Mexican press scrutiny" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  100. ^ Webber, Jude (19 November 2014). "Mexico's first lady to sell 'White House' family mansion". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 24 December 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  101. ^ Malkin, Elisabeth (27 March 2015). "In Mexico, Firing of Carmen Aristegui Highlights Rising Pressures on News Media". The New York Times.
  102. ^ "Ya hay sentencia: fue ilegal el despido de Aristegui de MVS (video)". Aristegui Noticias. 21 June 2018.
  103. ^ "Despido de Aristegui de MVS fue ilegal, resuelve tribunal". 21 June 2018.
  104. ^ "Procuraré regreso de #Aristegui y Gutiérrez Vivó a la radio: AMLO". Aristegui Noticias. 15 August 2018.
  105. ^ Ahmed, Azam; Perlroth, Nicole (19 June 2017). "Using Texts as Lures, Government Spyware Targets Mexican Journalists and Their Families". The New York Times.
  106. ^ Agren, David (19 June 2017). "Mexico accused of spying on journalists and activists using cellphone malware". The Guardian.
  107. ^ "Mexico president Enrique Peña Nieto plagiarized thesis for law degree: report". The Guardian. Associated Press. 22 August 2016.
  108. ^ Gajanan, Mahita (22 August 2016). "Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto Accused of Plagiarizing Law Thesis". Time.
  109. ^ "Santiago Nieto 'se echa para atrás' y acepta despido de Fepade". El Financiero (in Spanish). 27 October 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  110. ^ Ahmed, Azam (2 December 2017). "Mexico's Government Is Blocking Its Own Anti-Corruption Drive, Commissioners Say". The New York Times.
  111. ^ Oré, Zachary Fagenson, Diego (8 July 2020). "Fugitive former Mexican governor arrested in Miami". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  112. ^ "Con Robles y Meade hubo desvíos al estilo Estafa Maestra en Sedesol". 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  113. ^ "Por menos que lo que ha hecho la PGR contra Anaya, me removieron a mí: Santiago Nieto". Aristegui Noticias. 2 March 2018.
  114. ^ Montes, Juan (14 March 2018). "Ex-Mexican Prosecutor Says He Was Fired to Stymie Corruption Probe". The Wall Street Journal.
  115. ^ "Politicians suspected in bribery scandal". BBC News. 15 December 2017.
  116. ^ "¿Odebrecht pagó campaña de EPN?". El Universal. 14 August 2017.
  117. ^ Montes, Juan (5 May 2017). "Odebrecht Testimony in Brazil Points to Pemex Bribe in Mexico: Ex-official of Brazilian construction firm testified he was asked to pay $5 million to then-chief of Mexican oil company". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  118. ^ Pérez, D. M. (8 March 2018). "El PRI bloquea en el Congreso una investigación del 'caso Odebrecht'". El Pais.
  119. ^ "Caso Odebrecht deja detenidos en todo el mundo, menos en México". news.culturacolectiva.com. 2 March 2018.
  120. ^ Fabiola (17 October 2018). "Amparo de EPN y su gabinete porque 'algo hicieron y temen que los alcance la justicia': Fiscal". Regeneración (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  121. ^ "Gobierno de Peña Nieto busca anular investigaciones del fuero común contra funcionarios federales" (in Spanish). Aristegui Noticias. 21 October 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  122. ^ "Enrique Peña Nieto. "¿No es así, jóvenes?" el video con Luis Videgaray y Emilio Lozoya". El Universal. 11 August 2020.
  123. ^ "Enrique Peña Nieto manda mensaje a AMLO: 'Si me citan voy a declarar'". Quién. 14 August 2020.
  124. ^ "La FGR acusa al expresidente Peña Nieto de cohecho y traición a la patria".
  125. ^ "Acusa FGR a Peña Nieto de traidor y jefe criminal".
  126. ^ Valero, Maria Jose (13 November 2018). "Mexico's Pena Nieto, Calderon Slam El Chapo's Bribe Allegations". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  127. ^ Cluskey, Pete (8 June 2016). "Mexican politicians may face ICC trial over drugs war". The Irish Times. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  128. ^ Corder, Mike (11 June 2018). "Mexican groups seek ICC probe of drug war crimes by military". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  129. ^ Camarena, Rodrigo (6 December 2011). "Enrique Peña Nieto's Candidacy Shows its Vulnerabilities". Foreign Policy Blogs. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  130. ^ "Mexican poll contender Pena Nieto falters at book event". BBC News. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  131. ^ Stanglin, Douglas (5 December 2011). "Top Mexican candidate can't name 3 most influential books". USA Today. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  132. ^ "Mexican candidate defends his lack of knowledge about books". Fox News. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  133. ^ Stevenson, Mark (5 December 2011). "Mexico: Enrique Pena Nieto, Mexican Presidential Contender, Can't Name Books". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  134. ^ Antezana, Natalia (17 January 2013). "Peña Nieto no idea tiene de en qué años vivió Benito Juárez" (in Spanish). Revolución Tres Punto Cero. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  135. ^ "Censuran en YouTube pifia de Peña Nieto sobre el IFAI". Proceso (in Spanish). 16 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.[permanent dead link]
  136. ^ "Confunde Peña el significado del IFAI". El Diario (in Spanish). 17 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  137. ^ "Ahora Peña confunde año de fundación de Hidalgo". El Siglo de Torreón (in Spanish). 17 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  138. ^ "Peña Nieto equivoca año de fundación del estado de Hidalgo" (in Spanish). Terra. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  139. ^ "Peña Nieto confunde la capital de Veracruz" (in Spanish). CNN Mexico. 3 April 2013. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  140. ^ "Mexican President Defends Trump Meeting". ABC News. 2 September 2016.
