Enron

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This article is about the corporation. For the play, see Enron (play).
Enron Corporation
Public
Traded as NYSE: ENE
Industry Energy
Fate Bankruptcy
Predecessor
Successor
Founded 1985 (1985) in Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Founder Kenneth Lay
Defunct 2007 (2007)
Headquarters 1400 Smith Street
Houston, Texas
, United States
Key people
Number of employees
20,600 (2001)
Website www.enron.com

Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas. It was founded in 1985 as the result of a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, both relatively small regional companies in the U.S. Before its bankruptcy on December 2, 2001, Enron employed approximately 20,000 staff and was one of the world's major electricity, natural gas, communications and pulp and paper companies, with claimed revenues of nearly $111 billion during 2000.[1] Fortune named Enron "America's Most Innovative Company" for six consecutive years.

At the end of 2001, it was revealed that its reported financial condition was sustained by institutionalized, systematic, and creatively planned accounting fraud, known since as the Enron scandal. Enron has since become a well-known example of willful corporate fraud and corruption. The scandal also brought into question the accounting practices and activities of many corporations in the United States and was a factor in the enactment of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002. The scandal also affected the greater business world by causing the dissolution of the Arthur Andersen accounting firm.[2]

Enron filed for bankruptcy in the Southern District of New York in late 2001 and selected Weil, Gotshal & Manges as its bankruptcy counsel. It ended its bankruptcy during November 2004, pursuant to a court-approved plan of reorganization, after one of the most complex bankruptcy cases in U.S. history. A new board of directors changed the name of Enron to Enron Creditors Recovery Corp., and emphasized reorganizing and liquidating certain operations and assets of the pre-bankruptcy Enron.[3] On September 7, 2006, Enron sold Prisma Energy International Inc., its last remaining business, to Ashmore Energy International Ltd. (now AEI).[4]

History[edit]

Pre-merger origins (1925–1985)[edit]

InterNorth[edit]

One of Enron's primary predecessors was the Northern Natural Gas Company, which was formed in 1930, in Omaha, Nebraska just a few months after Black Tuesday. The low cost of natural gas and cheap labor supply during the Great Depression helped to fuel the company's early beginnings. The company doubled in size by 1932 and was able to bring the first natural gas to Minnesota. Over the next 50 years, Northern expanded even more as it acquired many energy companies and created new divisions within. It was reorganized in 1979 as the main subsidiary of a holding company, InterNorth, which was a diversified energy and energy-related products company. Although most of the acquisitions conducted were successful, some ended poorly. InterNorth competed with Cooper Industries over a hostile takeover of Crouse-Hinds Company, who manufactured electrical products. InterNorth was ultimately unsuccessful as Cooper bought out Crouse-Hinds. Cooper and InterNorth feuded over numerous suits over the course of the takeover that were eventually settled after the transaction was completed. The subsidiary Northern Natural Gas operated the largest natural gas pipeline company in North America. By the 1980s, InterNorth became a major force for natural gas production, transmission and marketing as well as for natural gas liquids, and was an innovator in the plastics industry.[5]

Houston Natural Gas[edit]

The Houston Natural Gas (HNG) corporation was initially formed from the Houston Oil Co. in 1925 to provide gas to customers in the Houston market through the building of oil pipelines. Under the leadership of CEO Robert Herring from 1967 to 1981, the company became a large dominant force in the energy sector with a large pipeline network as a result from prosperous period of growth in the early to mid 1970s. This growth was largely seen from the exploitation of unregulated Texas natural gas market and the commodity surge in the early 1970s. Towards the end of the 1970s HNG's luck began to run out with rising gas prices forcing clients to switch to oil. In addition, with the passing of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Texas market was more difficult to profit from and as a result the profits of HNG fell. After Herring's death in 1981, M.D. Matthews briefly took over as CEO in a 3-year stint with initial success but ultimately saw a big dip in earnings that led to his exit. In 1984, Kenneth Lay succeeded Matthews and inherited the troubled, but large diversified energy conglomerate.[6]

Merger[edit]

InterNorth in its conservative success became a target of corporate takeovers. The most prominent being corporate raider Irwin Jacobs.[7] InterNorth CEO Sam Segnar, in searching for a company to merge with to fend off takeover attempts as a poison pill, discovered HNG. In May 1985, Internorth acquired HNG for $2.3 billion, 40% higher than the current market price,[8] in order to avoid the corporate takeover attempt. The combined assets of the two companies would create the second largest gas pipeline system at the time in the United States.[9] Internorth’s north-south pipelines that served Iowa and Minnesota complemented HNG’s Florida and California east-west pipelines well.[8]

Post-merger rise (1985–1991)[edit]

