Enterprise systems engineering
Enterprise systems engineering (ESE) is the discipline that applies systems engineering to the design of an enterprise. As a discipline, it includes a body of knowledge, principles, and processes tailored to the design of enterprise systems. An enterprise is a complex, socio-technical system that comprises interdependent resources of people, information, and technology that must interact to fulfill a common mission.
It accomplishes all of the tasks of "traditional" systems engineering, further informed by an expansive view of the context POET (political, operational, economic, technological) in which the system(s) under consideration are being developed, acquired, modified, maintained, or disposed of.
Enterprise systems engineering may be required when the complexity being faced which breaks down the assumptions upon which textbook systems engineering is based, such as requirements being relatively stable and well understood, a system configuration that can be controlled, and a small, easily discernible set of stakeholders.
Enterprise must produce different kind of analysis on the people, technology, components of the company in order to see the whole picture of the enterprise. As nowadays, enterprise becomes more complex with more problems and people to deal with, it is important to integrated the system in order to reach a higher standard or level for the business.
- 1 Elements
- 2 Processes
- 3 Traditional systems engineering (TSE)
- 4 Applications
- 5 Opportunity and risk management
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
There are four important elements in order for enterprise system engineering to work. It includes development through adaption, strategic technical planning, enterprise governance and ESE processes (with different stages).
Development through adaptation
Development through adaptation is a justified way to compromise with the problems and obstacles in complex systems. As time goes by, the environment will change and it needs adaptation in order to develop continuously. To develop through adaption, it experiences different stages. For example, mobile phone has gone through quite a few adaptations in its evolutionary development from the past. When it first released, the size of the phone is enormous, while since the generation changes, phone becomes smaller. Also, it developed from 1G to 4G for wireless network which makes everything goes quicker and faster and more convenient. To sum up, it refers to the process of composing a diversity of innovative ideas and choices to the enterprise and select the one that will be successful for the next generation.
Strategic technical planning
Strategic technical planning (STP) gives the enterprise the picture of their aim and objectives in the future and also an assessment on the process of organization. It brings a balance of assimilation and modernization to the enterprise. It has different components for STP.
- Mission statement
- Needs assessment
- Technology descriptions and goal statement
- Hardware and software requirement
- Budget plan
- Human Resources
It is defined as 'The set of responsibilities and practices exercised by the board and executive management with the goal of providing strategic direction, ensuring that objectives are achieved, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately and verifying that the organisation’s resources are used responsibly.' according to (CIMA Official Terminology, 2005). Enterprise governance includes two aspects which are corporate governance (conformance) and business governance (performance). It is essential to understand the company and to know what must be done in order to succeed. It allows us to make the right decision on the choice of CEO and executives for the company, and also to identify the risks of the company.
There are four different steps in the Enterprise system engineering process. It includes technology planning (TP), capabilities-based engineering analysis (CBEA), enterprise architecture (EA) and enterprise analysis and assessment (EA&A).
It is a step that searching and looking for key technologies for the enterprise. The aim of this step is to determine and associate all the innovative ideas and choose the technology that are useful for the enterprise to develop in a sustainable way.
We have to identify and look for the trend of the technology to decide what technology the company needs. It is important to understand what each of the technology can be achieved and will the characteristic of the technology fits in the company well. There are loads of technology-based decision need to be taken by the company such as deciding which computers to use, which software is suitable and useful for the company, how to build up a system to back up all the customer data or essential statistics for the company with high security.
Capabilities-based engineering analysis
It is an analysis method that focus on the essential elements that whole enterprise needs. It is a scheme that target the innovation and evolution of the capabilities. There is a set of essential steps for the analysis. The activities are dependent and it is conducted iteratively.