  141. ^ "Seis errores de Peña Nieto hacia la Presidencia" (in Spanish). Sexenio. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  142. ^ "México: se burlan de los errores de Peña Nieto". Tiempo Latino (in Spanish). 18 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  143. ^ "Peña Nieto revive a Benito Juárez en 1969: segundo día de errores tras el IFAI" (in Spanish). 17 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  144. ^ "Días sin pendejadas de EPN" [Days Without EPN Mistakes] (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  145. ^ "Mexico students protest alleged media bias". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  146. ^ Tuckman, Jo. "Mexicans protest against 'media bias'". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  147. ^ Leff, Alex. "Mexico youth protest media's flattering coverage of Enrique Peña Nieto". PRI. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  148. ^ Tuckman, Jo. "Computer files link TV dirty tricks to favourite for Mexico presidency". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  149. ^ Tuckman, Jo. "Mexican media scandal: secretive Televisa unit promoted PRI candidate". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  150. ^ Moreno, Carolina. "Enrique Pena Nieto's Time Cover Sparks Outrage in Mexico (Photos)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  151. ^ Leff, Alex. "Time magazine just made lots of enemies in Mexico". Public Radio International. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  152. ^ "Why Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto is so unpopular". NBC News.
  153. ^ "El PRI se queda sin nada: Morena gana 5 gubernaturas y el PAN 3". 2 July 2018.
  154. ^ "El PRI perdió en Atlacomulco, cuna de Enrique Peña Nieto". El Universal. 3 July 2018.
  155. ^ Fabiola (2 July 2018). "Peña Nieto pierde hasta Atlacomulco ante Morena". Regeneración.
  156. ^ "Mayoría de los mexicanos pide juicio a expresidentes". El Universal (in Spanish). 27 August 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  157. ^ "Mexican prosecution opens corruption investigation against ex-president Peña Nieto and ex minister Luis Videgaray". MercoPress. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  158. ^ "El 78% apoya juicio a expresidentes; 6 de cada 10 participarían en consulta". Forbes Mexico (in Spanish). 7 October 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  159. ^ Linthicum, Kate (3 November 2014). "Mexican filmmaker Luis Estrada's satirical agenda hits home". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  160. ^ a b c Cruz, Ángeles (12 January 2007). "Fallece la esposa de Enrique Peña Nieto". La Jornada (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  161. ^ Miselem, Sofia (13 July 2012). "The soap opera life of Mexico's next first lady". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 18 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
  162. ^ D'Artigues, Katia (22 January 2012). "Arman leyendas sobre mi para descalificarme". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  163. ^ Jiménez Jacinto, Rebeca (11 January 2007). "Declaran muerte cerebral a Mónica Pretelini". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  164. ^ "Somos novios, sí". El Universal (in Spanish). 13 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  165. ^ "The soap opera life of Mexico's next first lady". France 24. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
  166. ^ Suárez, Karina; Cullell, Jon Martón (8 February 2019). "Angélica Rivera confirma su divorcio del expresidente mexicano Enrique Peña Nieto". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  167. ^ "La familia Del Mazo-Peña-Montiel sumó ya 23 años en control del Edomex". Vanguardia.
  168. ^ SIPSE, Grupo (19 February 2013). "Peña Nieto recibe la Orden Nacional Juan Mora Fernández". Sipse.com.
  169. ^ "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas" (in Portuguese). Presidência da República Portuguesa. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  170. ^ "Order of Isabella the Catholic, Peña Nieto Induction" (PDF). Spanish Official Journal (BOE). 6 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  171. ^ "Ollanta Humala y Peña Nieto firmaron 10 acuerdos en diversos sectores" (in Spanish). Canal N.pe. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  172. ^ "State Banquet". Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  173. ^ "Sistema de Noticias-Cancillería Guatemala". www.minex.gob.gt.
  174. ^ Ministério das Relações Exteriores - Decreto de 11 de Dezembro de 2015. Published by Imprensa Nacional in Section 1 of Diário Oficial da União of 14 December 2015. ISSN 1677-7042.
  175. ^ "Otorga Peña Orden del Águila Azteca a Rousseff; recibe la Cruz del Sur". Quadratin (in Spanish). 26 May 2015.
  176. ^ "Order of Charles III, Peña Nieto Induction". Spanish Official Journal (BOE). 20 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  177. ^ "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunnan suurristin ketjuineen ulkomaalaiset saajat - Ritarikunnat" (in Finnish). 9 October 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  178. ^ "Mensaje a medios que ofreció el Presidente Enrique Peña Nieto, en el marco de Visita de Estado de la Presidenta de Chile, Michelle Bachelet". gob.mx (in Spanish). Presidencia de la República. Retrieved 8 February 2024.
  179. ^ "Mexico eyes Gulf investment funds". Arab News. 17 January 2016.
  180. ^ "His Highness The Amir receives visiting Mexican President". www.kuna.net.kw. 20 January 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2024.
  181. ^ "Modtagere af danske dekorationer". kongehuset.dk (in Danish). 12 December 2017. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  182. ^ "Prince Henrik of Denmark, President Enrique Pena Nieto and Queen..." Getty Images.
  183. ^ web, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi informatici- reparto. "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana". Quirinale.
  184. ^ "Peña Nieto acude a Argentina para estrechar lazos". 24-horas (in Spanish). 29 July 2016.
  185. ^ "Página Oficial da Presidência da República Portuguesa". www.presidencia.pt.
  186. ^ "Resolución N° 56/018". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 24 December 2020.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Governor of the State of Mexico
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Mexico
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Institutional Revolutionary Party nominee for President of Mexico
Succeeded by