The company was initially named "HNG/InterNorth Inc.", even though InterNorth was technically the parent.[9] At the outset, Segnar was CEO for a short time, before he was fired by the Board of Directors whereupon Lay was tapped to be the new CEO. Lay moved the headquarters of the new company back to energy capital Houston. The company then set out to find a new name, spent upwards of $100,000 in focus groups and consulting before "Enteron" was suggested. The name was eventually dismissed over its apparent likening to an intestine and shortened to "Enron."[7][8] Enron still had some lingering problems leftover from its merger however. The company had to pay off Jacobs over $350 million, who was still a threat, and reorganize the company.[7] Lay sold off any parts of the company that he didn't believe belong in the long-term future of Enron. Lay consolidated all the gas pipeline efforts under the Enron Gas Pipeline Operating Company. In addition, the company began to ramp up its electric power and natural gas efforts. In 1988 and 1989, the company began adding power plants and cogeneration units to its portfolio. In 1989, Jeffrey Skilling, then a consultant at McKinsey & Co., came up with the idea to link natural gas to consumers in more ways, effectively turning natural gas into a commodity. Enron adopted the idea and called it the "Gas Bank." The division's success prompted Skilling to join Enron as the head of the Gas Bank in 1991.[9] Another major development inside Enron was the beginning of the company's pivot to overseas that was expanded upon in the 1990s. Starting in 1989, the company received a $56 million loan from the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) for a power plant in Argentina.

1991–2000[edit]

Over the course of the 1990s, Enron made a few changes to its business plan that greatly improved the perceived profitability of the company. Firstly, Enron invested heavily in overseas assets, specifically energy. Another major shift was the gradual transition of focus from a producer of energy to a company that acted more like an investment firm and sometimes a hedge fund, making profits off the margins of the products it traded. These products were traded through the Gas Bank concept, now called the Enron Finance Corp. headed by Skilling.[7]

Operations as a trading firm[edit]

With the success of the Gas Bank trading natural gas, Skilling looked to expand the horizons of his division, Enron Capital & Trade. Skilling hired Andrew Fastow in 1990 to help with this.

Entrance into the retail energy market[edit]

Starting in 1994 under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, Congress allowed states to deregulate their electricity utilities, allowing them to be opened for competition. California was one such state to do so. Enron, seeing an opportunity with rising prices, was eager to jump into the market. In 1997, Enron acquired Portland General Electric (PGE); while an Oregon utility, it had potential to begin serving the massive California market since PGE was a regulated utility. The new Enron division, Enron Energy, ramped up its efforts by offering discounts to potential customers in California for switching their electric supplier to Enron from their previous supplier starting 1998. Enron Energy also began to sell natural gas to customers in Ohio and wind power in Iowa. However, in 1999, the company ended its retail endeavor, only offering wholesale energy as it was revealed it was spending upwards of $100 million a year.[5][7][9]

Overseas expansion[edit]

Enron, seeing stability after the merger, began to look overseas for new possible energy opportunities in 1991. Enron's first such opportunity was a natural gas power plant utilizing cogeneration that the company built in Teesside, UK.[5][8] The power plant was so large it could produce up to 3% of the United Kingdom's electricity demand with a capacity of over 1,875 megawatts.[10] Seeing the success in England, the company developed and diversified its assets worldwide under the name of Enron International (EI), headed by former HNG executive Rebecca Mark. By 1994, EI's portfolio included assets in Philippines, Australia, Guatemala, Germany, France, India, Argentina, the Caribbean, China, England, Colombia, Turkey, Bolivia, Brazil, Indonesia, Norway, Poland, and Japan. The division was becoming a large share of earnings for Enron, contributing 25% of earnings in 1996. Mark and EI believed the water industry was the next market to be deregulated by authorities and seeing the potential, searched for ways to enter the market, similar to PGE. In 1998, Enron International acquired Wessex Water for $2.88 billion.[11] Wessex Water was renamed as Azurix and began making deals to expand its share. Ultimately, after a promising IPO, the venture was a bust, Mark shed millions of dollars in operating the company was a large reason for Enron's failure.[clarification needed][7][8]

Misleading financial accounts[edit]

Main article: Enron scandal

In 1990, Enron's Chief Operating Officer Jeffrey Skilling hired Andrew Fastow, who was well acquainted with the burgeoning deregulated energy market that Skilling wanted to exploit.[citation needed] In 1993, Fastow began establishing numerous limited liability special purpose entities (a common business practice in the energy sector); however, it also allowed Enron to transfer liability so that it would not appear in its accounts, allowing it to maintain a robust and generally increasing stock price and thus keeping its critical investment grade credit ratings.[citation needed]

Enron was originally involved in transmitting and distributing electricity and natural gas throughout the United States. The company developed, built, and operated power plants and pipelines while dealing with rules of law and other infrastructures worldwide.[citation needed] Enron owned a large network of natural gas pipelines, which stretched ocean to ocean and border to border including Northern Natural Gas, Florida Gas Transmission, Transwestern Pipeline company and a partnership in Northern Border Pipeline from Canada.[citation needed] The states of California, New Hampshire and Rhode Island had already passed power deregulation laws by July 1996, the time of Enron's proposal to acquire Portland General Electric corporation.[12] During 1998, Enron began operations in the water sector, creating the Azurix Corporation, which it part-floated on the New York Stock Exchange during June 1999. Azurix failed to become successful in the water utility market, and one of its major concessions, in Buenos Aires, was a large-scale money-loser.[citation needed] After the relocation to Houston, many analysts[who?] criticized the Enron management as being greatly in debt. Enron management pursued aggressive retribution against its critics, setting the pattern for dealing with accountants, lawyers, and the financial media.[citation needed]

