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Typical joint showing the entheses

Enthesitis is inflammation of the entheses, the sites where tendons or ligaments insert into the bone.[1][2] It is an enthesopathy, a pathologic condition of the entheses. Manifest in inflammation or occasionally in fibrosis and calcification, enthesitis can be caused by recurring stress or by inflammatory autoimmune disease. A common autoimmune enthesitis is at the heel, where the Achilles tendon attaches to the calcaneus.

It is associated with HLA B27 arthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and reactive arthritis.[3][4] Symptoms include multiple points of tenderness at the heel, tibial tuberosity, iliac crest, and other tendon insertion sites.


Sagittal magnetic resonance images of ankle region: psoriatic arthritis. (a) Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) image, showing high signal intensity at the Achilles tendon insertion (enthesitis, thick arrow) and in the synovium of the ankle joint (synovitis, long thin arrow). Bone marrow oedema is seen at the tendon insertion (short thin arrow). (b, c) T1 weighted images of a different section of the same patient, before (panel b) and after (panel c) intravenous contrast injection, confirm inflammation (large arrow) at the enthesis and reveal bone erosion at tendon insertion (short thin arrows).

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  1. ^ Maria Antonietta D'Agostino, MD; Ignazio Olivieri, MD (June 2006). "Enthesitis". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. Clinical Rheumatology. 20 (3): 473–86. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2006.03.007.
  2. ^ The Free Dictionary (2009). "Enthesitis". Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  3. ^ Schett, G; Lories, RJ; D'Agostino, MA; Elewaut, D; Kirkham, B; Soriano, ER; McGonagle, D (November 2017). "Enthesitis: from pathophysiology to treatment". Nature Reviews Rheumatology (Review). 13 (12): 731–41. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.188. PMID 29158573.
  4. ^ Schmitt, SK (June 2017). "Reactive Arthritis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (Review). 31 (2): 265–77. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2017.01.002. PMID 28292540.

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