Entrée

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In French cuisine, as well as in the English-speaking world (save for the United States and parts of Canada), an entrée (/ˈɑːntr/ /ˈɒntr/ AHN-tray) is a dish served before the main course of a meal.[1][2]

Usage[edit]

In some areas, a salad such as this may be presented as an entrée.[citation needed]

Marie-Antoine Carême explained for a French readership the order of courses in the state dinner à la russe served for Tsar Alexander I's review of his troops in 1815, at an isolated location far from Paris, under trying circumstances:

Russian service is carried out rapidly and warmly; first, oysters are served; after the soup, hors d'oeuvres; then the large joint of meat; then the entrées of fish, fowl, game, meat, and the entremets of vegetables; then the roast meat with salad. The service ends with the desserts: jellies, creams and soufflés.[3]

In Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, bills of fare for a grand dinner for eighteen[4] follow two kinds of fish and two kinds of soup with four entrées: ris de veau, poulet à la Marengo, côtelettes de porc, and ragoût of lobster. Guests were not expected to eat of each dish, for the entrées were followed by a second course and a third course, of game and fruit.

In 1961 Julia Child and her co-authors[5] outlined the character of such entrées, which—when they did not precede a roast—might serve as the main course of a luncheon, in a chapter of "Entrées and Luncheon Dishes" that included quiches, tarts and gratins, soufflés and timbales, gnocchi, quenelles, and crêpes.

In 1970, Richard Olney, an American living in Paris, gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad, cheese and dessert, and that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration".[6]

An entrée is more substantial than hors d'œuvres and better thought of as a half-sized version of a main course. Restaurant menus will sometimes offer the same dish in different-sized servings as both entrée and main course.[citation needed]

Origins[edit]

The entrée procession at a French 15th-century banquet

The word entrée in French originally denoted the "entry" of the dishes from the kitchens into the dining hall. In the illustration from a French fifteenth-century illuminated manuscript of the Histoire d'Olivier de Castille et d'Artus d'Algarbe, a fanfare from trumpeters in the musicians' gallery announces the processional entrée of a series of dishes preceded by a covered cup that is the ancestor of the tureen, carried by the maître d'hôtel. The entrée will be shown round the hall but served only to the high table (though it does not stand on a dais in this hall), where the guests are set apart by a gold-and-crimson damask canopy of estate.

In traditional French haute cuisine, the entrée preceded a larger dish known as the relevé, which "replaces" or "relieves" it, an obsolete term in modern cooking, but still used as late as 1921 in Escoffier's Le Guide Culinaire.

In France, the modern restaurant menu meaning of "entrée" is the course that precedes the main course in a three-course meal,[7] i.e. the course which in British usage is often called the "starter" and in American usage the "appetizer". Thus a typical modern French three-course meal in a restaurant consists of "entrée" (first course, starter (UK), appetizer (U.S.)) followed by the "plat" or "plat principal" (the main course) and then dessert or cheese. This procession is commonly found in prix fixe menus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionaries
  2. ^ According to Alexandre Dumas' Grand dictionnaire de cuisine Archived 2008-11-21 at the Wayback Machine. (1871), an entrée is a "Préparation chaude qui accompagne ou suit le potage," a "hot preparation that accompanies or follows the soup".
  3. ^ Carême, Le Maître d'hôtel français, quoted in Goldstein, Darra (1995). "Russia, Carême, and the Culinary Arts". The Slavonic and East European Review. 73 (4): 691–715 [p. 695]. JSTOR 4211935. 
  4. ^ On-line text.
  5. ^ Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, Simon Beck, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, 1961.
  6. ^ Olney, The French Menu Cookbook 1970:22.
  7. ^ Source for the meaning of entrée: universal usage on menus in France and Larousse Dictionnaire Français-Anglais / Anglais-Français, s.v. "Entrée (7)".

External links[edit]