Enron grew wealthy due largely to marketing, promoting power, and its high stock price.[citation needed] Enron was named "America's Most Innovative Company" by the magazine Fortune for six consecutive years, from 1996 to 2001.[13] It was on the Fortune's "100 Best Companies to Work for in America" list during 2000, and had offices that were stunning in their opulence. Enron was hailed by many, including labor and the workforce, as an overall great company, praised for its large long-term pensions, benefits for its workers and extremely effective management until the exposure of its corporate fraud. The first analyst to question the company's success story was Daniel Scotto, an energy market expert at BNP Paribas, who issued a note in August 2001 entitled Enron: All stressed up and no place to go, which encouraged investors to sell Enron stocks, although he only changed his recommendation on the stock from "buy" to "neutral".[14]

As was later discovered, many of Enron's recorded assets and profits were inflated or even wholly fraudulent and nonexistent. One example of fraudulent records was during 1999 when Enron promised to repay Merrill Lynch & Co.'s investment with interest in order to show profit on its books. Debts and losses were put into entities formed "offshore" that were not included in the company's financial statements, and other sophisticated and arcane financial transactions between Enron and related companies were used to eliminate unprofitable entities from the company's books.[citation needed]

The company's most valuable asset and the largest source of honest income, the 1930s-era Northern Natural Gas company, was eventually purchased by a group of Omaha investors, who relocated its headquarters back to Omaha; it is now a unit of Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway Energy. NNG was established as collateral for a $2.5 billion capital infusion by Dynegy Corporation when Dynegy was planning to buy Enron. When Dynegy examined Enron's financial records carefully, they repudiated the deal and dismissed their CEO, Chuck Watson. The new chairman and CEO, the late Daniel Dienstbier, had been president of NNG and an Enron executive at one time and was forced out of Enron by Ken Lay.[citation needed] Dienstbier was an acquaintance of Warren Buffett. NNG continues to be profitable now.[relevant? ]

2001 Accounting scandals[edit]

Main article: Enron scandal

During 2001, after a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures bordering on fraud perpetrated throughout the 1990s involving Enron and its accounting company Arthur Andersen, Enron suffered the largest Chapter 11 bankruptcy in history (since surpassed by those of Worldcom during 2002 and Lehman Brothers during 2008).

Stock Price of Enron from August 2000 to January 2002

As the scandal progressed, Enron share prices decreased from US $90.56 during the summer of 2001, to just pennies.[15] Enron had been considered a blue chip stock investment, so this was an unprecedented event in the financial world. Enron's demise occurred after the revelation that much of its profits and revenue were the result of deals with special purpose entities (limited partnerships which it controlled). This meant that many of Enron's debts and the losses that it suffered were not reported in its financial statements.[citation needed]

A rescue attempt by a similar, smaller energy company, Dynegy, failed during late November due to concerns about an unexpected restatement of earnings.[citation needed] Enron filed for bankruptcy on December 2, 2001. In addition, the scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the world's main accounting companies. The company was found guilty of obstruction of justice during 2002 for destroying documents related to the Enron audit.[citation needed] Since the SEC is not allowed to accept audits from convicted felons, Andersen was forced to stop auditing public companies. Although the conviction was dismissed during 2005 by the Supreme Court, the damage to the Andersen name has prevented it from reviving as a viable business even on a limited scale.

Enron also withdrew a naming-rights deal with the Houston Astros Major League Baseball club to have its name associated with their new stadium, which was known formerly as Enron Field (now Minute Maid Park).[16]

Accounting practices[edit]

Enron used a variety of deceptive, bewildering, and fraudulent accounting practices and tactics to cover its fraud in reporting Enron's financial information. Special Purpose Entities were created to mask significant liabilities from Enron's financial statements. These entities made Enron seem more profitable than it actually was, and created a dangerous spiral in which, each quarter, corporate officers would have to perform more and more financial deception to create the illusion of billions of dollars in profit while the company was actually losing money.[17] This practice increased their stock price to new levels, at which point the executives began to work on insider information and trade millions of dollars' worth of Enron stock. The executives and insiders at Enron knew about the offshore accounts that were hiding losses for the company; however, the investors knew nothing of this. Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow directed the team which created the off-books companies, and manipulated the deals to provide himself, his family, and his friends with hundreds of millions of dollars in guaranteed revenue, at the expense of the corporation for which he worked and its stockholders.[citation needed]