- Assess Stakeholders Interest – To understand what the stakeholders want and like
- Specify Outcome Spaces – To find solutions for several conditions and the goal for the operations
- Frame Capability Portfolios - To collect all the fundamental elements
- Assess Performance and Cost – To identify the performance and cost in different conditions and find solutions to improve
- Explore concepts – To search for new concepts and transform advanced capabilities
- Determine the need for more variety – To examine the risks and chances and decide whether new ways are needed
- Assess Enterprise Impacts – To investigate the effects on the enterprise in technical and capability aspects
- Examine Evolution Strategies – To explore and construct more strategies and evolution route
- Develop Capability Road map – Road map is a plan for the capability area which includes analysis and decision making which is a tool for assessment and development for the enterprise
It is a model that illustrates the vision, network and framework of an organization. There are four aspects according to Microsoft's Michael Platt which are the prospective of business, application, information and technology. The diagram beside shows that structure of the Enterprise Architecture. The benefits of this step are improvement of the decision making for enterprise, increases the efficiency on the IT aspects and also minimize the loss of the organization.
- Business – The strategies and process by the operation of business
- Application – Interaction and communication along with the process used in the company
- Information – The logical data and statistics that the organization required to run properly and actively
- Technology – The software and hardware and different operation systems that used in the company
All the elements are dependent and rely on each other in order to build the infrastructure.
Enterprise analysis and assessment
Enterprise analysis and assessment aim to find out if the enterprise is going to the right direction and help to do the correct decisions for the organization. It is strong advise to link with enterprise opportunity and risk assessment. There are also qualities that are required for this step such as aware of the suitable and capable technologies, to know and understand about C2 (Command and Control) issues and also the background picture of Modeling and simulation.
There are various activities and actions for this event.
- Multi-scale analysis
- Early and continuous war fighter operational assessment
- Lightweight, portable M&S-based C2 capability representations
- Developmental software versions available for assessment
- Minimal infrastructure
- Flexible modeling and simulation (M&S), operator-in-the-loop (OITL), and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) capabilities
- In-line, continuous performance monitoring and selective forensics.
Traditional systems engineering (TSE)
- TSE is composed and constructed by external designer
- It is a stable system which it won't change automatically
- Operation and development are independent with each other
- Most of the components exclude people which therefore people do not play an important role in it
- There are massive machines which have expected conduct
There are differences between TSE and ESE. There are survey results comparing both of them. The survey result shown that TSE and ESE is complementary and interdependent with each other which ESE has a higher rating while TSE could also be a hidden element for ESE. So the combination of TSE and ESE will be ideal for an enterprise in this generation.
There are two types of ESE application: Information Enterprise Systems Engineering and Social Enterprise Systems Engineering.
Information Enterprise Systems Engineering (IESE)
It is a system that builds up to meet the requirements and expectations of different stakeholders in the organization. There must be an input device to collect the information and output device to satisfy the information needs.
There are three different aspects for the framework of IESE
- Functional View
- Topology View
- Physical View
Also, there are different rules for the IESE model.
- Interchangeable point of view
- Detailed views and well displayed. Showing the specific method, solution and techniques
- Consistent views
- Supported viewpoints
Social Enterprise System Engineering
This is a framework that involves planning, analyzing, mapping and drawing a network of the process for enterprises and stakeholders. Moreover, it creates social value for entrepreneurship and explores and focuses on the social and societal issues. It forms a connection between social enterprise and system engineering. There is a Social Enterprise Systems Engineering V-model, in which two or more social elements are established based on the system engineering framework—for example, more social interface analysis that reviews stakeholders' requirements, and more activities and interactions between stakeholders to exchange opinions.
Opportunity and risk management
There are opportunities and risks in ESE and they have to be aggressive in seeking opportunities and also finding ways to avoid or minimize the risks. Opportunity is a trigger element that may lead to the accomplishment of objectives. Risk is a potential occurrence and will affect the performance of the entire system. There are several reasons for the importance of risk management.
