|Gills on hymenium|
|Cap is convex|
|Hymenium is adnate|
|Stipe is bare|
|Spore print is pink|
|Edibility is unknown|
Entoloma hochstetteri, also known as the blue pinkgill, sky-blue mushroom or similar names, is a species of mushroom that is native to New Zealand. The small mushroom is a distinctive all-blue colour, while the gills have a slight reddish tint from the spores. The blue colouring of the fruit body is due to azulene pigments. Whether Entoloma hochstetteri is poisonous or not is unknown.
This species was one of six native fungi featured in a set of fungal stamps issued in New Zealand in 2002. It is also featured on the New Zealand fifty-dollar note. With E. hochstetteri's inclusion, this makes it the only banknote in the world which features a mushroom on it. In a 2018 poll, E. hochstetteri was ranked first by Manaaki Whenua – Landcare Research for its pick as New Zealand's national fungus.
The species was first described as Cortinarius hochstetteri in 1866 by the Austrian mycologist Erwin Reichardt, before being given its current binomial in 1962 by Greta Stevenson. It is named after the German-Austrian naturalist Ferdinand von Hochstetter.
In 1976 Egon Horak combined Entoloma hochstetteri and Entoloma aeruginosum from Japan with Entoloma virescens, first described from the Bonin Islands in Japan. In 1989 S. Dhancholia recorded E. hochstetteri in India. In 1990 Tsuguo Hongo from Japan examined E. hochstetteri and E. aeruginosum and concluded that they were different taxa, because of difference in the size of the spores and the shape of the pseudocystidia. In 2008 Horak recognized E. hochstetteri as a different species from E. virescens, while noting that "it is open to speculation" whether taxa such as E. virescens are the same species.
A similar mushroom is found in Australia and mycologists differ as to whether it is E. hochstetteri, E. virescens or a separate species.
Entoloma hochstetteri has a small delicate epigeous (above-ground) fruit body (basidiocarp). The cap may be up to 4 cm (1.4 in) in diameter and conical in shape. The cap colour is indigo-blue with a green tint, and is fibrillose. The cap margin is striate and rolled inwards. The gill attachment is adnexed or emarginate, gills are thin and 3–5 mm wide, essentially the same colour as the cap, sometimes with a yellow tint. The cylindrical stipe (stalk) is up to 5 cm (2 in) long by 0.5 cm thick, fibrillose and stuffed. The spore print is reddish-pink. The spores are 9.9–13.2 by 11.8–13.2 μm, tetrahedric in shape, hyaline, smooth and thin-walled. The basidia are 35.2–44.2 by 8.8–13.2 µm, club-shaped, hyaline, and with two or four sterigmata.
Habitat and distribution
Although many members of the genus Entoloma are poisonous, the toxicity of this species is unknown. It is being investigated to see if its gene cluster that is responsible for blue colouring might be used to manufacture a natural blue food dye.
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- $50 Archived 2021-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
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- Horak, E. (2008). Agaricales of New Zealand 1: Pluteaceae (Pluteus, Volvariella), Entolomataceae (Claudopus, Clitopilus, Entoloma, Pouzarella, Rhodocybe, Richoniella). Fungi of New Zealand / Ngā Harore o Aotearoa. Vol. 5. Hong Kong: Fungal Diversity Press. pp. 148–151. ISBN 978-9-88-993201-5.
- Horak, E. (1976). "On cuboid-spored species of Entoloma (Agaricales)" (PDF). Sydowia. 28: 200–203. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Alves, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Cristiano Coelho do (2012). "Entoloma virescens (Sacc.) E. Horak ex Courtec., 1986 (Agaricales: Entolomataceae): The first record for the Caatinga biome, Ceará, Brazil". Check List. 8 (3): 579. doi:10.15560/8.3.577. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Dhancholia S. (1989). "Entoloma hochstetteri (Agaricales) - a new record from India. Current Science 58 (3): 146–7.
- Hongo, Tsuguo (1990). "New and Noteworthy agarics from New Zealand Archived 2021-06-24 at the Wayback Machine". Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute. 28: 129–34.
- Largent, David L.; Abell-Davis, Sandra E. (2011). "Observations on Inocephalus virescens comb. nov. and Alboleptonia stylophora from northeastern Queensland". Mycotaxon. 116: 238. doi:10.5248/116.231.
- Boatwright, Wayne (2017). "True Blue – Some Australian Blue Fungi and a Story Behind Nomenclature" (PDF). The Queensland Mycologist. 12 (2): 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- "Entoloma". Fungal Guide. Landcare Research. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
- Sisson, Olivia (2021-10-25). "Could our national fungus become the blue food dye of the future?". The Spinoff. Retrieved 2023-01-21.
- Data related to Entoloma hochstetteri at Wikispecies
- Media related to Entoloma hochstetteri at Wikimedia Commons
- More information from the Landcare Research NZFUNGI database
- Entoloma hochstetteri discussed on RNZ Critter of the Week, 2 December 2016