Arthur Andersen Witnesses

During 1999, Enron initiated EnronOnline, an Internet-based trading operation, which was used by virtually every energy company in the United States. Enron president and chief operating officer Jeffrey Skilling began advocating a novel idea: the company didn't really need any "assets".[citation needed] By promoting the company's aggressive investment strategy, he helped make Enron the biggest wholesaler of gas and electricity, trading over $27 billion per quarter. The corporation's financial claims, however, had to be accepted at face value. Under Skilling, Enron adopted mark to market accounting, in which anticipated future profits from any deal were tabulated as if currently real. Thus, Enron could record gains from what over time might turn out to be losses, as the company's fiscal health became secondary to manipulating its stock price on Wall Street during the so-called "Tech boom".[citation needed] But when a company's success is measured by undocumented financial statements, actual balance sheets are inconvenient. Indeed, Enron's unscrupulous actions were often gambles to keep the deception going and so increase the stock price. An advancing price meant a continued infusion of investor capital on which debt-ridden Enron in large part subsisted (much like a financial "pyramid" or "Ponzi scheme"). Attempting to maintain the illusion, Skilling verbally attacked Wall Street Analyst Richard Grubman,[18] who questioned Enron's unusual accounting practice during a recorded conference telephone call. When Grubman complained that Enron was the only company that could not release a balance sheet along with its earnings statements, Skilling replied "Well, thank you very much, we appreciate that . . . asshole." Though the comment was met with dismay and astonishment by press and public, it became an inside joke among many Enron employees, mocking Grubman for his perceived meddling rather than Skilling's offensiveness.[19][20] When asked during his trial, Skilling declared that industrial dominance and abuse was a global problem: "Oh yes, yes sure, it is."[21]

Post-bankruptcy[edit]

Enron initially planned to retain its three domestic pipeline companies as well as most of its overseas assets. However, before emerging from bankruptcy, Enron sold its domestic pipeline companies as CrossCountry Energy for $2.45 billion [22] and later sold other assets to Vulcan Capital Management.[23]

Enron sold its last business, Prisma Energy, during 2006, leaving Enron asset-less.[24] During early 2007, its name was changed to Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation. Its goal is to repay the old Enron's remaining creditors and end Enron's affairs.

Azurix, the former water utility part of the company, remains under Enron ownership, although it is currently asset-less. It is involved in several litigations against the government of Argentina claiming compensation relating to the negligence and corruption of the local governance during its management of the Buenos Aires water concession during 1999, which resulted in substantial amounts of debt (approx. $620 million) and the eventual collapse of the branch.[citation needed]

Soon after emerging from bankruptcy during November 2004, Enron's new board of directors sued 11 financial institutions for helping Lay, Fastow, Skilling and others hide Enron's true financial condition. The proceedings were dubbed the "megaclaims litigation". Among the defendants were Royal Bank of Scotland, Deutsche Bank and Citigroup. As of 2008, Enron has settled with all of the institutions, ending with Citigroup. Enron was able to obtain nearly $20 billion to distribute to its creditors as a result of the megaclaims litigation.[citation needed] As of December 2009, some claim and process payments were still being distributed.

Insider Trading Scandal[edit]

Peak and decline of stock price[edit]

During August 2000, Enron's stock price attained its greatest value of $90.56 [25] At this time Enron executives, who possessed inside information on the hidden losses, began to sell their stock. At the same time, the general public and Enron's investors were told to buy the stock. Executives told the investors that the stock would continue to increase until it attained possibly the $130 to $140 range, while secretly unloading their shares.

As executives sold their shares, the price began to decrease. Investors were told to continue buying stock or hold steady if they already owned Enron because the stock price would rebound during the near future. Kenneth Lay's strategy for responding to Enron's continuing problems was his demeanor. As he did many times, Lay would issue a statement or make an appearance to calm investors and assure them that Enron was doing well.[26] In February 2001 an article by Bethany McLean appeared in Fortune magazine questioning whether Enron stock was overvalued.[27]

By August 15, 2001, Enron's stock price had decreased to $42. Many of the investors still trusted Lay and believed that Enron would rule the market.[citation needed] They continued to buy or retain their stock as the equity value decreased. As October ended, the stock had decreased to $15. Many considered this a great opportunity to buy Enron stock because of what Lay had been telling them in the media.[26]

Lay was accused of selling more than $70 million worth of stock at this time, which he used to repay cash advances on lines of credit. He sold another $20 million worth of stock in the open market.[citation needed] Also, Lay's wife, Linda, was accused of selling 500,000 shares of Enron stock totaling $1.2 million on November 28, 2001. The money earned from this sale did not go to the family but rather to charitable organizations, which had already received pledges of contributions from the foundation.[citation needed] Records show that Mrs. Lay made the sale order sometime between 10:00 and 10:20 am. News of Enron's problems, including the millions of dollars in losses they hid, became public about 10:30 that morning, and the stock price soon decreased to less than one dollar.

Former Enron executive Paula Rieker was charged with criminal insider trading. Rieker obtained 18,380 Enron shares for $15.51 a share. She sold that stock for $49.77 a share during July 2001, a week before the public was told what she already knew about the $102 million loss.[citation needed]

In 2002, after the tumultuous fall of Enron's external auditor, and management consultant, Andersen LLP, former Andersen Director, John M. Cunningham coined the phrase, "We have all been Enroned."