- To identify the risks before head which can prepare actions to prevent or minimize the risks
- Since risks can cost the enterprise, determining the risk events can reduce the amount of loss
- Help to know how to allocate the human or technology resources in order avoid the most critical risks
There are few steps in Enterprise risk and opportunity Management Process
- Prepare the risk and opportunity plan – Select team and representatives
- Identify Risks – Complete risks statements for each risk
- Identify Opportunities – People that work at tactical level and manager must understand the opportunities in order to take a further action
- Evaluate the Enterprise Risks and Opportunities – To decide which is more critical and vital
- Develop the plan – Develop after identification and evaluation with different strategies
- Enterprise architecture
- Enterprise engineering
- Enterprise life cycle
- Industrial engineering
- Systems engineering
- Soft systems methodology
- System of systems
- System of systems engineering (SoSE)
- Risk management plan
- Technology roadmap
- R.E. Giachetti (2010). Design of Enterprise Systems: Theory, Architecture, and Methods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 3
- Joannou, Paul (2007). "Enterprise, Systems, and Software Engineering--The Need for Integration". Computer. 40 (5): 103–5. doi:10.1109/mc.2007.167.
- Enterprise Systems Engineering: Advances in the Theory and Practice. Boca Raton ; London : CRC Press. 2011. p. 8. ISBN 978-1420073294.
- "1G, 2G, 3G, 4G: The evolution of wireless generations". Phone Arena. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- "What is strategic planning? - Definition from WhatIs.com". SearchCIO. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- Lees, Gillian (June 2007). "Enterprise Governance" (PDF). CIMA. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- "Enterprise Governance – A CIMA discussion paper" (PDF). CIMA. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- Crider, Kimberly A.; Derosa, Joseph K. (2007). "Findings of Case Studies in Enterprise Systems Engineering". 2007 1st Annual IEEE Systems Conference. pp. 1–6. doi:10.1109/SYSTEMS.2007.374650. ISBN 1-4244-1040-1.
- "(NetAction)". www.netaction.org. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- Webb, Mike. "Capabilities-Based Engineering Analysis (CBEA)" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- "What is enterprise architecture (EA)? - Definition from WhatIs.com". SearchCIO. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- "Enterprise Architecture | Centric". Centric Consulting. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- "DTS Enterprise Architecture". www.montgomerycountymd.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- Roberts, John (2006). "Enterprise Analysis and Assessment of Complex Military Command and Control Environments" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- Hybertson, Duane (2009). Model-oriented systems engineering science : a unifying framework for traditional and complex systems. Boca Raton ; London : CRC Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781420072518.
- Rebovich, George (November 2005). "Enterprise Systems Engineering Theory and Practice Volume 2: Systems Thinking for the Enterprise: New and Emerging Perspectives" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- White, Brian. "On the Pursuit of Enterprise Systems Engineering Ideas" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
- Snoeck, Monique (2014-09-20). Enterprise Information Systems Engineering: The MERODE Approach. Springer. p. 70. ISBN 9783319101453.
- Nikolaidou, M. and Alexopoulou, N. (2007). Enterprise Information System Engineering: A Model-based Approach based on the Zachman Framework. 1st ed. [pdf] Department of Informatics & Telecommunications, University of Athens, Athens, Greece: arokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece, pp.1-10. Available at: https://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/hicss/2008/3075/00/30750399.pdf [Accessed 3 Nov. 2015].
- Mason, James (2015). "Social Enterprise Systems Engineering". Procedia Computer Science. 44: 135–46. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.067.
- White, B. (2006). Enterprise Opportunity and Risk. 1st ed. [pdf] 202 Burlington Road Bedford, MA: INCOSE, pp.3-6. Available at: https://www.mitre.org/sites/default/files/pdf/05_1262.pdf [Accessed 3 Nov. 2015].
- Pinto, Cesar Ariel; Garvey, Paul R. (2012-10-08). Advanced Risk Analysis in Engineering Enterprise Systems. CRC Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781439826157.
- R.E. Giachetti, (2010), Design of Enterprise Systems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 
- Oscar A. Saenz, and Chin-Sheng Chen (2004). "A Framework for Enterprise Systems Engineering"
- Robert S. Swarz, and Joseph K. DeRosa (2006). A Framework for Enterprise Systems Engineering Processes
- Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
- MIT Engineering Systems Division