The fallout resulted in both Lay and Skilling being convicted for conspiracy, fraud, and insider trading. Lay died before sentencing, Skilling got 24 years and 4 months and a $45 million penalty (later reduced). Fastow got 6 years of jail time, and Lou Pai settled out of court for $31.5 million.[28]

California's deregulation and subsequent energy crisis[edit]

During October 2000, Daniel Scotto, the most renowned utility analyst on Wall Street, suspended his ratings on all energy companies conducting business in California because of the possibility that the companies would not receive full and adequate compensation for the deferred energy accounts used as the basis for the California Deregulation Plan enacted during the late 1990s.[citation needed] Five months later, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) was forced into bankruptcy. Senator Phil Gramm, husband of Enron Board member Wendy Gramm and also the second largest recipient of campaign contributions from Enron,[29] succeeded in legislating California's energy commodity trading deregulation. Despite warnings from prominent consumer groups which stated that this law would give energy traders too much influence over energy commodity prices, the legislation was passed during December 2000.

As the periodical Public Citizen reported, "Because of Enron's new, unregulated power auction, the company's 'Wholesale Services' revenues quadrupled—- from $12 billion in the first quarter of 2000 to $48.4 billion in the first quarter of 2001."[30]

Before passage of the deregulation law, there had been only one Stage 3 rolling blackout declared. After passage, California had a total of 38 blackouts defined as Stage 3 rolling blackouts, until federal regulators intervened during June 2001.[citation needed] These blackouts occurred mainly as a result of a poorly designed market system that was manipulated by traders and marketers. Enron traders were revealed as intentionally encouraging the removal of power from the market during California's energy crisis by encouraging suppliers to shut down plants to perform unnecessary maintenance, as documented in recordings made at the time.[31][32] These acts contributed to the need for rolling blackouts, which adversely affected many businesses dependent upon a reliable supply of electricity, and inconvenienced a large number of retail consumers. This scattered supply increased the price exponentially, and Enron traders were thus able to sell power at premium prices, sometimes up to a factor of 20x its normal peak value.

Former management and corporate governance[edit]

Corporate Leadership and Central Management
  • Kenneth Lay: Chairman, and Chief executive officer
  • Jeffrey Skilling: President, Chief operating officer, and CEO (February–August 2001)
  • Andrew Fastow: Chief financial officer
  • Triton Dietrich: Chief accounting officer
  • Rebecca Mark-Jusbasche: CEO of Enron International and Azurix
  • Lou Pai: CEO of Enron Energy Services
  • Forrest Hoglund: CEO of Enron Oil and Gas
  • Dennis Ulak: President of Enron Oil and Gas International
  • Jeffrey Sherrick: President of Enron Global Exploration & Production Inc.
  • Richard Gallagher: Head of Enron Wholesale Global International Group
  • Kenneth "Ken" Rice: CEO of Enron Wholesale and Enron Broadband Services
  • J. Clifford Baxter: CEO of Enron North America
  • Sherron Watkins: Head of Enron Global Finance
  • Jim Derrick: Enron General Counsel
  • Mark Koenig: Head of Enron Investor Relations
  • Joan Foley: Head of Enron Human Resources
  • Richard Kinder: President and COO of Enron (1990-December 1996);
  • Greg Whalley: President and COO of Enron (August 2001– Bankruptcy)
  • Jeff McMahon: CFO of Enron (October 2001-Bankruptcy)
Board of Directors of Enron Corporation
  • Kenneth Lay: Chairman of the Board
  • Robert A. Belfer
  • Norman P. Blake Jr.
  • Ronnie C. Chan
  • John H. Duncan
  • Wendy L. Gramm
  • Ken L. Harrison
  • Robert K. Jaedicke
  • Charles A. LeMaistre
  • John Mendelsohn
  • Jerome J. Meyer
  • Paulo V. Ferraz Pereira
  • Frank Savage:
  • John A. Urquhart:
  • John Wakeham:
  • Herbert S. Winokur Jr.

Products[edit]

Enron traded in more than 30 different products, including the following:

It was also an extensive futures trader, including sugar, coffee, grains, hogs, and other meat futures. At the time of its bankruptcy filing during December 2001, Enron was structured into seven distinct business units.

Online marketplace services[edit]

  • EnronOnline (commodity trading platform).
  • ClickPaper (transaction platform for pulp, paper, and wood products).
  • EnronCredit (the first global online credit department to provide live credit prices and enable business-to-business customers to hedge credit exposure instantly via the Internet).
  • ePowerOnline (customer interface for Enron Broadband Services).
  • Enron Direct (sales of fixed-price contracts for gas and electricity; Europe only).
  • EnergyDesk (energy-related derivatives trading; Europe only).
  • NewPowerCompany (online energy trading, joint venture with IBM and AOL).
  • Enron Weather (weather derivatives).
  • DealBench (online business services).
  • Water2Water (water storage, supply, and quality credits trading).
  • HotTap (customer interface for Enron's U.S. gas pipeline businesses).
  • Enromarkt (business to business pricing and information platform; Germany only).

Broadband services[edit]

  • Enron Intelligent Network (broadband content delivery).
  • Enron Media Services (risk management services for media content companies).
  • Customizable Bandwidth Solutions (bandwidth and fiber products trading).
  • Streaming Media Applications (live or on-demand Internet broadcasting applications).

Energy and commodities services[edit]

  • Enron Power (electricity wholesaling).
  • Enron Natural Gas (natural gas wholesaling).
  • Enron Clean Fuels (biofuel wholesaling).
  • Enron Pulp and Paper, Packaging, and Lumber (risk management derivatives for forest products industry).
  • Enron Coal and Emissions (coal wholesaling and CO2 offsets trading).
  • Enron Plastics and Petrochemicals (price risk management for polymers, olefins, methanol, aromatics, and natural gas liquids).
  • Enron Weather Risk Management (Weather Derivatives).
  • Enron Steel (financial swap contracts and spot pricing for the steel industry).
  • Enron Crude Oil and Oil Products (petroleum hedging).
  • Enron Wind Power Services (wind turbine manufacturing and wind farm operation).
  • MG Plc. (U.K. metals merchant).
  • Enron Energy Services (Selling services to industrial end users).
  • Enron International (operation of all overseas assets).

Capital and risk management services[edit]

Commercial and industrial outsourcing services[edit]

  • Commodity Management.
  • Energy Asset Management.
  • Energy Information Management.
  • Facility Management.
  • Capital Management.
  • Azurix Inc. (water utilities and infrastructure).

Project development and management services[edit]

  • Energy Infrastructure Development (developing, financing, and operation of power plants and related projects).
  • Enron Global Exploration & Production Inc. (upstream oil and natural gas international development).
  • Elektro Electricidade e Servicos SA (Brazilian electric utility).
  • Northern Border Pipeline.
  • Houston Pipeline.
  • Transwestern Pipeline.
  • Florida Gas Transmission.
  • Northern Natural Gas Company.
  • Natural Gas Storage.
  • Compression Services.
  • Gas Processing and Treatment.
  • Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Services.
  • EOTT Energy Inc. (oil transportation).

Enron manufactured gas valves, circuit breakers, thermostats, and electrical equipment in Venezuela by means of INSELA SA, a 50–50 joint venture with General Electric. Enron owned three paper and pulp products companies: Garden State Paper, a newsprint mill; as well as Papiers Stadacona and St. Aurelie Timberlands. Enron had a controlling stake in the Louisiana-based petroleum exploration and production company Mariner Energy.

EnronOnline[edit]

Enron opened EnronOnline, an electronic trading platform for energy commodities, on November 29, 1999.[33][34] Conceptualized by the company's European Gas Trading team, it was the first web-based transaction system that allowed buyers and sellers to buy, sell, and trade commodity products globally. It allowed users to do business only with Enron. The site allowed Enron to transact with participants in the global energy markets. The main commodities offered on EnronOnline were natural gas and electricity, although there were 500 other products including credit derivatives, bankruptcy swaps, pulp, gas, plastics, paper, steel, metals, freight, and TV commercial time. At its maximum, more than $6 billion worth of commodities were transacted by means of EnronOnline every day.

After Enron's bankruptcy in late 2001, EnronOnline was sold to the Swiss financial giant UBS. Within a year, UBS abandoned its efforts to relaunch the division, and closed it in November 2002.[33][35]

Enron International[edit]

Enron International (EI) was Enron's wholesale asset development and asset management business. Its primary emphasis was developing and building natural gas power plants outside North America. Enron Engineering and Construction Company (EECC) was a wholly owned subsidiary of Enron International, and built almost all of Enron International's power plants. Unlike other business units of Enron, Enron International had a strong cash flow on bankruptcy filing.[citation needed] Enron International consisted of all of Enron's foreign power projects, including ones in Europe.

The company's Teesside plant was one of the largest gas-fired power stations in the world, built and operated by Enron from 1989, and produced 3 percent of the United Kingdom's energy needs.[36][37] Enron owned half of the plant's equity, with the remaining 50 per cent split between four regional electricity companies.[37]

Management[edit]

Rebecca Mark was the CEO of Enron International until she resigned to manage Enron's newly acquired water business, Azurix, during 1997. Mark had a major role in the development of the Dabhol project in India, Enron's largest international endeavor.[citation needed]

Projects[edit]

Enron International constructed power plants and pipelines across the globe. Some are presently still operating, including the massive Teesside plant in England. Others, like a barge-mounted plant off Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic, cost Enron money by lawsuits and investment losses.[citation needed] Puerto Plata was a barge-mounted power plant next to the hotel Hotelero del Atlantico. When the plant was activated, winds blew soot from the plant onto the hotel guests' meals, blackening their food. The winds also blew garbage from nearby slums into the plant's water-intake system. For some time the only solution was to hire men who would row out and push the garbage away with their paddles.[citation needed] Through mid-2000 the company collected a paltry $3.5 million from a $95 million investment.[citation needed] Enron also had other investment projects in Europe, South America, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico, Jamaica, Venezuela, and across the Caribbean.[citation needed]

India[edit]

Around 1992 Indian experts came to the United States to find energy investors to help with India's energy shortage problems.[citation needed] During December 1993, Enron finalized a 20-year power-purchase contract with the Maharashtra State Electricity Board.[citation needed] The contract allowed Enron to construct a massive 2,015 megawatt power plant on a remote volcanic bluff 100 miles (160 km) south of Mumbai. Construction would be completed in two phases, and Enron would form the Dabhol Power Company to help manage the plant. The power project was the first step in a $20 billion scheme to help rebuild and stabilize India's power grid. Enron, GE (which was selling turbines to the project), and Bechtel (which was actually constructing the plant), each contributed 10% equity.[citation needed]

During 1996, when India's Congress Party was no longer in power, the Indian government assessed the project as being excessively expensive and refused to pay for the plant and stopped construction.[citation needed] The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB), the local state-owned utility, was required by contract to continue to pay Enron plant maintenance charges, even if no power was purchased from the plant. The MSEB determined that it could not afford to purchase the power (at Rs. 8 per unit kWh) charged by Enron. The plant operator was unable to find alternate customers for Dabhol power due to the absence of a free market in the regulated structure of utilities in India.[citation needed] From 1996 until Enron's bankruptcy during 2001 the company tried to revive the project and revive interest in India's need for the power plant without success.

Project Summer[edit]

During the summer of 2001, Enron made an attempt to sell a number of Enron International's assets, many of which were not sold. The public and media believed it was unknown why Enron wanted to sell these assets, suspecting it was because Enron was in need of cash.[38] Employees who worked with company assets were told in 2000 [39] that Jeff Skilling believed that business assets were an outdated means of company worth, and instead he wanted to build a company based on "intellectual assets".

Enron Global Exploration & Production, Inc.[edit]

Enron Global Exploration & Production Inc. (EGEP) was an Enron subsidiary that was born from the split of domestic assets via EOG Resources (formerly Enron Oil and Gas EOG) and international assets via EGEP (formerly Enron Oil and Gas Int'l, Ltd EOGIL).[40] Among the EGEP assets were the Panna-Mukta and the South Tapti fields, discovered by the Indian state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), which operated the fields initially.[41] December 1994, a joint venture began between ONGC (40%), Enron (30%) and Reliance (30%).[41] Mid year of 2002, British Gas (BG) completed the acquisition of EGEP's 30% share of the Panna-Mukta and Tapti fields for $350 million, a few months before Enron filed bankruptcy.[42]

Enron Prize for Distinguished Public Service[edit]

During the mid-1990s, Enron established an endowment for the Enron Prize for Distinguished Public Service, awarded by Rice University's Baker Institute to "recognize outstanding individuals for their contributions to public service". Recipients were:

Greenspan, because of his position as the Fed chairman, was not at liberty to accept the $10,000 honorarium, the $15,000 sculpture, nor the crystal trophy, but only accepted the "honor" of being named an Enron Prize recipient.[48] The situation was further complicated because a few days earlier, Enron had filed paperwork admitting it had falsified financial statements for five years.[49] Greenspan did not mention Enron a single time during his speech.[50] At the ceremony, Ken Lay stated, "I'm looking forward to our first woman recipient."[51] The next morning, it was reported in The Houston Chronicle that no decision had been made on whether the name of the prize would be changed.[52] 19 days after the prize was awarded to Greenspan, Enron declared bankruptcy.[53]

During early 2002, Enron was awarded Harvard's (in)famous Ig Nobel Prize for 'Most Creative Use of Imaginary Numbers.' The various former members of Enron management all refused to accept the award in person, although no reason was given at the time.

Enron's Influence on Politics[edit]

  • George W. Bush, sitting president at the time, received $312,500 to his campaigns and $413,800 to his presidential war chest and inaugural fund.[54]
  • Dick Cheney, sitting vice president at the time, met with Enron executives six times to develop a new energy policy. He refused to show minutes to Congress.[54]
  • John Ashcroft, attorney general at the time, recused himself from the DOJ's investigation into Enron due to receiving $57,499 when running for senate seat in 2000.
  • Lawrence Lindsay, White House Economic Advisor at the time, made $50,000 as a consultant with Enron before moving to the White House in 2000.[54]
  • Karl Rove, White House Senior Advisor at the time, waited five months before selling $100,000 of Enron stock.[54]
  • Marc F. Racicot, Republican National Committee Charmian Nominee at the time, was handpicked by George W. Bush and continued to serve as a lawyer with a firm that lobbies for Enron.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mergent Online | Enron Company Financials | Annual Income Statement. Archived August 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "Andersen guilty in Enron case". BBC News. June 15, 2002. Retrieved May 2, 2010. 
  3. ^ [1] Archived December 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Ashmore Energy International Acquires Prisma Energy International". Business Wire. September 8, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c "Enron Corporation - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Enron Corporation". www.referenceforbusiness.com. Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  6. ^ Bradley, Robert L. (2011). Edison to Enron: Energy Markets and Political Strategies. Scrivener. pp. 371–372, 464–467. ISBN 978-0470917367. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Markham, Jerry W. (2006). A Financial History of Modern U.S. Corporate Scandals from Enron to Reform. Routledge. ISBN 0765615835 – via Credo Reference. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Watkins, Thayer. "The Rise and Fall of Enron". San Jose State University. Retrieved July 13, 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c d Frontain, Michael (June 12, 2010). "Enron Corporation". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved July 13, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Engineering Timelines - Teesside Power Station". www.engineering-timelines.com. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  11. ^ "How Enron's great water adventure ended in tears". the Guardian. 2002-11-05. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  12. ^ Fox, Loren (1003). Enron: the rise and fall. John Wiley & Son. p. 113. ISBN 0-471-47888-1. 
  13. ^ Sharp, p.13.
  14. ^ English, Simon (20 January 2001). "Whistle-blower sent off". Daily Telegraph. 
  15. ^ http://www.gilardi.com/pdf/enro13ptable.pdf
  16. ^ "Minute Maid Park". Houston Astros Official Site. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  17. ^ "Dan Ackman, "Enron the Incredible"". Forbes.com, Jan. 17, 2002. January 15, 2002. 
  18. ^ Pasha, Shaheen (April 10, 2006). "Skilling comes out swinging". Money/CNN. 
  19. ^ "Skilling to skeptical financial analyst, "Thanks asshole" - Democratic Underground". 
  20. ^ Clean up your act Musk, Tesla's a total disaster!
  21. ^ Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind, The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron, 2003, ISBN 1-59184-008-2.
  22. ^ Shook, Barbara (September 3, 2004). "Deals Mark Demise of Energy Merchant Business". Oil Daily. Energy Intelligence Group, Inc. Retrieved June 22, 2014.  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
  23. ^ Vulcan's pipeline grip, Investing Private Capital, August 2004.
  24. ^ Hunt, Katherine. "Enron closes sale of Prisma Energy to Ashmore". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2016-04-01. 
  25. ^ The Smartest Guys in the Room, Bethany McLean and Peter Elkind, 318.
  26. ^ a b "Enron". InsiderSense. 
  27. ^ "Enron scandal brings overdue scrutiny of stock analysts". USA Today. 25 March 2002. 
  28. ^ "Swimming With Sharks". InsiderSense. 
  29. ^ Public Citizen Access to Justice, Financial Reform and Government Accountability. Citizen.org (2010-12-03). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  30. ^ Blind Faith: How Deregulation and Enron's Influence Over Government Looted Billions from Americans.
  31. ^ Tapes: Enron plotted to shut down power plant.
  32. ^ Egan, Timothy (February 4, 2005). "Tapes Show Enron Arranged Plant Shutdown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
  33. ^ a b Kolb, Robert; Overdahl, James A. (2009). Financial Derivatives: Pricing and Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 239. ISBN 9780470541746. 
  34. ^ Fusaro, Peter C.; Wilcox, Jeremy (2000). Energy Derivatives: Trading Emerging Markets. New York: Energy Publishing Enterprises. p. 157. ISBN 9780970222800. 
  35. ^ Barboza, David (November 21, 2002). "UBS Closing Trading Floor It Acquired From Enron". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  36. ^ Third worker dies after power plant blast | Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  37. ^ a b "Principal Player in the Electricity Game." Financial Times [London, England] 17 Sept. 1990: 19. Financial Times. Web. 4 July 2012.
  38. ^ Barboza, David. "Enron Sought to Raise Cash Two Years Ago". http://bodurtha.georgetown.edu/enron/. Georgetown University. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  External link in |work= (help)
  39. ^ Enron Communication, 4th Quarter, 2000
  40. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-55212997.html
  41. ^ a b "Performance Audit of Hydrocarbon PSCs - Findings in respect of Panna-Mukta and Mid & South Tapti Fields" (PDF). Comptroller and Auditor General of India. September 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  42. ^ "Panna-Mukta oilfield talks deadlocked". The Economic Times. Jul 1, 2002. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  43. ^ Cinelli, Michael Colin Powell to Receive Enron Prize Rice University News & Media Relations, Nov 9, 1995. Retrieved: Aug 26, 2011.
  44. ^ Cinelli, Michael Gorbachev to Receive Enron Prize Rice University News & Media Relations, Aug 28, 1997. Retrieved: Aug 26, 2011.
  45. ^ Cinelli, Michael Shevardnadze to Receive Baker Institute's Enron Prize for Distinguished Public Service Rice University News & Media Relations, Apr 5, 1999. Retrieved: Aug 26, 2011.
  46. ^ Montgomery, Philip MANDELA TO DELIVER KEYNOTE ADDRESS AT RICE UNIVERSITY Rice University News & Media Relations, Oct 15, 1999. Retrieved: Aug 26, 2011.
  47. ^ Almond, B.J. Greenspan, Putin to speak on campus Rice University News & Media Relations, Nov 8, 2001. Retrieved: Aug 26, 2011.
  48. ^ Enron Prize. Enron-mail.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  49. ^ "Famous Fed flubs". CNN. March 24, 2011. 
  50. ^ Bryce, Robert Pipe Dreams: Greed, Ego, and the Death of Enron Rice University News & Media Relations, Nov 8, 2001. Retrieved: Aug 26, 2011.
  51. ^ Enron Mentions. Enron-mail.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  52. ^ Enron Mentions. Enron-mail.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  53. ^ http://harpers.org/archive/2002/03/0079087
  54. ^ a b c d e "Behind the Enron Scandal - TIME". content.time.com. Retrieved 2016-08-04. 

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